Psychology Study Guide: Second Exam
Psychology Study Guide: Second Exam 71902
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Herscher on Friday April 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 71902 at San Francisco State University taught by Margaret Lynch in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 230 views. For similar materials see PSY 200 in Psychlogy at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 04/03/15
Psychology Study Guide Exam Two Chapter 5 Consciousness 39 Consciousness One s subjective experience of the world resulting from brain activity Global Workspace Model 39 Posits that consciousness arises as a function of the brain circuits that are active 39 You experience the output of your brains regions as Conscious awareness 39 Attention Cocktail Party Phenomenon 0 The phenomenon of being able to focus your auditory attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli For example partygoers can often focus on a single conversation in a noisy and crowded room Dich0tic Listening Tasks 39 Test used to investigate selective attention 39 Participants listen to two different auditory stimuli and are told to pay attention to both of them 39 Teach us that humans can only pay attention to one auditory channel at a time Attenti0n Filtering 39 The subconscious process of deciding what information is important and what information is irrelevant 39 Occurs when we are exposed to multiple forms of stimuli 39 Stages of Sleep During the first stage of sleep 0 Can be woken easily 39 If awakened you will most likely deny that you were ever asleep 39 May see fantastical images 0 Experience sensations of falling and other things of that nature During the second stage of sleep 0 Breathing will become more regular 39 Become less sensitive to external stimulation 39 Truly asleep During the third and fourth stages of sleep 39 Slow wave sleep 39 Deep sleep 39 Very difficult to wake 39 Feel disoriented if they are woken REM Sleep 39 Rapid eye movement 39 Dreaming 39 Paralysis of motor systems Dreams The product of an altered state of consciousness Images and fantasies are confused with reality It is unknown whether or not dreaming serves any biological purpose Activation Synthesis Theory 39 Proposes that the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories Manifest Content of Dreaming 39 The way a dream is remembered by the dreamer according to Sigmund Freud Latent Content of Dreaming 39 What a dream symbolizes according to Sigmund Freud 39 The material that is disguised in a dream to protect the dreamer from confronting a con ict directly Insomnia A sleep disorder characterized by the inability to sleep Mental health and ability to function are often compromised due to insomnia Hypnosis A social interaction during which a person responding to suggestions eXperiences changes in memory perception andor voluntary action Sociocognitive Theory of Hypnosis 39 Posits that hypnotized people behave as eXpect hypnotized people should behave even if those eXpectations are faulty Dissociation Theory of Hypnosis 39 Views the hypnotic state as an altered state 39 Views hypnosis as a trancelike state in which conscious awareness is separated or dissociated from other aspects of consciousness Drugs Psychoactive Drugs 39 Mind altering substances Main Drug Types and Their Effects 39 Marijuana Can have the effects of a stimulant a depressant or a hallucinogen Produces a relaxed mental state an uplifted or contented mood and sometimes perceptual and cognitive distortions Can be used to reduce pain Has several other medicinal properties Can impair memory 39 Cocaine Primarily a stimulent Users often experience a wave of confidence Users feel good alert energetic sociable and wide awake Increases the concentration of dopamine in the neural synapses Extended use can result in the user experiencing paranoia along with psychotic and violent behavior 39 Amphetamines Common Street Names Speed Meth Ice and Crystal Stimulants Blocks the re uptake of dopamine while increasing its release which yields much higher levels of dopamine in the synapse Damage various brain structures including the frontal lobes 39 MDMA Otherwise known as ecstasy Produces an energizing effect similar to that of stimulants Causes light hallucinations Increased release of serotonin Can cause memory problems and a diminished ability to perform complex tasks 39 Opiates Depressants Common Street Names Heroin Morphine and Codeine Produces feelings of relaxation analgesia and euphoria Bind with opiate receptors and activate dopamine receptors Can be used to relieve pain Cause neurological and cognitive deficits such as attention and memory problems 39 Alcohol Activates dopamine receptors Can interfere with neurochemical processes involved in memory Long term and heavy consumption of alcohol can cause extensive brain damage such as severe intellectual deterioration and memory loss Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception 39 Sensation The sense organs detection of external stimuli their responses to the stimuli and the transmission of these responses to the brain Sensory Coding 39 Our sensory organs translate the physical properties of stimuli into patterns of neural impulses Transduction 39 A process by which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when they receive physical or chemical stimulation Perception The processing organization and interpretation of sensory signals it results in an internal representation of the stimulus Bottom up Processing A hierarchical model of pattern recognition in which data are relayed from one level of mental processing to the next always moving to a higher level of processing Top down Processing A hierarchical model of pattern recognition in which information at higher levels of mental processing can also in uence lower levels in the processing hierarchy Sensory Adaptation A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation 39 For example even when a room has a distinct odor you ll eventually StOp noticing it because it ceases to be new stimuli Signal Detection Theory A theory of perception based on the idea that the detection of a faint stimulus requires judgement it is not an all or none process 39 Must decide whether a stimulus is present or absent Sensory Threshold The weakest stimulus that an organism can detect 39 For example absolute threshold is