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TOWSON / Science / Sci 101 / What is Perception?

What is Perception?

What is Perception?

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School: Towson University
Department: Science
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Heather raley
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 101 Exam #2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, and 11
Uploaded: 10/25/2016
30 Pages 5 Views 12 Unlocks
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PSYC 101


What is Perception?



Professor Heather A. Raley

Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, and 11 Review Sheet

Lecture 1 (10/3/16) – Chapter 3 – Sensation and Perception ∙ Sensation – A representation in the brain of stimuli (or a  stimulus)

o Sent to the brain from the receptor via nerve impulse o A sound, sight, odor, feeling, taste, or any combination ∙ Perception – Process that makes sensory patterns meaningful ∙ Transduction – Transforming one form of energy to another ∙ Creation of Sensory Experiences

1. Stimulation

2. Transduction

3. Sensation

4. Perception

∙ Senses

o Proximal Senses – Direct contact senses

 Vestibular (sense of balance)

 Taste

 Proprioception (where your body is in space)

o Distal Senses – No direct contact of stimuli with body  Smell

 Audition

 Vision

∙ Thresholds

o Absolute Threshold – The weakest stimulus that can be  detected correctly at least half of the time


What is Transduction?



o Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference) – The  minimal change in a stimulus that can be detected  

accurately half of the time

∙ Signal Detection Theory – We detect “signals” or stimuli due to a  judgment of our sensory system AND observer characteristics o Fluctuates in humans

∙ Sensory Adaptation – Loss of responsiveness in senses after  prolonged exposure

o Gotten used to it

o However, any change in the stimulus will be detected o Main purpose of the sensory systems is to detect change ∙ Subliminal Messages If you want to learn more check out 18000 cycle

o Based on Freud’s work re” the unconscious mind

o Studies have found that subliminal words can “prime” a  person’s responses later on

o Literally means “below the threshold,” but really is not  below since is being detected at some level

o No scientific research to support that this is effective in  advertising


What is Sensory Adaptation?



∙ Visual Sensation

o Retina – Thin layer at the back of the eyeball that contains  the photoreceptors

 Rods – 125 million; dim light or night vision;  

peripheral vision

 Cones – 7 million; sensitive to color vision

o Fovea – A concentration of cones; a tiny area of the retina  that has the sharpest vision

o Optic Nerve – Group of nerves that carries visual  information from the retina to the brain Don't forget about the age old question of Assuming an APR of 3%, calculate how much you should deposit monthly?

 Blind Spot – Where the optic nerve exits the eye; no  photoreceptors, so gap in visual field; any stimuli  

here cannot be seen

∙ Visual Processing

o Brightness – Amplitude (intensity) of light reaching retina o Color (hue) – Wavelengths from the “visible light” portion  of the “electromagnetic spectrum”

 Trichromatic Theory – We sense red, green, and blue  (aka Young Helmholz Theory)

 Opponent Process Theory – We process colors in  complimentary pairs If you want to learn more check out What is microfauna?

∙ Color Blindness

o Often a genetic disorder

o Inability to distinguish a color

o Most common is red-green color blindness

o Much more common in males (1/12)

∙ Sensation of Sound

o Tympanic Membrane – Eardrum

 Sounds waves strike eardrum

 Vibrate bones in outer ear, which pass vibrations to  cochlea, primary organ of hearing

o Basilar Membrane – From cochlea

 Vibrations sent to basilar membrane

o Transduction – Converts vibrations into neural activity,  which transmit this info to the auditory cortex in the brain ∙ Auditory Processing

o Frequency – Number of cycles a wave completes in a given  amount of time; measured in Hertz (Hz), CPS (Cycles per  second)

 Pitch – Psychological sensation of frequency  We also discuss several other topics like biology study guide chapter 1

o Amplitude – Intensity of a wave; volume, loudness;  measured in decibels (dB)

o Timbre – Psychological characteristic only; no physical  aspect to it; complexity; pure  rich, no measurement ∙ Olfaction  

o Smell; nose hairs act as receptors for odors (chemical  signals)

 Pheromones – Light odor secreted by mammals  

(signal danger, reproduction, etc.)

∙ Taste (Gustation) – Based on chemicals received from the  stimulus also; proximal sense; taste receptors are on tongue and  are called taste buds If you want to learn more check out lattc psychology

o Umami – Taste of MSG (Asian cuisine) We also discuss several other topics like psy 342 purdue

∙ Sensations

o Temperature, pain, type of contact

o Pain as a defense mechanism

o Placebo effect

∙ Perceptual Processing

o Feature Detectors – Cells in cortex that specifically detect  differences in features in human faces; done unconsciously and automatically

o Bottom-Up Processing – Cues from the stimulus are  combined and analyzed by brain (stimulus driven  

processing)

o Top-Down Processing – Expectations and knowledge are  involved in the perception; conceptually driven

∙ Visual Illusions

o Illusion – Incorrect perception of a stimulus

 Your brain playing a trick on you

∙ Gestalt Theory

o “The whole is greater that the sum of its parts”

o Perception is shaped by innate factors

o Figure and ground

o Laws of Perceptual Grounding

 Max Wertheimer (1923) – People group stimuli due to similarity, proximity, and continuity, common fate,  

and Pragnanz

 Law of Pragnanz – Simplicity; we perceive the  

simplest pattern possible

∙ Depth Perception

o Monocular Cues – Information taken from one eye in order  to perceive depth; relative size, light, and shadow,  

interposition, haze or fog

o Binocular Cues – Information from both eyes; disparity  looking at objects closer than farther away

o Around 6-7 mos. of age, a child begins to perceive depth  and that it can be dangerous

