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UNCC / Psychology / PSYC 2121 / What are the four reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?

What are the four reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?

What are the four reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?


School: University of North Carolina - Charlotte
Department: Psychology
Course: Adolescent Psychology
Professor: Chiarella
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: self, Psychology, adolescence, adolescent, Chapter, 6, Chiarella, and charlotte
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 6 - The Self
Description: These notes cover everything discussed in class regarding chapter 6 that will be on the second exam. *no textbook questions on exam 2
Uploaded: 10/24/2016
5 Pages 107 Views 2 Unlocks

10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

What are the 4 reasons for improved self-esteem (no rank)?

Start of Test 2 Material

Chapter 6 – The Self

Erikson’s Developmental Theory

• Erikson was the first lifespan theorist & never went to college

• When he was 18, he learned his father wasn’t his biological father • Erikson’s stages are psychosocial, which means they are based on experience and  one’s social circle 

• Healthy vs. unhealthy

• Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages: 

1. Trust vs. Mistrust: infancy (first year)

2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: infancy (ages 1-3 years)

What is the process of defining the self?

3. Initiative vs. guilt: early childhood (preschool years, ages 3-5)

4. Industry vs. inferiority: middle and late childhood (elementary school years,  age 6- puberty) If you want to learn more check out Why was it perfect during the roman empire?

5. Identity vs. Identity confusion: adolescence (Age 10 -20) 

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation: early adulthood (20s-30s)

7. Generativity vs. stagnation: middle adulthood (40s-50s)

8. Integrity vs. Despair: late adulthood (60s-onward)

• More about Stage 5: Identity vs. Identity Confusion: 

o Long view on adolescence, which is the best time to focus on identity and  identity/role confusion  

Define intimacy.

o Identity crisis: a normal developmental turning point

• Crisis is more of a identity task

▪ Turning point is the change of thoughts from past and present to  future (identity explorations: love, work, and ideology)

o Actual self: who we are; our ‘true self’

o Possible selves: adolescents experiment with identities by imagining and  “trying-out” a number of possible selves, some positive and some negative ▪ “Who could you be?” If you want to learn more check out What is the importance of the unconscious and childhood relationships in shaping personality?

1. Ideal Self (+) – best possible self

2. Feared Self (-) – what you want to avoid 

o Identifications: relationships formed with others, in which love for another  person leads one to want to be like that person Don't forget about the age old question of What were the three possibilities of this mountain's activity?

▪ Role models (in which you love or admire)

▪ Not imitating them, but integrating them

▪ Example: Wanting to be a teacher like your mom, but choosing to  teach a different subject that you enjoy If you want to learn more check out How does the activity of these enzymes affect the outcome of a signalling pathway?

o Psychosocial Moratorium: a time period when adult responsibilities are  postponed as young people try various possible selves Don't forget about the age old question of How accurate is the humanistic perspective?

▪ Moratorium – stop or ‘time-out’ during adolescence time period

• Example: taking a summer off from classes to relax

1. Negative Identity: seen as undesirable by society

• Its not approved but you want that identity


10/3/16 – 10/17/16  PSYC 2121 (002)

Start of Test 2 Material

2. False Identity: inaccurate representation of the self to others

• Examples: catfishing, false online identity

• Most false with (rank matters): 

1. Potential dating partners

2. Parents

3. Close friends

Marcia’s Identity Status Model Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four fundamental principles of economics?

• Identity Statuses* are defined in terms of dimensions of commitment and  exploration 

o There are four statuses (aka approaches)– NOT stages 

• Identity formation is a life-long process,  

• For most individuals, late adolescence into adulthood is the time in our lives we  can dedicate the most attention to shaping our identities

• The four approaches/statuses: 

1. Identity Diffused: adolescents haven’t neither explored life options or committed to alternatives

▪ Example: ‘doper dudes’ that aren’t worried about being kicked out of  school because they aren’t worried because it “will all work out”

2. Identity Moratorium: adolescents have begun to explore life options but  remain uncommitted to any alternatives (‘sampling’)

▪ Example: students trying to decide on a major, so they take intro classes  to things that interest them

3. Identity Foreclosed: adolescents remain committed to parental ways and  values without exploring alternatives

▪ Example: Dad tells you that you are going to play basketball/work at  the family business because he did that

4. Identity Achieved: adolescent has explored ways and values and committed themselves to self-chosen alternative

▪ Example: deciding on a major after taking intro courses and finding  something you liked

Postmodern Critique

• The postmodern identity is composed of diverse elements that do not always form  a unified “self.”

o Example: professor stereotypes vs. how professors actually are (watch the  bachelor)

• Postmodern identity changes across contexts* and changes continuously throughout the life course**.

o Researchers think identity is more of an open-concept (varied/complex) o Doesn’t ‘fit in a box’/packaged identity 

o Contexts – different settings/people 

o Identity is always changing (Marcia and Erikson didn’t mention how your  identity isn’t finished)

o Example* when you are on vacation you are motivated to try different things


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Start of Test 2 Material

Self-Esteem – the “big picture” 

• Refers to a person’s overall sense of worth and well-being

o College kids have higher self esteem

• Self-Esteem in the United States: 

o By Age:

▪ Adolescence

• Society’s View vs. Research Results

o Society – adolescents have an extremely low self-esteem  

(it plummets)  

o Research – adolescents have a slight dip in self esteem  

but it isn’t low 

▪ Emerging Adulthood

▪ 4 Reasons for Improved Self-Esteem (no rank) 

1. physical appearance – more comfortable

2. more choice in daily lives 

3. better relationships with parents – less arguing

4. peer evaluation has less impact – don’t care what other people  

think about them

o By Gender: (Adolescents in the U.S.)

