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UNCC / Psychology / PSYC 2121 / What are the four reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?

What are the four reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?

What are the four reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?


School: University of North Carolina - Charlotte
Department: Psychology
Course: Adolescent Psychology
Professor: Chiarella
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: self, Psychology, adolescence, adolescent, Chapter, 6, Chiarella, and charlotte
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 6 - The Self
Description: These notes cover everything discussed in class regarding chapter 6 that will be on the second exam. *no textbook questions on exam 2
Uploaded: 10/24/2016
5 Pages 40 Views 2 Unlocks

10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

What are the 4 reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?

Start of Test 2 Material

Chapter 6 – The Self

Erikson’s Developmental Theory

• Erikson was the first lifespan theorist & never went to college

• When he was 18, he learned his father wasn’t his biological father • Erikson’s stages are psychosocial, which means they are based on experience and  one’s social circle 

• Healthy vs. unhealthy

• Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages: 

1. Trust vs. Mistrust: infancy (first year)

2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: infancy (ages 1-3 years)

What is the process of defining the self?

3. Initiative vs. guilt: early childhood (preschool years, ages 3-5)

4. Industry vs. inferiority: middle and late childhood (elementary school years,  age 6- puberty)

5. Identity vs. Identity confusion: adolescence (Age 10 -20) 

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation: early adulthood (20s-30s)

7. Generativity vs. stagnation: middle adulthood (40s-50s)

8. Integrity vs. Despair: late adulthood (60s-onward)

• More about Stage 5: Identity vs. Identity Confusion: 

o Long view on adolescence, which is the best time to focus on identity and  identity/role confusion  

Define intimacy.

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of humanism?

o Identity crisis: a normal developmental turning point

• Crisis is more of a identity task

▪ Turning point is the change of thoughts from past and present to  future (identity explorations: love, work, and ideology)

o Actual self: who we are; our ‘true self’

o Possible selves: adolescents experiment with identities by imagining and  “trying-out” a number of possible selves, some positive and some negative ▪ “Who could you be?”

1. Ideal Self (+) – best possible self

2. Feared Self (-) – what you want to avoid 

o Identifications: relationships formed with others, in which love for another  person leads one to want to be like that person

▪ Role models (in which you love or admire)

▪ Not imitating them, but integrating them We also discuss several other topics like Why adler and horney believed that anxiety and personality are a function of social, not sexual, tensions in childhood?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the second-largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century?
If you want to learn more check out Describe the mapk signalling pathway?

▪ Example: Wanting to be a teacher like your mom, but choosing to  teach a different subject that you enjoy 

o Psychosocial Moratorium: a time period when adult responsibilities are  postponed as young people try various possible selves Don't forget about the age old question of How accurate is the trait perspective?

▪ Moratorium – stop or ‘time-out’ during adolescence time period

• Example: taking a summer off from classes to relax

1. Negative Identity: seen as undesirable by society

• Its not approved but you want that identity


10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

Start of Test 2 Material

2. False Identity: inaccurate representation of the self to others

• Examples: catfishing, false online identity

• Most false with (rank matters): We also discuss several other topics like Define demand curve.

1. Potential dating partners

2. Parents

3. Close friends

Marcia’s Identity Status Model

• Identity Statuses* are defined in terms of dimensions of commitment and  exploration 

o There are four statuses (aka approaches)– NOT stages 

• Identity formation is a life-long process,  

• For most individuals, late adolescence into adulthood is the time in our lives we  can dedicate the most attention to shaping our identities

• The four approaches/statuses: 

1. Identity Diffused: adolescents haven’t neither explored life options or committed to alternatives

▪ Example: ‘doper dudes’ that aren’t worried about being kicked out of  school because they aren’t worried because it “will all work out”

2. Identity Moratorium: adolescents have begun to explore life options but  remain uncommitted to any alternatives (‘sampling’)

▪ Example: students trying to decide on a major, so they take intro classes  to things that interest them

3. Identity Foreclosed: adolescents remain committed to parental ways and  values without exploring alternatives

▪ Example: Dad tells you that you are going to play basketball/work at  the family business because he did that

4. Identity Achieved: adolescent has explored ways and values and committed themselves to self-chosen alternative

▪ Example: deciding on a major after taking intro courses and finding  something you liked

Postmodern Critique

• The postmodern identity is composed of diverse elements that do not always form  a unified “self.”

o Example: professor stereotypes vs. how professors actually are (watch the  bachelor)

• Postmodern identity changes across contexts* and changes continuously throughout the life course**.

o Researchers think identity is more of an open-concept (varied/complex) o Doesn’t ‘fit in a box’/packaged identity 

o Contexts – different settings/people 

o Identity is always changing (Marcia and Erikson didn’t mention how your  identity isn’t finished)

o Example* when you are on vacation you are motivated to try different things


10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

Start of Test 2 Material

Self-Esteem – the “big picture” 

• Refers to a person’s overall sense of worth and well-being

o College kids have higher self esteem

• Self-Esteem in the United States: 

o By Age:

▪ Adolescence

• Society’s View vs. Research Results

o Society – adolescents have an extremely low self-esteem  

(it plummets)  

o Research – adolescents have a slight dip in self esteem  

but it isn’t low 

▪ Emerging Adulthood

▪ 4 Reasons for Improved Self-Esteem (no rank) 

1. physical appearance – more comfortable

2. more choice in daily lives 

3. better relationships with parents – less arguing

4. peer evaluation has less impact – don’t care what other people  

think about them

o By Gender: (Adolescents in the U.S.)