∙ Environmental Influences

o Expectations – We see what we expect to see

o Perceptual Set – We are primed to notice specific sounds in  certain contexts

∙ ESP

o Extra sensory perception

o 65% of general population believe it is a “likely possibility”  or a fact (only 35% of psychologists believe in it)

o Three Categories

 Telepathy – Direct communication between one mind  and another

 Clairvoyance – Direct mental perception of a state of  physical affairs

 Precognition – Accurate prediction of the future

Lecture 2 (10/10/16) – Chapters 4 & 5 – Learning and Memory ∙ Learning – A lasting change in mental processes or behavior that  results from exposure

∙ Habituation – Becoming used to stimuli; learning to not respond  after repeated exposure

o Mere Exposure Effect – Learned preference for a stimuli to  which we have been previously exposed

∙ Learning Theory

o Behavioral Learning

 Classical Conditioning

∙ Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – Russian medical  

researcher

o Dog experiment (bell, feeding, salivation)

o Classical Conditioning – When an innate  

reflex is produced by a once neutral  

stimulus

o Conditioned Stimulus (CS), unconditioned

stimulus (UCS), conditioned response  

(CR), unconditioned response (UCR)

∙ Before Classical Conditioning

o Neutral Stimulus  No response (bell  no

response)

o UCS  UCR (Food  salivation)

∙ During Classical Conditioning

o Neutral Stimulus (bell)  UCS (food) 

UCR (salivation)

∙ After Classical Conditioning

o CS (bell)  CR (salivation)

 Acquisition, Extinction, and Recovery

∙ Acquisition – Initial learning stage

∙ Extinction – Withholding the UCS after the CS  leads to elimination of the CR (sounding the  

bell and not giving food, leading to no  

salivation after hearing bell)

∙ Spontaneous Recovery – CR reappears at a  

quicker rate, than when initially learned

 Case of Little Albert  

∙ 1920 – Unethical today

∙ Conditioned a baby boy – Albert – to be scared  of a white lab rat

∙ Rat (Neutral Stimulus)  Loud noise (UCS) 

Albert cried (UCR)

∙ Then: Rat (CS)  Albert crying (CR)

 Generalization – Apply the CR to stimuli that are not  exact to but represent the CS

 Discrimination – Respond to a specific stimuli but not  similar ones

 Food Aversions – Nauseous feeling (CR) after sight or  smell of a particular food (CS), if food was once  associated with an illness

∙ After an experience of food poisoning

∙ Cancer patients and licorice flavored ice cream o Behavioral Learning

 Operant Conditioning (trial and error learning)

∙ B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) – UPenn. Researcher ∙ The stimulus is AFTER the response ∙ Reinforcement vs. Punishment

o Reinforcement is meant to strengthen a  response by either adding or removing a  stimulus

o Punishment is an aversive stimulus after  a response that is meant to decrease  

that response

∙ Meant to produce a new behavior, compared to classical conditioning, which is meant to elicit a reflex (natural response)

∙ Reinforcement

o Positive – A stimulus presented after the  response, meant to increase the  

likelihood of that response, reward

o Negative – Removal of an aversive  stimulus after a desired behavior

∙ Punishment

o Positive – Application of an aversive  stimulus after an undesired behavior

o Negative – Removal of a desired stimulus meant to reduce undesired behavior

o Punishment to be most effective should  be immediate, certain, and limited in  

duration and intensity

o Should fit the crime

∙ Skinner Box (Operant Chamber)

o Programmed to deliver rewards and  punishments depending on the behavior  of the rat

o Could receive food or water, or electrical  shocks, or loud obnoxious noises

∙ Schedule of Reinforcement

o A schedule specifying the frequency and  timing of reinforcements (rewards,  

punishments)

o Continuous vs. Intermittent  

Reinforcement

 Continuous – Correct behaviors are  always reinforced (best method for  

learning new behaviors)

 Intermittent – Correct responses  

are reinforced some of the time  

(partial reinforcement)

o Ratio vs. Interval Schedules

 Ratio Schedule – Reinforcement  

depends on the number of correct  

responses

∙ Fixed Ratio – Number of  

responses stays the same

∙ Variable Ratio – Still based on

a number of responses, but  

the number of attempts to  

obtain the desired result  

varies

 Interval Schedule – Reinforcement  

based on a time period instead of  

correct responses

∙ Fixed interval –  

Reinforcement is given in a  

fixed time period

∙ Variable Interval – Time  

between reward varies from  

trial to trial

∙ Primary and Secondary Reinforcers

o Primary – Rewards that have a biological  

value to the receiver, an innate  

advantage; food, drink, sex

o Secondary – Conditioned; neutral stimuli  

that have a learned association with a  

primary reinforce; money, token  

economy

o Observational Learning

 A type of cognitive learning

 Albert Bandura (1960s)

 Cognitive (not behavioral) learning after observing  others behave and watching the consequences of  

their behaviors

 Imitation

 Aggressiveness and media violence

∙ Memory – System that encodes, stores, and retrieves  information; applies to a human, animal, or computer o Different from computers because we include an  interpretive system that organizes information into  meaningful patterns; cognitive system

o Information Processing

 Encoding – Modify information to fir the preferred  format for the memory system; rehearsal

 Storage – Retention of encoded material; can store in different ways

 Retrieval – Location of recovery of information;  content and state dependent; incorrect retrievals o Eidetic Memory

 “Photographic Memory”

 A memory more vivid and accurate than most human memories

 More common in children, and in those who have not  gained as much formal education as others

