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MU - POL 241 - Study Guide - Midterm

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MU - POL 241 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Miami University
Department: Political Science
Course: American Politics
Professor: Tarah Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: civil, rights, Media, Public, and opinion
Name: Study Guide 2
Description: These notes cover what will be on our second test.
Uploaded: 10/24/2016
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background image Mikayla Mitchell Political Science 241 Study Guide #2 I. Civil Rights
a. Rights that guarantee individuals protection from discrimination
b. Grounded in equal protection clause
c. How are they won?
i. Demands (bottom up) ii. Struggle for change d. Dred Scott v. Sandford i. Can’t prevent states from allowing slavery ii. States as property, no legal rights iii. Framers never intended African Americans to be citizens e. Civil War amendments i. 13 th  (1865) Freed slaves ii. 14 th  (1868) Equal Protection Clause iii. 15 th  (1870) voting rights iv. Originally clause only applied to governments f. Plessy v Ferguson political equality only g. Failure of reconstruction, emergence of Jim Crow Laws
h. 1950’s growth of Civil Rights movement, but not the start
i. Response to: 1. South: de jure segregation 2. North: de facto segregation ii. Half of black families lived in poverty, substandard segregated schools iii. Brown v. Board of education 1. School segregation is unconstitutionalreversed Plessy
2. Reasons:
a. Value of education for citizenship
b. Segregation “generates a feeling of inferiority as to [black 
children’s] status in the community that may affect their 
hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone”
c. Separate is inherently unequal 3. Met with major resistance from states, whites 4. Need federal government to intervene
5. Civil Rights Act of 1957 allows African Americans to sue their 
state in federal court over voting rights i. 1960s victories for Civil Rights movement i. Critical strategy change, no longer just through the courts ii. Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorized national government to end  segregation in public education and public accommodationsparty 
realignment
iii. Voting Rights Act of 1965 appointed voting examiners to look into areas  where <50% voted suspends, literacy tests, grandfather clause, etc
background image j. 1970s move away from intent i. Disparate impact standard: discrimination exists if it has a negative impact on a group whether or not effect was intentional k. Protected classes i. Strict scrutiny: religious minorities, national minorities, racial minorities ii. Intermediate scrutiny: gender or sex iii. Rational basis: age, status or other criteria l. Reasons we need the government to protect civil rights: i. Racial attitudes in US­­the public claims racial egalitarianism ii. Discrimination in applicant screening II. Public Opinion
a. Citizen’s views on politics and government actions
b. “opinions” held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed”
c. Two problems:
i. Representation ii. Measuring public opinion  d. Delegate model i. Representative “acts for” citizens who determine public good ii. Democratic (small “d) model e. Trustee model  i. Representatives “refine and enlarge” public sentiment ii. Elite model f. Political attitudes i. Psychological tendency expressed by evaluating something with a degree  of favor or disfavor ii. Come from: socialization, groups, events, opinion leaders, personal  benefits, values iii. Polls are the main way we measure them g. Problems with attitude reports i. Attitude inconsistency ii. Ambivalence iii. Media/elite influence iv. Ideology ­ how conservative or liberal, many Americans don’t fall neatly  into 1 category v. Non­attitudes argument: people are just answering randomly vi. Low political knowledge  h. Types of polls i. Election tracking: media and campaigns sponsor, can influence voters ii. Exit polls: report election/predict results, may influence voters iii. Push polls: used to influence respondent, promote issue stance iv. Issue polls: media and campaigns gauge public sentiment  v. Internal opinion polls: gauge opinion, test reactions to language/arguments i. Scientific vs. non­scientific polls:

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School: Miami University
Department: Political Science
Course: American Politics
Professor: Tarah Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: civil, rights, Media, Public, and opinion
Name: Study Guide 2
Description: These notes cover what will be on our second test.
Uploaded: 10/24/2016
5 Pages 24 Views 19 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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