▪ Males- have higher self esteem then females because they don’t have  society pressuring them about their physical appearance 

▪ Females – lower self esteem because of society

• Self-Esteem (Adolescents in the U.S.)

o By Ethnicity: Highest to Lowest Self-Esteem

▪ Blacks*; Whites; Latinos; Native Americans; Asian Americans**

• Blacks and Whites switched places in the 80s because the black 

community encourages self esteem (pride) 

• Asian Americans don’t have low self esteem – they just don’t  

value it because they have a collectivistic culture 

o By Gender & Ethnicity: Highest to Lowest Self-Esteem

▪ Males:

• Whites*; Blacks; Latinos; Native Americans; Asian Americans

▪ Females:

• Blacks; Latinas; Native Americans; Asian Americans; Whites*

▪ Females, compared to Males, have Higher Self Esteem except 

Between Whites 

• White Males have Higher Self Esteem than White Females

because of physical appearance 


• Refers to the way a person views and evaluates her/himself in specific areas • Adolescent Self-image: 8 Domains

o Scholastic Competence – academic problem solving (good at school?) o Social Acceptance – popularity among peers 

o Athletic Competence – physical and athletic success


10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

Start of Test 2 Material

o Physical Appearance - good looking-ness and physically appealing o Job Competence – can you manage a part-time job 

o Romantic Appeal – are you dating material? 

o Behavioral Conduct – risky behavior 

o Close Friendship – are you able to make AND maintain friendships? • Which Two Domains of Self-Image are OVERALL most important to (U.S.)  Adolescents?? *rank matters 

1. Physical appearance

2. Social acceptance

• Which Two Domains of Self-Image are LESS relevant/applicable to Adolescents from  countries other than the U.S. *no rank

o Athletic competence – US is the only country that really incorporates school  with sports

o Job competence

• How Do Self-Image (specific) & Self-Esteem (overall) Relate?

o Self image feeds into self esteem – what domains you place importance on  and how you measure up 

▪ You don’t need to be high in all 8 domains to have high self-esteem ▪ Domains – depends on which ones you view as more important

The Self: Alone and Together

• Autonomy: the process of defining the self

o in childhood, your parent make all your decisions (clothes, food, friends).  o When you are an adolescent, you play ‘tug-o-war with parents over decisions.  Adolescents own the decision by lying (lying by omission, secrets, and lying  upfront)

o Example: saying you are going to sleep over a friends house, but you are really  going to a concert your parents don’t want you doing to

▪ Who owns the decision? 

• Individuation:  having and expressing ideas of your own and knowing how you are  different than others

o Loneliness is a big part of individuation (to balance – start to develop  connectedness) 

▪ We can think and express ourselves because we are unique

o Example: “you don’t understand”

• Connectedness: one’s openness to others’ opinions and respect for their ideas o more accepting and tolerant of other people (important to feel connected) • Social Loneliness: when people feel they lack enough social contacts and  relationships 

o Quantity (different types) – “I don’t have enough friends”

• Emotional Loneliness: when people feel their relationships lack sufficient  closeness and intimacy 

o Quality – “my relationships aren’t strong”

• Time Alone in Adolescence 

o Adolescents spend most of their time alone


10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

Start of Test 2 Material

o Low mood during Alone time (restore mood by self reflecting)

o Amount of Alone time:

▪ Large amount: social issues & depression

▪ Small amount: negative influences/get into more trouble

• Time Alone in Emerging Adulthood 

o Loneliest Time  

▪ Emotionally – Freshman year of college (because first big transition) o Most Time Alone in the lifespan/out of all ages because of social expectations  for age

o Leisure / Productive – active/productive in alone time 

▪ Active leisure by yourself (running errands)

• Maturity* involves a greater capacity for intimacy

o Developing sense of identity leads to maturity 

• Intimacy: sharing inner-most feelings and thoughts in an atmosphere of caring,  trust, and acceptance

o Key to intimacy: self disclosure (tell someone you like something about  yourself, and vice versa)

o Example: telling someone your horoscope

• To be intimate with others, adolescents must know and accept themselves o Males: intimacy is contingent* on achieving identity

▪ Knowing who you are (identity) then intimacy 

o Females: intimacy is often the means* by which identity is achieved ▪ Identity and intimacy are co-occurring/happening together 

▪ “my relationships give me a sense of identity”


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