 Different from “flashbulb” memory of events o Forming Memories

 Sensory Memory

∙ Working memory

∙ Long term memory (Atkinson and Shiffin Model, 1968)

∙ No encoding

∙ Duration = ¼ Second

∙ Capacity = 12-16 items

∙ Biological bases are the sensory pathways

o Different sensory register for each sense

 Working Memory

∙ Encodes info by meaning

∙ 7±2 Chunks

∙ 20-30 Sec duration

∙ Hippocampus or frontal lobes

∙ Structure

o Central Executive – Directs attention to  

information from sensory memory or LTM

o Phonological Loop – Stores sounds,  

mental “echo”

o Sketchpad – Store and manipulate  

visual/spatial information

∙ Limitations

o Duration (only 20-30 Sec)

 Rehearsal – Maintenance vs.  

Elaborative

∙ Maintenance – Keeps  

information fresh but  

effective to transfer to LTM

∙ Elaborative – Make  

connection with knowledge  

already stored, makes it  

meaningful

o Limited Capacity (7±2)

 “Chunking” – Any meaningful unit

 Long Term Memory

∙ Storage of information

∙ Unlimited capacity and duration

∙ Mostly housed in the cerebral cortex

∙ Structure

o Procedural Memory – Memory of how  

things are done

o Declarative Memory – Stores facts and  events

 Episodic Memory – Surrounding  

details

 Sematic Memory – Studying  

traditionally

Long Term

Memory

 

Procedural

Memory

 

Declarative

Memory

 

o Failing Memory

Sematic

Memory

Episodic

Memory

 Serial Position Effect (remembering a certain number

of words), Misattribution (remembering a word never  

said)

 Amnesia (Loss of memory, not a result of a medical  

illness)

∙ Retrograde – Loss of previous memories

∙ Anterograde – Inability to form memories for  

newly learned information

o Retrieval of Memories

 Explicit – Memory processed with attention and  

conciously recalled; aware

 Implicit – Not learned deliberately but affects  

behavior

o Improving Memory

 Mnemonics

∙ Method of Loci – Associate words with  

landmarks; items on a list associated with a  

familiar location

∙ Natural Language Mediators – Associate words  

to remember with a common ground;  

acronyms; “link method”

∙ Names – Form an association between  

personality/looks and name

Lecture 3 (10/17/16) – Chapter 6 – Thinking and Intelligence ∙ Concept – Mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, or  experiences

o Natural – Objects or events from personal experience  Prototype

o Artificial – Defined by rules, definitions, or formulas o Concept Hierarchy – Most general to most specific  breakdown

∙ Imagery

o Applied for all senses

o Adds complexity and richness to thinking

o Cognitive Maps – Mental maps that represent reality’ also  effected by culture

∙ Schemas and Scripts

o Schema – Cluster of related concepts that make up a  framework for thinking about a specific concept

 Used in expectations, inferences, scripts, and many  other ways

o Scripts – “Event schemas; “ knowledge of actions expected to occur in a certain way in a particular setting

∙ Problem Solving

1. Identifying the Problem – Consider ALL possibilities 2. Selecting a Strategy – Select the best strategy for the  problem at hand

 Algorithms – Always works; not helpful for abstract  things

 Heuristics – “Rules of thumb;” not guaranteed  

solution

∙ Searching for Analogies – Comparison

∙ Breaking a big problem into smaller ones –  

Long-term goals (ex. HW)

∙ Working Backward  

o Start from “finish” in a maze

o Only effective when end goal is clearly  

specified

o Three Obstacles

 Mental Set – Respond to a new problem as you have  a problem in the past

 Functional Fixedness – Inability to see a new use for  an object you are familiar with for another purpose

∙ Ex. The candle problem

 Self-Imposed Limitations – Limiting oneself to  

confines that aren’t there

∙ Ex. 9-dot Problem

∙ Judging and Biases

o Confirmation Bias – Overestimate ability to predict future  Ex. Presidential Election

o Hindsight Bias – Overestimate ability to predict future  Ex. Losing FB game (“I knew we’d lose”)

o Anchoring Bias – Decide based on an estimate of an  unrelated quantity

 Ex. Multiply 1x2x3x4x5 vs. 5x4x3x2x1

o Representativeness Bias

 Stereotyping people

 Availability Bias – Judge by how readily an example  comes to mind

∙ Ex. Being on a jury

∙ Intelligence

o Creativity – The mental process that produces new  responses that contribute to solving problems

o Aptitude – Innate expertise or exceptional skill in a certain  area; predictive potential (Ex. SAT)

o Creativity requires a well developed skill in a specific area o Intelligence – The mental capacity to acquire knowledge,  think rationally (reason), and effectively problem solve

 No correlation between creativity and intelligence  Normally distributed trait (normal≠ equal)

∙ Intelligence Testing

o Binet-Simon (1904) – First intelligence test; developed for  French school children

 Measured mental age (MA) vs. Chronological Age  (CA)

o Testing in America

 Became big due to immigration, education  

requirement, and military recruitment

 Lower IQ: Morons, idiots, imbeciles  unfair testing!  Intelligence Quotient

∙ Lewis Terman – Adapted Stanford-Binet test for  

Americans (1916)

o IQ – Term from William Stern (1914)

o IQ = Mental Age 

Chronolgoical Age x 100

o Ex .MA=15

CA=30 x 100 = 50 IQ

 WAIS/WISC

∙ Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale

o Developed by David Weschler

o Most widely used intelligence test in the  

U.S.

