The Renaissance in Europe
It is a phenomenon that begins 14 century Italy. They move into the Renaissance stage while the rest of Europe lingers in the middle ages. Renaissance is French for "rebirth". The Greeks and Romans were lost ot many people. The Arabs preserved them. Humanism. It is the study of the classics. First the Romans, then the Greeks. Humanist is someone who studies the Romans and Greeks. They become interested because the Italians started reading them. It was more Romans than Greeks. Petrarch, Father of Humanism, read Romans work and was blown away by how amazing the Latin was. It jolts him and others that there was something better before. Right now it is all about Latin. He becomes a modern propaganda for writing like the Romans . So he an people like him went looking for more sources to rediscover Roman work. They physically unearthed a chunk of sources, most in libraries. Monasteries jobs were to painstakingly copy all of the transcripts. So they found a lot of them in monasteries. They would make copies of these manuscripts and maybe even sell them. Sell them to the upper-class. They would be patrons to he humanists. To own your own collection of manuscripts was a status symbol. They would also study it. Close textual analysis. Then they wrote grammar books, dictionaries, and other things so that others could read it. They became so in depth that they became Philologists. They study the changing of language. They could even look at the script and tell you when it was written. The best at this was Lorenzo Valla. He took "the donation of Constantine" and proved it was a fake based on Philology. The Humanist became more and more interested in the vernacular. This produces poetry. Boccaccio wrote in Italian.
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Fifteenth century. It becomes broader and related to Philosophy. There was a revival of Plato. This will happen at the library at Cosimo de Media. Cosimo invites Marsilo to stay and work with his Platonic manuscript. This creates a school. Ficino does nor than everyone else in the west to bring back Plato. He is convinced that it is the human in that links the two ideals. This creates a "cult of man" Pico Della Mirandola writes about this specialness of humans. This is reflected in the art by Michelangelo. Don't forget about the age old question of What is mhc? why is needed in the immune system?
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Northern Humanism. Humanism starts to catch on in the north. It’s a little different. They focus on Christian history. How it was perfect during the Roman Empire. They propose to revive early Christianity. They traditional Bible was the vulgate. It had been reproduced by man, human error. Mistakes and guess at interoperating human handwriting. These errors get passed down in the vulgate. This is called textual corruption. They decide they want to clean up the errors. SO they went to the original language, Greek and Hebrew. This results in the production of the Polyglot Bible. They were directed by Ximenes de Cisneros. He coordinates this project. Polyglot means many languages. This will be huge for protestants. Erasmus, Dutch, worked on scriptures. Specifically the new testament. He also expounded on the idea that Christianity needed to be reformed. He wanted to refocus on an interior style of piety and less on traditions and sacraments. He wanted everyone reading scriptures. Pay attention ot the Philosophy of Christ. Not changing doctrine, change in the way people practice their life. He will inspire Luther and the Protestant Reformation.