LA 1203 Reading Midterm PEOPLE: ONLY KNOW WRITINGS, QUOTES, WHO TRAVELED WITH THEM AUTHORS WRITINGS The Shot Heard Round the World -RALPH WALDO EMERSON Reflected Distinction- HENRY JAMES Old Yellowstone Days, The Virginian- OWEN WISTER The Gettysburg Address- ABRAHAM LINCOLN Ride the Rockies and Save Your Soul- MARY ROBERTS RINEHART OnWe also discuss several other topics like imagnet discounts
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Tour through the Yellowstone: RUDYARD KIPLING Divine Abyss: JOHN BURROUGHS Two Yosemite Poems HARRIET MONROE Scrapers of the Deep Winds- CARL SANDBURG Gulping the Great West- THOMAS WOLFE A Nation's Park- GEORGE CATLIN Preservation for All- FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED Should Cars be Allowed in Yosemite? – JAMES BRYCE The Marks of Human Passage- WALLACE STEGNER Pilgrim at Tinker Creek- ANNIE DILLARD A Sand County Almanac, “February” – Good Oak- ALDO LEOPOLD The Atchafalaya- JOHN MCFEE A Tour through the Yellowstone – RUDYARD KIPLING ALDO LEOPOLD “Those ashes come spring…” “Prairie clovers, great scab of bark from roadside…” “The particular oak…sand hill…stump that I measured has a diameter of 30 inches…” “These things I ponder…I will return to the foot of the orchard” “We come upon a great slab of bark freshly torn” “These I ponder as the kettle sings” ANNIE DILLARD “MUSKRAT” “Muskrat went under bridge…” “I have learned that the only way to approach a feeding muskrat for a good look is to commit myself to a procedure so ridiculous that only a total unselfconsciousness will permit me to live with myself” “Muskrats are bread and butter of the carnivorous food chain…so do otters” “Stalking is a game played in the actual present” “He was 8 inches in the body and six in the tall” JOHN BURROWS anything about going “Down” “It was quite worthwhile to go down into the canyon on mule-back if only to fall in love with a mule, and to learn what a sure-footed, careful, and docile creature, when he is on his good behavior, a mule can be.” “On the second day we made the descent into the canon on mule back” “We’re not to be ridiculed out of going down” “But we were not to be dissuaded or ridiculed out of the adventure. There is always satisfaction in going to the bottom of things.” FREDRICK LAW OLMSTED KEY WORDS:“Commision, Preservation, Yosemite” “The establishment by the government of great public ground for the free enjoyment of the people under certain circumstances is this justified and enforced as a political duty” “This duty of preservation is the first which falls upon the state under the Act of Congress, because the millions who are hereafter to benefit by the Act have the largest interest in it, and the largest interest should be first and most strenuously guarded” “The main duty with which the commissioner should be charged should be to give every advantage practical by that which is peculiar to this ground…this peculiarity exists only in this …” (talking of Yosemite) “Caused congress to treat it differently…natural scenery” ABE LINCOLN Civil War “Great Civil War…so conceived….Long endured” “It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated, here, to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly carried on” “It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us; that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion” –Lincoln Gettysburg address MARY ROBERTS RINEHART Rockies “Cities call, I have heard them. But there is no voice in all the world so insistent to me as the wordless call of the Rockies I shall go back.” RANDOM QUOTES: “And to think that this show-place has been going on all these days an’ none of we ever saw it” – Rudyard KiplingDAVID HARMON: Edited MIRROR OF AMERICA National Park idea: there are few places whose qualities are so outstanding that they are worth preserving from undue human intervention because through our act of self restraint, these places realize their capacity to enlighten us about ourselves. It is a compound of idealism and commercialism. Muir and Burrows = Nature Writers JOHN MUIR: A MEETING IN THE VALLEY Muir wrote a letter to Emerson inviting him with all his ‘earnestness’ to stay and see Yosemite with him Muir