o Individual test

o WISC – Weschler Intelligence Scale for  

Children

 Normal Distribution

∙ Bell-shaped curve

∙ Now how IQ scored, along the bell curve, NOT  by calculating MA/CA

o The Extremes

 Intellectual Disability (previously, mental retardation) ∙ Deficits in intellectual functioning (IQ of 70 and  below)

∙ Deficits in adaptive functioning  

(communication, social skills, independence,  

school/work functioning)

∙ Limitations occur during developmental period  (usually before age 18)

 Giftedness

∙ IQ of 130 or above

∙ If discover this about a child, enrolling in  

special classes or any special treatment will  

NOT help enhance abilities, though it will not  

hurt child either

 Savant Syndrome – Exceptional skill in one area but  may lack in others

o Theories

 Psychometric Theory (mental measurements) –  general term components

 Charles Spearman (19020’s)

∙ “g factor” – General Intelligence Factor

o Single, common, innate factor that  

determines intelligence

 Raymond Cattell (1963) – Cognitive Theory

∙ General Intelligence (g) can be broken down  into two components

o Crystallized Intelligence – Knowledge a  

person has acquired and ability to store  

and retrieve information (sematic  

memory)

o Fluid Intelligence – Ability to solve  

problems and see complex relationships

o Both equally important but acquired in  

different ways

 Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory

∙ Three intelligences that work independently  

gut that each person possesses

o Practical Intelligence – “Street smarts;”  

ability to cope with the environment

o Analytical Intelligence – Logical  

reasoning; measured by most IQ tests

o Creative Intelligence – Development  

ideas and relationships

 Howard Gardner – Theory of Multiple Intelligences

∙ Believed that traditional IQ tests only  

measured a small range of human abilities and  

that seven should be measured

1. Linguistic

2. Logical – mathematical  

3. Spatial

4. Musical

5. Bodily – Kinesthetic

6. Interpersonal

7. Intrapersonal

∙ Numbers 6 and 7 make up emotional  

intelligence

∙ Labels and Expectations

o When label self or others “a C student,” “smart,” or “shy,”  you may limit yourself or that person

o Influence on performance

o Self-fulfilling prophecy – Behaviors and observations that  are a result of expectations

∙ Differences in IQ

o Heredity

o Environment

o Heritability

o Social class and IQ are positively correlated

o No good evidence that racial groups have different IQs Lecture 4 (10/24/16) – Chapter 11 – Social Psychology

∙ Situationism – The theory that then environment has as much  effect on a person’s actions as personality

∙ Social Roles – Unwritten rules of behavior in a given setting or  group

∙ Social Norms – Group’s expectations regarding what is not  appropriate

∙ Conformity – Social pressure; tendency for people to adopt  behavior of other group members

o Asch Effect (1950s) – Study of the different length lines  ~67% of people conformed (AKA, most people (2/3)  conformed at least once)

o Three factors that influence conformity

1. Size of the majority

2. Presence of a partner who disagrees with the  

majority

3. Size of discrepancy between correct answer and  majority’s answer

4. If the task appears to be difficult or ambiguous, they  are more likely to conform because they doubt their  own thoughts

∙ Groupthink

o Poor judgments and bad decisions made by members of  groups that are influenced by perceived group consensus  or the leader’s point of view

∙ Obedience to Authority

o When authority figures command the obedience of large  groups

o Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study 1963

 Yale college students in experiment, then tested  general public

 “Teacher” to give electrical shocks to “learner” for  each wrong answer, and increase the voltage by a  

fixed amount each time

 How far would the “teachers” go??

 “Learner” has different sounds and words they would say at each level

 More likely to obey

∙ When a peer modeled obedience

∙ When the victim could not be seen

∙ When the “teacher” was right next to the  

authority figure

∙ When the authority figure had a higher status  

title, “Professor” or “Dr.” vs. “Mr.”

∙ Bystander Inaction Problem

o Case of Kitty Genovese, NYC, 1964

 Diffusion of responsibility

o Latane and Darley Study – college student suffering from a  “seizure”

 The more people, the less likely they were to help o Theft study on the beach

o Smoke in a room study – Much more likely to report smoke  filling a room when alone than when in a group, and this is  proportional to the size of the group

∙ Stanford Prison Experiment

o Students divided into two groups, guards and inmates,  randomly, and given uniforms

o All tested previously and had no difference in violence,  criminal history, or aggression

o Guards began showing power

o Immediately lost equality, due to a title and a uniform o The two-week study needed to be ended after six days o Debriefed

∙ Bennington College Study

o Vermont’s Bennington College – 1930s

o Women in study from conservative families with strict  values regarding politics

o Faculty: Young, liberal

o Most women transformed from conservative to liberal o 20 years later, those that switched to liberal were still  liberal

∙ Attraction

o We tend to like those who provide us with rewards at  minimum cost

 Proximity

 Familiarity/similarity

 Physical attractiveness

∙ Matching Theory

 Self-Disclosure

o Influence on self-esteem

 Expectancy-Value Theory – We decide to pursue a  relationship or not based on weighing value and  

expectation or success

 Low Self-Esteem vs. Those on a high pedestal

∙ Cognitive Dissonance

o Way of self-justification

o Motivating mental state when people voluntarily act in a  way that causes discomfort; conflicts with their attitudes  when the undergo an unpleasant experience

o Festinger and Carlsmith’s Study – 1959  Blocks in the tray, getting rewards ($1 or $20)

 $1 group actually enjoyed the task more than the  $20 group

∙ Cognitive Attributions

o Internal (dispositional) vs. External (situational) attribution o Biases/Errors