the lowest level at which a stimulus can be detected Sight The visual process begins with the generation of electrical signals by photoreceptors in the retina Light is transduced into neural impulses by the rods and cones Cells in the retina perform a series of sophisticated computations that help the visual system process the incoming information Rods 39 Retinal cells tat respond to low levels of illumination and result in black and white perception Cones 39 Retinal cells that respond to higher labels of illumination and result in color perception Blind Spot 39 Nerve fibers route before the retina blocking some light and creating a blind spot where fibers pass through the retina and out of the eye creating a blind spot Complexity of Light 39 The color and complexity of light is determined by its wavelength Color Mixing 39 Subtractive Color Mixing A process of mixing that occurs within the stimulus itself a physical not psychological process Additive Color Mixing A process of color mixing that occurs when different wavelengths of light interact within the eye s receptors a psychological process 39 Hearing Frequency 39 Pitch the higher the frequency the higher the pitch Amplitude 39 Loudness the higher the amplitude the louder the sound Sound Waves 39 A pattern of changes in air pressure during a period of time it produces the perception of sound Structures 39 Eardrum a thin membrane that marks the beginning of the middle ear sound waves cause it to vibrate 39 Cochlea a uid filled tube that curls into a snail like shape with a membrane at the end called the round window 39 Basilar Membrane stimulates hair cells to bend and to send information to the auditory nerve Receptors 39 Hair Cells primary auditory receptors Loud Noises 39 Can cause permanent damage to the hair cells in the inner ear leading to hearing loss 39 Gate Control Theory The theory that the brain regulates the experience of pain sometimes producing it sometimes suppressing it Neural gates in the spinal cord allows signals through those gates can be closed when information about touch is being transmitted or by distraction 39 Vestibular Sense Perception of balance Uses information from receptors in the semicirular canals of the inner ear Liquid in our inner ear moves when our heads move which in uences our sense of balance 39 Kinesthetic Sense Perception of the positions in space and movements of our bodies and our limbs Receptors in muscles tendons and joints Helps coordinate voluntary movement and is invaluable in avoiding injury 39 Depth We are able to perceive depth in two dimensional images because the brain applies the same rules or mechanisms that it uses to work out the spatial relations between objects in the three dimensional world Binocular Depth Cues 39 Cues of depth perception that arise from the fact that people have two eyes Monocular Depth Cues 39 Cues of depth perception that are available to each eye alone Chapter 6 Learning 39 Classical Conditioning A type of learned response a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response 39 Example Pavlov trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a metronome by presenting the dogs with food alongside the clicking of the metronome The dogs originally salivated for the food but eventually they would salivate for just the sound alone 39 Operant Conditioning A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future In other words we learn that behaving in certain ways leads to rewards and we learn that not behaving in other ways keeps us from punishment 39 Example A cat can learn how to receive rewards from previous experiences The cat is placed in a box and food is placed outside the box where the cat can see it After several attempts to get out the cat accidentally presses the lever the door opens and the cat gets to eat the food The cat is then put back in the box where it quickly presses the lever to escape 39 Acquisition The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli 0 Example Pavlov s dogs learned that the sound of a metronome predicted the presence of food this process of association is an acquisition 39 Extinction A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus 0 Example Pavlov s dogs would eventually stop salivating for the metronome if the sound was presented without food enough times 39 Stimulus Generalization Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response 39 Stimulus Discrimination A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the uncontrolled stimulus 39 Types of Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement 39 The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior S being repeated Example A mouse will be more likely to press a lever if it is presented with food upon doing so positive responses cause stimuli to be given Negative Reinforcement 39 The removal of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior being repeated Example A mouse will be more likely to press a lever if they stop experiencing an electric shock upon doing so negative responses cause stimuli to be removed Continuous Reinforcement 39 A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs Partial Reinforcement 39 A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently 39 Types of Punishment Positive Punishment 39 The administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior recurring Example A mouse will be less likely to press a lever if an electric shock is administered upon doing so punishment decreases response rate Negative Punishment 39 The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior recurring Example A mouse will be less likely to press a lever if food is removed upon doing so punishment decreases response rate 39 Types of Schedules for Reinforcements Ratio Schedule 39 A schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs Interval Schedule 39 A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a specific unit of time Fixed Schedule 39 A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a specific number of occurrences or after a specific amount of time Variable Schedule 39 A schedule in which reinforcement is provided at different rates or at different times 39 Latent Learning Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement 39 Example When most people drive for the first time they do not need to be told that rotating the steering wheel turns the wheels they