described Emerson as ‘serene as a sequoia’ After Emerson visited Yosemite for 5 days, Muir followed him to see the Mariposa Grove - Accompanied by many famous people including Robert Underwood, Johnson, Burrows, and Theodore Roosevelt OWEN WISTER: OLD YELLOWSTONE DAYS Recalled what the old Yellowstone park was like in its earlier years Established formulas and phrases that are now pure American (like gun fights and stuff) Created the old western genre Also wrote the Quintessential novel/movie called “The Virginian” There was a town named after Owen Wister bc he was on railroad board and they name towns after these members MARY ROBERTS RINEHART: RIDE THE ROCKIES AND SAVE YOUR SOUL Traveled with Howard Eaton (True/False) Main message: National parks are diverse enough to be places of self discovery for everyone JOHN BURROUGHS: DIVINE ABYSS At the Grand Canyon Nature writer along with Muir CARL SANDBURG: SCRAPERS OF THE DEEP WINDS First discovered/introduced by Harriet Monroe Wrote in Free Verse “Many Hats” is about dedicating the Grand Canyon to man, because “each man sees himself in the canyon” THOMAS WOLFE: GULPING THE GREAT WEST “Great Parks Trip” led by Wolf, who was accompanied by Ray Conway and Edward M Miller Their plan: 10 National Parks and 4632 road miles in 13 days FREDRICK LAW OLMSTEAD- PRESERVATION FOR ALL Father of Landscape Architecture Designed Central Park Associated with Chicago California governor appointed Olmsted as head of commission First superintendent of New York City’s National Park Management of Yosemite The report by Fredrick Law Olmsted about National Parks has not shaped new parks since then because it wasn’t available and could not be used He was NOT associated with Adirondack! ABRAHAM LINCOLN—“The Gettysburg Address” RALPH WALDO EMERSON—“The Shot Heard Round the World” Composed “Concord Hymn” inscribed on the base of the “Minute Men” statue—now part of Minute Man National Park HENRY JAMES—“Reflected Distinction” Independence National Historic Park James believed Philadelphia was supreme in culture and society compared to other cities, which was the perfect setting for history HARRIET MONROE—Two Poems: “Cataracts”[Yosemite’s Waterfalls] & “The Hetch-Hetchy”[Valley] Recognized the talent of others including: Rupert Brooke, Hart Crane, Robinson Jeffers, Marianne Moore, and Stephen Spender (*Carl Sandburg = free verse, Chicago Renaissance) GEORGE CATLIN—“A Nation’s Park” First painted portraits of American Indian Life First person to envision the idea of a national park “I would ask no other monument in my memory nor other enrollment with the famous dead then to be known as the founder of such an institution” -George Catlin, Nation’s Park “Amoungst the famous dead…” -George Catlin ANNIE DILLARD—“Stalking”/”Pilgrim at Tinker Creek” Muskrats Tinker Creek is in Virginia’s Blue Ridge Physiographic Providence ALDO LEOPOLD—“February”: Good Oak & Wrote San County Almanac The “Shack”-San County located in the Central Lowlands, Wisconsin DATES: April 19, 1775- Paul Riviere Battle of Lexington and Concord Minute Man National Historic Park **Concord Hymn in commemoration of Shot Heard Around the World and Battle of Lexington/Concord 1864- Yosemite. (1st scenic reserve) Signed by Abraham Lincoln 1869- Grand Canyon: Powell went down it Physiographic province: Colorado plateau March 1, 1872: Yellowstone National Park Signed by Grant 1st National Park Possible Questions: Who did Rineheart traveled to the Rockies with? -Howard Eaton What happened in April 19, 1775? Paul Revere’s ride, Battle of Lexington Concord What was the poem written about April 19, 1775? Concord Hymn about the arched bridge where the minute men stood The Concord Hym Commerates -April 19th 1775, short heard around the world, and The Battle of Lexington and Concord Who wrote the Concord Hymn? Ralph Waldo Emerson Who was John Muir? Found the Sierra Club, set land aside in the Antiquities Act Who wanted to go up the Grand Canyon? Muir Who wanted to go down the Grand Canyon? Burrows Who were the nature writers according to David Harmon? Muir and Burrows Who wrote Old Yellowstone Days 1936? -Owen Winston Where did Muir and Emerson meet? -Yosemite Wister travelled west to