 Fundamental Attribution Error – Emphasize internal  causes and ignore external pressure

 Self-Serving Bias – Take credit for success and deny  responsibility for failure

∙ Love and Romance

o Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love

 3 Components

∙ Passion (erotic attraction)

∙ Intimacy (sharing feelings and confidences)

∙ Commitment (dedication to put relationship  

first)

 4 Types

∙ Romantic – High passion and intimacy

∙ Friendship – High intimacy and commitment

∙ Infatuation – High passion and commitment

∙ Complete/Consummate Love – All high

∙ Prejudice

o Negative attitudes toward someone based solely on their  membership to a specific group

o 5 Causes

 Dissimilarity and Social Distance – Someone unlike  you

 Economic Competition – Populations competing for  same resource

 Scapegoating – An innocent person or small group  gets blamed for a larger problem

 Conformity to Social Norms – Discrimination

 Media Stereotypes

∙ Aggression and Violence

o Robber’s Cave Experiment

 Randomly assigned 11-12 year old boys to groups,  Eagles and Rattlers

 Played competitive games all day, led to dislike  

between groups

 Now work to have them grow to like each other again

 Mutual Interdependence – Groups had to rely on each other and work together toward a common goal;  

most effective

∙ Terrorism

o Violent, unpredictable acts of a small group against a  larger group

o International (9-11) and intranational (VT Massacre) o Those in poverty, less educated or censored, powerless, or  insecure are more likely to follow such drastic orders

∙ Ethical Issues

o Do the risks outweigh the benefits??

o Informed consent must be agree upon prior to experiment o Debriefing must be done if any deception took place o APA General Ethical Principles

 Beneficence and Nonmaleficence – Strive to take  

care of and do no harm to patients

 Fidelity and Responsibility – Upholding professional  standards

 Integrity – Promote accuracy, honesty, and  

truthfulness

 Justice – Fairness to all

 Respect – People’s rights, dignity, and worth

Study Questions!!!

Chapter 3 – Sensation and Perception 

1. What is a sensation?

A representation in the brain of stimuli (or a stimulus) 2. What is a perception?

Process that makes sensory patterns meaningful

3. What is transduction?

Transforming one form of energy to another

4. What are the steps of the creation of sensory experiences? Stimulation, transduction, sensation, perception

5. How is a sensation sent to the brain?

Via a nerve impulse

6. What are proximal senses? Give a few examples of them. Direct contact senses; taste, vestibular, proprioception 7. What are distal senses? Give a few examples of them. Senses that have no direct contact with the body; smell,  audition, vision

8. What is an absolute threshold?

The weakest stimulus that can be detected correctly at least half  the time

9. What is a difference threshold?

The minimal change in a stimulus that can be detected  accurately half of the time

10. What does the Signal Detection Theory say? We detect “signals” or stimuli due to a judgment of our sensory  system and observer characteristics

11. What is sensory adaptation?

Loss of responsiveness in senses after prolonged exposure 12. What is the main purpose of the sensory system? Detect change

13. What does subliminal mean? Does it actually do what it  means?

Below the threshold; it is not really below the threshold since it is being affected on some level

14. What is the retina?

Thin layer at the back of the eyeball that contains the  photoreceptors

15. What are rods? How many of them are there? Aid in dim light or night vision as well as peripheral vision; 125  million

16. What are cones? How many of them are there? Sensitive to color vision; 7 million

17. What is the fovea?

A concentration of cones – a tiny area of the retina that has the  sharpest vision

18. What is the optic nerve? What is contained in it and what  does it do?

Group of nerves that carries visual information from the retina to  the brain; the blind spot is contained in it, which is where the  optic nerve meets the eye and there are no photoreceptors, so  there is a gap in the visual field

19. What is brightness?

Amplitude (intensity) of light reaching the retina

20. What is color (hue)?

Wavelengths from the “visible light” portion of the  

electromagnetic spectrum

21. What is the trichromatic theory? What is it also known as? We sense red, green, and blue; also known as the Young Helmholz Theory

22. What is the opponent process theory?

We process colors in complimentary pairs

23. What is color blindness? Is it inherited or non-inherited?  What is the most common type? Is it found more commonly in  men or in women?

Inability to see color; inherited; red-green color blindness; men 24. What is the tympanic membrane? What is it also known as? The eardrum

25. How does the tympanic membrane play a part in hearing? Sound waves strike it and vibrate bones in the outer ear towards  the cochlea, which is the main organ of hearing

26. How does the basilar membrane play a part in hearing? Vibration are sent to it from the cochlea

27. What is transduction when it comes to audition? Converting vibrations into neural activity, and transmitting this  information to the auditory cortex in the brain

28. What is frequency? What is it measured in? Number of cycles a wave completes in a given amount of time;  Hertz (Hz) of Cycles per second (CPS)

29. What is pitch?

Psychological sensation of frequency

30. What is amplitude? What is it measured in? Intensity of a wave, volume, loudness; decibels (dB) 31. What is timbre?

Psychological characteristic only; no physical aspect; complexity  of a sound

32. What are pheromones?

Light odors secreted by mammals to signal something 33. What is taste based on? What are taste receptors called? Chemicals received from the stimulus; taste buds

34. What is umami?

Taste of MSG  

35. What are feature detectors? Are they conscious or  unconscious?

Cells in cortex that specifically detect differences in features in  human faces; unconscious and automatic

36. What is bottom-up processing?

Cues from the stimulus are combined and analyzed by the brain 37. What is top-down processing?

Expectations and knowledge are involved in the perception 38. What is an illusion?