VC leaned this through observation alone 39 Observational Learning The acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior 39 Example Learning by watching others 39 Learned Helplessness A behavior in which an organism forced to endure aversive painful or otherwise unpleasant stimuli becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with said stimuli even if they are escapable Chapter 7 Memory 39 Sensory Memory A memory system that very brie y stores sensory information in close to its original sensory form 39 Memory Storage Memory 39 The nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge Encoding 39 The processing of information so that it can be stored 39 The brain stores new information by converting sensory stimuli into meaningful neural codes Storage 39 The retention of encoded representations overtime 39 It responds when the nervous system registers something as a memorable event 39 Storage can last a fraction of a second or as long as a lifetime 39 Brain Regions Associated with Memory Brain Stem 39 An extension of the spinal cord it houses structures that control functions associated with survival such as breathing swallowing vomiting urination and orgasm Cerebellum 39 A large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem it is essential for coordinated movement and balance Hypothalamus 39 A brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions including body temperature blood pressure and blood glucose levels it also in uences our basic motivated behaviors Thalamus 39 The gateway to the brain it receives almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the corteX Hippocampus Enncentratinn planning minimum snluing t awn rennss Speech Language Fruntnl Inhe 39 H a mg Ij nrintnllniin M 1 we Ef equot Vision Di Tam nnrnl Inlnn j ccipiinl Icil rE HE ri f Di erehelium f Ennrdlnntlnn 39 A brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories Amygdala 39 A brain structure that serves a vital role in our learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information 39 Phonological Loop The brief storage of verbal information aided by a rehearsal mechanism 39 Visio Spatial Sketchpad The temporary storage and manipulation of spatial and visual information along with tasks which involve the planning of spatial movements 39 Types of Memory Implicit Memory 39 The system underlying unconscious memories Explicit Memory 39 The system underlying conscious memories Declarative Memory 39 The cognitive information retrieved from eXplicit memory knowledge that can be declared Episodic Memory 0 Memory for one s personal past eXperiences Semantic Memory 39 Memory for knowledge about the world Procedural Memory 39 A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits Prospective Memory 39 Remembering to do something at some future time 39 Recall The process of pulling memories from long term storage which requires a higher depth of processing 39 Recognition Instantly knowing the origin of stimuli without depth of processing 39 Memory Rehearsal The role of repetition in the retention of memories Types of Memory Rehearsal 39 Maintenance Rehearsal The repetition of information without thinking about its meaning or connecting it to other information 39 Elaborative Rehearsal Thinking about the meaning of the information and connecting it to other information already stored in memory 39 Eyewitness Recall A person s episodic memory for a crime or other dramatic event that he or she has witnessed This has been proven to be an unreliable source of evidence for countless reasons Memory Malfunctions 1r a 1 1 39I m m 1 1 1 a nmn i mJ 1 xl Wm 39I39H xl T ELE I The seven stints if mummy Sin Description Example Transimwe Decreasing accessibilty if Humor Simple forgetting of over time lung pastquot events Absem mmded ess Lapses if attention that resultquot in Forgetting l ai inn car forgetting keys Ef ekmg Illlnf rmati n i5 presentquot but Tip Eif m t ngue temporarily accessible Mim rihmimw Memories are attributed to an E n ising a dream for a incorrectquot source memory Sugge m j lljmplanted memriea aboutquot thin gs Leading questi na thatquot never occurred produce fame mem r lea EMS Current knowledge and lmlief a Recalling pastquot attitudes in distortquot our memories of the pastquot line with currentquot attitude5 Parsistewe Unwanted recollections thatquot we can Traumatic war memories never forgetquot 39 Further Memory Issues Confabulation 39 The unintended false recollection or episodic memories Repressed Memories 39 The unconscious blocking of memories associated with high levels or stress or trauma Flashbulb Memories 39 Vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which people first learned of a surprising consequential or emotionally arousing event Memory Tricks Chucking 39 Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember Schemas 39 Cognitive structures that help us perceive organize process and use information Mnemonics 39 Learning aids strategies and devices that improve recall through the use of retrieval Example Method of Loci or Memory Palace associating items you want to remember with physical locations Serial Positioning Effect The ability to recall items from a list depends on the order of presentation The items presented early or late in the list were remembered better than those in the middle Consists of two separate effects 39 Primacy Effect the better memory people have for items presented at the beginning of the list 39 Recency Effect the better memory people have for the most recent items or the ones at the end of the list 39 Priming An implicit memory effect in which eXposure to one stimulus in uences a response to another stimulus 39 Types of Interference Proactive Interference 39 When prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information Retroactive Interference 39 When new information inhibits the ability to remember old information 39 Amnesia A deficit in long term memory resulting from disease brain injury or psychological trauma in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities of information from long term memory Types of Amnesia 39 Retrograde Amnesia A condition in which people lose past memories such as memories for event facts people or even personal information 39 Anterograde Amnesia A condition in which people lose the ability to form new memories
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