write his most famous novel which was? The Virginian Who is the main character in Ride the Rockies and Save Your Soul? Rinehart is the main character; Howard Eden leads the vacation into Rockies Who headed commission of Yosemite? Fredrick Law Olmsted When Muir met Emerson, he called him a what? A sequoia (not a negative comment) What month is in the San County Almanac February subtitle: the good oak Who was Aldo Leopold? Forrester that taught at Wisconsin, in Kila National Forrest that proposed primitive areas Where is San County located? Wisconsin, central lowlands physiographic province A Nation’s Park written by George Catlin Painted Native Americans, called them noble savages Had the first idea of a national park in A Nation’s Park Good Poetry is difficult to find about national parks Professionals shied away Who used free verse? Carl SandburgPromoted by Harriot Monroe who established Poet Magazine Arthur a part of Chicago Literary Renaissance Carl Sandburg Why should Philadelphia have so many historical events? Harry James Gettysburg National Military Park- Harmon First national park acquired through use of taking land by government True or False. Good Poetry about national parks by pros is easy to find? -False Who used free verse in poetry? -Carl Sandberg True or False: Frederick Law Olmsted’s arrangement of Yellowstone National Park has shaped all managements of national parks? –False (Yosemite) The Sand Hills… -Central lowlands (province), Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, Glacial “Monument in my memory…” –Catlin Who had the first idea of a national park ? -Catlin (he was also an Indian painter) Which expedition is Cornelius Hedges part of? Washburn Expedition in 1870 which created 1st national park (Yellowstone) What is the expedition that came 1 year after Washburn? Hayden Expedition of 1871 True or False. Langford in 1870 tells the story of Mors berg party felt of Yosemite. -FALSE How many acres were they supposed to be given if living off of irrigation? -80 Who did Olmstead bring with him to Biltmore? -Gifford Pinchot Who Wrote/composed the song “Symphony no. 9, From the New World”? -Antonan Dvorak What river do you hunt Beavers? -Missouri True/False: The Washington Monument was named one of the 7 Wonders by civil engineers. -False Who was NOT associated with Yellowstone National Park? -Gifford Pinchot “Surrounded by the horrors of the Civil War, the president action can be regarded as recognition that no matter how difficult our straits as a society, we can turn to our native landscape for peace, beaut, and hope.” This quote describes what landscape? -Yosemite, President Lincoln What are the 4 sections of the Rocky Mountains? -Southern, Wyoming, Middle, and Nothern Wilderness Act protects the “forever wild” - False (New York State Constitution does) Mercator projection map -Distorts landmasses at the poles and not the equator Hotsprings, Arkansas. 1832. What happened? -Set aside as a health preserve but now it is a national park What happens to be a physiographic province? -Central lowland, coastal plain What section is Baton Rouge in? -Mississippi Embayment What physiographic province is Baton Rouge in? -Coastal Plains Which of the following is associated with Yellowstone? -Jackson What physiological province is Niagara falls in? -Central Lowland Mono lake -Basin and range Who was the forrester brought to Biltmore Estate by Olmstead? -Pinchot True or False. Powell lost his arm in the Battle of Gettysburg? -False (Shiloh) Which of the following is NOT used to define a physiographic province? -Political Boundary True or False. Judge Hedges is associated with a member of Henry Washburns expedition that went to Yellowstone in 1870. -True True or False. Lee’s Ferry is on the Colorado River upstream.