Incorrect perception of a stimulus

39. What does the Gestalt theory say? What is does it claim  perception is shaped by? What laws came of it?

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts;” innate factors;  laws of perceptual grouping

40. What did Max Wertheimer claim about people? They tend to group stimuli due to similarity, proximity, and  continuity, common fate, and Pragnanz

41. What does the law of Pragnanz say?

We perceive the simplest pattern possible

42. What are monocular cues?

Information taken from one eye in order to perceive depth 43. What are binocular cues?

Information from both eyes

44. Around how old does a child begin to perceive depth? 6-7 mos.

45. What is a perceptual set?

We are primed to notice specific sounds in certain contexts 46. What does ESP stand for? What percentage of people  believes it’s a possibility? What percentage of psychologists  believes it?

Extrasensory perception; 65%; 35%

47. What are the three categories of ESP? Define them. a. Telepathy – Direct communication between one mind and  another

b. Clairvoyance – Direct mental perception of a state of  psychical affairs

c. Precognition – Accurate prediction of the future

Chapters 4 & 5 – Learning and Memory 

1. What is learning?

A lasting change in mental processes or behavior that results  from experience

2. What is habituation?

Becoming used to a stimuli; learning to not respond after  repeated exposure

3. What is the Mere Exposure Effect?

Learned preference for a stimulus to which we have been  previously exposed

4. What are the two types of learning referenced in the Learning  Theory?

Behavioral Learning and Observational Learning

5. What was Ivan Pavlov’s experiment?

Dog experiment; ringing the bell, feeding, salivation

6. Where was Pavlov from?

Russia

7. What is classical conditioning?

When an innate reflex is produced by a once neutral stimulus 8. What happens before classical conditioning?

The neutral stimulus is used, and there is no response. The UCS  is used and produces the UCR.

9. What happens during classical conditioning?

The neutral stimulus is used and then the UCS is given,  producing the UCR.

10. What happens after classical conditioning?

The CS is given and the CR is produced.

11. What is acquisition in classical conditioning? The initial learning stage

12. What is extinction in classical conditioning

Withholding the UCS after the CS leads to the elimination of the  CR

13. What is spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning? CR reappears at a quicker rate that when initially learned 14. What happened in the Case of Little Albert in 1920? The researchers conditioned Albert (a baby boy) to be afraid of a  white lab rat. The rat (NS) was shown, and then a loud noise was  made (UCS). Albert cried because of the loud noise (UCR). Then,  when shown the white rat (CS), Albert cried (CR).

15. What is generalization in classical conditioning Applying the CR to stimuli that are not exact to but represent the CS

16. What is discrimination in classical conditioning? Responding to specific stimuli but not similar ones

17. What is a food aversion?

A nauseous feeling (CR) after sight or smell of a particular food  (CS), if food was once associated with an illness, like after an  instance of food poisoning.

18. What is operant conditioning?

Trial and error learning

19. What experiment did B.F. Skinner conduct? What did it  test?

Skinner basically put a rat in a box, and depending on what the  rat did, it received rewards (like food or water) or punishments  (electrical shocks or loud noises). Through this, the rat learned  

what to do and what not to do. This tested operant conditioning  and rewards and punishments.

20. What is reinforcement meant to do?

Strengthen a response by either adding or removing a stimulus 21. What is punishment meant to do?

It’s an aversive stimulus after a response that is meant to  decrease that response

22. Do positive and negative mean good and bad when it  comes to operant rewards and punishments? If not, what do they mean?

No, positive means adding and negative means taking away. 23. What is operant conditioning meant to produce as opposed to classical conditioning?

A new behavior as opposed to a reflex (natural response) 24. What is positive reinforcement?

A stimulus presented after the response, meant to increase the  likelihood of that response; a reward

25. What is negative reinforcement?

Removal of an aversive stimulus after a desired behavior 26. What is positive punishment?

Application of an aversive stimulus after an undesired behavior

27. What is negative punishment?

Removal of a desired stimulus meant to reduce undesired  behavior

28. What should happen for punishment to be most effective? It must fit the crime, and it must be immediate, certain, and  limited in duration and intensity

29. What is a schedule of reinforcement?

A schedule specifying the frequency and timing of  

reinforcements, rewards, and punishments

30. Compare and contrast continuous and intermittent  reinforcement. What is the best method for learning new  behaviors? What is the best method for maintaining already  learned behaviors?

Continuous reinforcement is when correct behaviors are always  reinforced (best for learning new behaviors). Intermittent  reinforcement is when correct behaviors are sometimes  reinforced (best for maintaining already learned behaviors).

31. Compare and contrast ratio vs. interval schedules.  A ratio schedule is reinforcement depending on the number of  correct responses. An interval schedule is reinforcement based  on a time period instead of correct responses.

32. Compare and contrast fixed ratio vs. variable ratio. A fixed ratio is when the number of correct responses stays the  same. A variable ratio is still based on the number of responses,  but the number of attempts to obtain the desired result varies.

33. Compare and contrast fixed interval vs. variable interval. Fixed interval reinforcement is given in a flexed time period.  Variable interval reinforcement is when the time between  rewards varies from trial to trial.

34. Compare and contrast a primary reinforcer vs. a secondary  reinforcer.

Primary reinforcers are rewards that have biological value to the  receiver, an innate advantage. Secondary reinforcers are  conditioned, neutral stimuli that have a learned association with  a primary reinforcer.

35. What type of learning is observational learning? Cognitive

36. What is observational learning?

Cognitive learning after observing others behave and watching  the consequences of their behaviors.