▪ Males- have higher self esteem then females because they don’t have  society pressuring them about their physical appearance 

▪ Females – lower self esteem because of society

• Self-Esteem (Adolescents in the U.S.)

o By Ethnicity: Highest to Lowest Self-Esteem

▪ Blacks*; Whites; Latinos; Native Americans; Asian Americans**

• Blacks and Whites switched places in the 80s because the black 

community encourages self esteem (pride) 

• Asian Americans don’t have low self esteem – they just don’t  

value it because they have a collectivistic culture 

o By Gender & Ethnicity: Highest to Lowest Self-Esteem

▪ Males:

• Whites*; Blacks; Latinos; Native Americans; Asian Americans

▪ Females:

• Blacks; Latinas; Native Americans; Asian Americans; Whites*

▪ Females, compared to Males, have Higher Self Esteem except 

Between Whites 

• White Males have Higher Self Esteem than White Females

because of physical appearance 


• Refers to the way a person views and evaluates her/himself in specific areas • Adolescent Self-image: 8 Domains

o Scholastic Competence – academic problem solving (good at school?) o Social Acceptance – popularity among peers 

o Athletic Competence – physical and athletic success


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o Physical Appearance - good looking-ness and physically appealing o Job Competence – can you manage a part-time job 

o Romantic Appeal – are you dating material? 

o Behavioral Conduct – risky behavior 

o Close Friendship – are you able to make AND maintain friendships? • Which Two Domains of Self-Image are OVERALL most important to (U.S.)  Adolescents?? *rank matters 

1. Physical appearance

2. Social acceptance

• Which Two Domains of Self-Image are LESS relevant/applicable to Adolescents from  countries other than the U.S. *no rank

o Athletic competence – US is the only country that really incorporates school  with sports

o Job competence

• How Do Self-Image (specific) & Self-Esteem (overall) Relate?

o Self image feeds into self esteem – what domains you place importance on  and how you measure up 

▪ You don’t need to be high in all 8 domains to have high self-esteem ▪ Domains – depends on which ones you view as more important

The Self: Alone and Together

• Autonomy: the process of defining the self

o in childhood, your parent make all your decisions (clothes, food, friends).  o When you are an adolescent, you play ‘tug-o-war with parents over decisions.  Adolescents own the decision by lying (lying by omission, secrets, and lying  upfront)

o Example: saying you are going to sleep over a friends house, but you are really  going to a concert your parents don’t want you doing to

▪ Who owns the decision? 

• Individuation:  having and expressing ideas of your own and knowing how you are  different than others

o Loneliness is a big part of individuation (to balance – start to develop  connectedness) 

▪ We can think and express ourselves because we are unique

o Example: “you don’t understand”

• Connectedness: one’s openness to others’ opinions and respect for their ideas o more accepting and tolerant of other people (important to feel connected) • Social Loneliness: when people feel they lack enough social contacts and  relationships 

o Quantity (different types) – “I don’t have enough friends”

• Emotional Loneliness: when people feel their relationships lack sufficient  closeness and intimacy 

o Quality – “my relationships aren’t strong”

• Time Alone in Adolescence 

o Adolescents spend most of their time alone


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Start of Test 2 Material

o Low mood during Alone time (restore mood by self reflecting)

o Amount of Alone time:

▪ Large amount: social issues & depression

▪ Small amount: negative influences/get into more trouble

• Time Alone in Emerging Adulthood 

o Loneliest Time  

▪ Emotionally – Freshman year of college (because first big transition) o Most Time Alone in the lifespan/out of all ages because of social expectations  for age

o Leisure / Productive – active/productive in alone time 

▪ Active leisure by yourself (running errands)

• Maturity* involves a greater capacity for intimacy

o Developing sense of identity leads to maturity 

• Intimacy: sharing inner-most feelings and thoughts in an atmosphere of caring,  trust, and acceptance

o Key to intimacy: self disclosure (tell someone you like something about  yourself, and vice versa)

o Example: telling someone your horoscope

• To be intimate with others, adolescents must know and accept themselves o Males: intimacy is contingent* on achieving identity

▪ Knowing who you are (identity) then intimacy 

o Females: intimacy is often the means* by which identity is achieved ▪ Identity and intimacy are co-occurring/happening together 

▪ “my relationships give me a sense of identity”


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