-False What is the Andericks Reserve protected by? -New York State Constitution Yosimite: First Scenic Reserve Created by Federal Action -1864 -Abe Lincoln signed legislation establishing Yosemite grant for “Preservation both of the Yosemite Valley and the Big Tree Groove” -Frederick Law Olmstead took first steps in federal land preservation Yellowstone: March 1, 1872 -Grant president -First and largest national park -John Wesley Powell in 1869 went down Grand Canyon -1870 Yellowstone group came to conclusion that Yellowstone should become a national park Who had idea to set Yellowstone National Park aside as a National Park? -Hedges Who went with Ferdinand Hayden on the Hayden Expedition into Yellowstone? William Henry – photographer Thomas Moran – Painter What expedition was hedges a part of? -Washburn Expedition (NOT HAYDEN expedition) How many years did it take for Yellowstone to be signed as a National State Park after the idea was set into action? -2 years True or False. Nathaniel Pitt Langsford’s September 20, 1870 journal entry opened with “Last night, and also this morning in camp, the enter party had a rather unusual discussion. The proposition was made by some member that we utilize the result of our exploration by taking up quarter sections of land at the most prominent points of interest, that is those plaes that would eventually become a source of great profit to the owners.” – The making of Yellowstone National Park. -True True or False. Under the Antiquities Act of 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt established/created National monuments as historic relics or natural wonders in order to protect them. -True Under the Homestead act of 1862, 160 acres were suggested for family land. How did this change? -John Wesley Powell said 160 acres was too much or too little. He suggested 80 acres with water/irrigation and 2560 acres to support a family through stock raising (4 sections). Why did declaration signed in Philadelphia? (Henry James) -Least liked by professorMAP PROJECTION It is not possible to represent on a flat map the spatial relationships of: (A globe is required if want all on same projection) Angle Distance Direction Area Scale MERCATOR PROJECTION MAP: (cylindrical) 1569 Normal at equator and stretched out at poles GOODE’S INTERPRETED PROJECTION: Looks like two maps most the time Looks like an orange peel flattenedout Equal area projects where both shapes and sizes are correctly represented LARGE SCALE Large denominator Smaller area More detail SMALL SCALE Small denominator Large area Less detail WAYS OF SHOWING RELIEF/ELEVATION ON MAP: Hillocks: picture looks like little hills Hachures: picture looks like centipede (Line all coming out from center) Contour lines: Circles inside of circles *Also the use of color and shading to show relief WHAT DETERMINES PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION: -Combination of landforms, soils, water features, vegetation, and related resources -Physiographic Region -Provinces -Sections -Political Province does NOT determine physiographic region PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION: Two or more provinces PROVINCE: (Subdivision of Physiographic Region) Two or more sections Central lowlands Costal Plain Interior Low Plateau **SECTION:** Subdivision of a province (640 acres) Mississippi Embayment Alluvial Plain COLORADO PLATEAU Painted forest Grand Canyon Petrified Forest PACIFIC BORDER Redwoods Port Lovos Fort Ross BUE RIDGE Great Smokey Mountains Biltmore Estates Harper’s Ferry PIEDMONT: (Had a picture shaded of this on mine…On East Coast by down by Virginia) Stone mountain Charlotte University of Virginia Monticello COASTAL PLAINS Everglades Atchafalaya NEW ENGLAND Vermont Minutemen New York CityCASCADES North of Sierra Nevada GULF COASTAL PLAIN Atlantic INTERIOR LOW PLATEAUS Mammoth Cave CENTRAL LOWLANDS Niagra Falls BASIN AND RANGE Drain internally The Great Salt Lake Lake Bonneville LEES FERRY: Grand Canyon FALL LINE: Differences in underling earth structure such as the river descends from uplands to lower elevations In Eastern United States, Divides the costal plain from the piedmont Little rock, Arkansas- on fall line Mobile, Alabama- NOT on fall line SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, CALIFORNIA San Andreas Fault Fancy Garden and Filolo Mansion Water Commisioner Black area is reservoir Earthquakes are common ROCKY MOUNTAINS: There are 4 sections Northern Middle Wyoming Basin Southern ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS New York State Constitution “Forever Wild” protects Adirondack Olmsted did not have