37. What is memory? What can it apply to?

System that encodes, stores, and retrieves information; can  apply to humans, animals, or computers

38. How is human memory different from that of a computer? Humans include an interpretive system that organizes  information into meaningful patterns.

39. What is encoding when it comes to memory? When one modifies information to fir the preferred format for the  memory system.

40. What is storage when it comes to memory? Retention of encoded material

41. What is retrieval when it comes to memory? Location of recovery of information

42. What is retrieval dependent on?

Content and state

43. What is another phrase for “eidetic memory?” What is an  eidetic memory? Is it more common children or adults? What  about the formally educated vs. non-formally educated? Is it the  same as “flashbulb” memory?

“Photographic memory;” a memory more vivid and accurate than most human memories; children; non-formally educated; no, it is  not

44. What are the two categories under sensory memory? Working and Long Term (LTM) memory

45. What is the duration and capacity of sensory memory? Duration: ¼ second

Capacity: 12-16 items

46. What are the biological bases in sensory memory? Sensory pathways

47. What does the working memory do?

Encodes information by meaning

48. What is the duration and capacity of working memory? Duration: 20-30 Sec

Capacity: 7±2 chunks

49. What parts of the brain are associated with working  memory?

The hippocampus and the frontal lobes

50. What is the structure of the working memory? Define the  function of each item.

a. Central Executive – Directs attention to information from  sensory memory or LTM

b. Phonological Loop – Stores sounds, mental “echo” c. Sketchpad – Store and manipulate visual/spatial  information

51. What are the limitations or the working memory? The duration isn’t very long and the capacity is limited 52. Compare and contrast maintenance rehearsal vs.  elaborative rehearsal.

Maintenance rehearsal keeps information fresh but effective to  transfer to the LTM. Elaborative rehearsal makes connections  with knowledge already stored and makes it meaningful. 53. What is function of LTM?

Storage of information

54. What is the duration and capacity of LTM?

Duration: Unlimited

Capacity: Unlimited

55. Where is the LTM mostly housed?

Cerebral cortex

56. What is the breakdown of the LTM?

The LTM is broken down into the procedural memory and the  declarative memory. The procedural memory is memory of how  things are done. The declarative memory stores facts and  events. The declarative memory is also broken down into two  parts: episodic and sematic memory. The episodic memory is  memory of surrounding details and the sematic memory is  studying traditionally.

57. What are two examples of failing memory? Explain them. a. Serial Position Effect – Remembering a certain number of  things said/seen

b. Misattribution – Remembering something that was never  said/seen

58. What is amnesia? What are the two kinds? Explain them. Amnesia is a loss of memory, not a result of a medical illness.  The two kinds are retrograde and anterograde. Retrograde it loss  of previous memories. Anterograde is the inability to form  memories for newly learned information.  

59. Compare and contrast explicit retrieval vs. implicit  retrieval.

Explicit retrieval is memory processed with attention and  consciously recalled. Implicit retrieval is not learned deliberately,  but affects behavior.

60. One way to improve memory is through mnemonics.  Describe three different kinds and define them.

a. Method of Loci – Associate words to remember with  landmarks

b. Natural Language Mediators – Associate words to  

remember with a common ground

c. Names – Form an association between personality/looks  and name

Chapter 6 – Thinking and Intelligence 

1. What is a concept?

Mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, or experiences 2. What are the two kinds of concepts? Define them.

a. Natural – Objects or events from personal experience b. Artificial – Defined by rules, definitions, or formulas 3. Do concept hierarchies go from most general to most specific or  most specific to most general?

Most general to most specific

4. What does imagery do?

Adds complexity and richness to thinking

5. What are cognitive maps?

Mental maps that represent reality

6. What is a schema?

Cluster of related concepts that make up a framework for  thinking about a specific concept

7. What are scripts?

Knowledge of actions expected to occur in a certain way in a  particular setting

8. What are the two steps in problem solving? Explain them. 1) Identifying the Problem – Consider ALL possibilities 2) Selecting a Strategy – Select the best strategy for the  problem at hand

9. What are two kinds of strategies in problem solving? Which one  always works? Which is not a guaranteed solution?  a. Algorithms – Always works

b. Heuristics – Not guaranteed

10. What are three ways that we use heuristics? a. Searching for Analogies – Comparison

b. Breaking and Big Problem Into Smaller Ones – Long-term  goals

c. Working Backward – Only effective when end goal is clearly specified

11. What are three obstacles in problem solving? Explain them. a. Mental Set – Respond to a new problem as you have a  problem in the past

b. Functional Fixedness – Inability to see a new use for an  object you are familiar with for another purpose

c. Self-Imposed Limitations – Limiting oneself to confines that  aren’t there

12. What is a confirmation bias?

Looks for things that confirm what you believe

13. What is a hindsight bias?

Overestimate ability to predict the future

14. What is an anchoring bias?

Decide based on an estimate of an unrelated quantity 15. What is a representativeness bias?

Stereotyping people

16. What is an availability bias?

Judge by how readily an example comes to mind

17. What is creativity?

The mental process that produces new responses that contribute to solving problems

18. What is aptitude?

Innate expertise or exceptional skill in a certain area 19. What does creativity require?

A well developed skill in a specific area

20. What is intelligence?

The mental capacity to acquire knowledge, think rationally, and  effectively problem solve

21. Is there a correlation between creativity and intelligence? No

22. What was the first intelligence test? Who was it developed  for? What did measure?

The Binet-Simon Intelligence test; French schoolchildren; mental  age vs. chronological age

23. Why did intelligence testing become big in America? Immigration, education requirement, and military recruitment 24. What were people with a lower IQ called? Was this fair?  Why or why not?