anything to do with these mountains 7 WONDERS OF THE WORLD World trade center Transalaskan pipeline Golden gate bridge Panama canal Kennedy space center Interstate highway system Hoover dam NOT WASHINGTON MONUMENT JOHN WESLEY POWELL: Homestead Act 1862: 160 acres for a family (Lincoln) Land west of 98th meridian – Arid 80 acres with water and 2560 (4 sections) needed to support a family through stock raising Initially said160 acres and decided too much for stock raising GRAND CANYON Antiquities Act of 1906: Established national monuments and land as historic relics to preserve President Roosevelt Incase you want help memorizing…Every single one of these on test multiple times YELLOWSTONE: GRANT signed NOT Lincoln (be careful on true/false) In Rocky Province (STONES are Hard Heavy Massive Jagged) Hayden: “Remember Hayden’s Expedition” HedgesMuran- painter Jackson- photographer YOSEMITE: YouSoooMite but I Never Lick Old Men Nevada (Sierra Nevada) Lincoln Olmstead Muir GRAND CANYON Fucking Chace Crawford = Pleasant and GRAND Ferry Powell Colorado Plateau MINUTE MEN -Paul Revere -Minute Men -Shot Heard Around the World -Battle of Lexington/Concord Reading and Questions: - Which person did Mary Rinehart ride through the rocky mountains with- howard eaton(rangler) - Old yellow stone days was written by-owen wister (named a town after him because he was on the railroad board and he also wrote the Virginian and it was patterned after a Frontiers man President Theodore Roosevelt. - Who headed the commission of Yosemite and Mariposa- Olmsted - What happened to the report that the commission produced for Yosemite and mariposa- It got lost - Concord hymn commemorates - April 19, 1775 - On April 19, 1775- the Battle of Lexington concord - Where did john muir first meet emerson- Yosemite and he called him a sequoia - Why did john muir call emerson a sequoia- Sequoia’s are the top dog in relationship to trees. He felt very highly of Emerson - He called him a sequoia because- He was not difficult, stubborn or - Aldo Leapold- Wrote the Good Oak in February in the Sand county almanac and it is written in Wisconsin. - Aldo leapold is the person that is given credit for- Bringing ethics to the environmental conservation - David Harmon- Wrote the Mirror of America - David Harmon said that two authors could be called nature writers- Muir and Burrows - Who wrote a nations park – George Catilin (he had the idea for national parks and he was a painter that painted Indians) - True or False David harmon stated that good poetry about our national parks is easy to find-False - What book might be considered the quintessential western novel- The Virginian - Who is Harriet Monroe- Founded a magazine on poetry and she is from Chicago - Carl Sandburg was highlighted by Harriet Monroe because- he wrote in free verse - Which author was part of the Chicago Renaissance- All of the above - Named the painter who is famed for his painting of Indians and national parks- George Catilin - Who wrote the Great West- Thomas Wolfe ( it was about road trip about 10 national parks and 4200 road miles in 13 days) - “These things I ponder as the kettle sings”- Leapold - When the muskrat went under the bridge- Annie Dillard - Muskrats are the bread and butter of the carnivorous food chain- Annie dillard - It is quite worthwhile to go down the canyon on mule back- John Burrows ( wanted to go down the canyon while muir wanted to go up) - Next morning we strolled over the sand hills – Aldo leapold - Wonderful thing about a muskrat in my book they can not see very well- Annie dillard - The main duty with which the commission should be charged- Fredreck law Olmsted (talking about Yosemite) - It is for us the living to be dedicated here…here gave there last measure of devotion- Abe Lincoln - Cities call I have heard them but there is no voice in all the world……I shall go back- Mary Robert Rihnhart - I would have no other monument- George catilin - Who wrote on tour through the Yellowstone- Rudyard Kipling - Who wrote reflected distinction- Henry James ( why Philadelphia would be the site for such great things as the declaration of independence_ - Preservation for all was written by- Fredrick Olmsted