Idiots, imbeciles, morons; not fair; the testing was in a different  language so they couldn’t understand it well

25. Who adapted the Stanford-Binet test for Americans? Lewis Terman

26. How do you calculate IQ? What would the IQ be of  someone who’s mental age was 15 and chronological age was  30?

Mental Age

Chronological Age x 100; IQ = 50

27. What does WAIS stand for? What about WISC? Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale; Weschely Intelligence Scale for Children

28. Who developed the WAIS and WISC?

David Weschler

29. How is IQ scored today?

Along the bell curve

30. What is the IQ score of someone with an intellectual  disability? What are the deficits in? When do the limitations  occur?

70 or below; intellectual functioning and adaptive functioning;  developmental period (before 18)

31. What is the IQ score of someone who is gifted? Does  special treatment help these children?

130 and above; no

32. What is savant syndrome?

Exceptional skill in one area but may lack in others

33. Who came up with the term, “g factor?” What is a g factor? Charles Spearman; single, common innate factor that determines intelligence

34. Who came up with the Cognitive Theory? What two  categories can general intelligence be broken down into? Define  them. Are they equally important?

Raymond Cattell

a. Crystallized Intelligence – Knowledge a person has  acquired and ability to store and retrieve information

b. Fluid Intelligence – Ability to solve problems and see  complex relationships

Yes, equally important, but acquired in different ways 35. Who’s Triarchic Theory says that there are three  intelligences that work interdependently but that each person  possesses? List and define them.

Robert Sterberg

a. Practical Intelligence – “Street smarts;” the ability to cope  with the environment

b. Analytical Intelligence – Logical reasoning

c. Creative Intelligence – Development ideas and  

relationships

36. Who had the theory of multiple intelligences? What seven  abilities did he claim should be measured?

Howard Gardner

a. Linguistic

b. Logical

c. Spatial

d. Musical

e. Bodily

f. Interpersonal

g. Intrapersonal

37. What happens when you label somebody?

It may cause a limitation

38. What is self-fulfilling prophecy?

Behaviors and observations that are a result of expectations 39. What are three things that can effect IQ?

a. Heredity

b. Environment

c. Heritability

Chapter 11 – Social Psychology 

1. What is situationism?

The theory that then environment has as much effect on a  person’s actions as personality

2. What are social roles?

Unwritten rules of behavior in a given setting or group 3. What are social norms?

Group’s expectations regarding what is not appropriate 4. What is conformity?

Social pressure; the tendency for people to adopt behavior and  opinions of other group members

5. What happened in the study of the Asch Effect?

There were different length lines that the people had to say  which length matched a picture, and majority of people went  with the wrong answer because that’s what the group had gone  with.

6. What are three factors that influence conformity? a. Size of majority

b. Presence of a partner who disagrees with the majority c. Size of discrepancy between correct answer and majority’s  answer

7. If the task appears to be difficult or ambiguous, why is the  person more likely to conform?

They doubt their own thoughts

8. What is Groupthink?

Poor judgments and bad decisions made by members of groups  that are influences by perceived group consensus or the leader’s  point of view

9. What happened in Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study in 1963? There was a “teacher” who was instructed to teach the “learner.” Whenever the learner gave the wrong answer, the teacher would administer an electoral shock to the learner, and the voltage  would increase by a fixed amount each time. Many of the  teachers went all the way because of obedience to authority.

10. What are four reasons that someone was more likely to  obey?

a. When a peer modeled obedience

b. When the victim could not be seen

c. When the “teacher” was right next to the authority figure d. What the authority figure had a higher status title 11. What was the problem in the case of Kitty Genovese in  1964?

Diffusion of responsibility

12. In the Latane and Darley study, when were the students  more likely to call for help more quickly?

The less people in the conversation, the more likely. 13. What happened in Stanford Prison Experiment? Students were divided into two groups, guards and prisoners,  and were given uniforms. They had all been previously tested  and had no difference in violence, criminal history, or aggression. The guards began to show power and the equality was  immediately lost, due to title and uniform. The two-week study  was ended after just six days.

14. What happened in the Bennington College Study?

Women in the study from conservative families with strict values  regarding politics were put into classes with young, liberal  teachers. Most women transformed from conservative to liberal,  and 20 years later, were still that way.

15. What is attraction?

We tend to like those who provide us with rewards at minimum  cost

16. What are four things that influence attraction? a. Proximity

b. Familiarity/Similarity

c. Physical Attractiveness

d. Self-Disclosure

17. What does the Expectancy-Value Theory say? We tend to pursue a relationship or not based on weighing value  and expectation of success.

18. What is cognitive dissonance?

Motivating mental state when people voluntarily act in a way  that causes discomfort, even though it conflicts with their  attitudes when they undergo an unpleasant experience

19. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s study, who enjoyed the task  more? The $1 group, or the $20 group?

The $1 group

20. What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? Emphasize internal causes and ignore external pressure 21. What is the self-serving bias?

Take credit for success and deny responsibility for failure 22. What are the three components in Sternberg’s Triangular  Theory of Love?

a. Passion

b. Intimacy

c. Commitment

23. What are the four types in Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of  Love? What are the levels of the components in each one? a. Romantic – High passion and intimacy

b. Friendship – High intimacy and commitment

c. Infatuation – High passion and intimacy

d. Complete/Consummate Love – All high

24. What is prejudice?

Negative attitudes towards someone based solely on their  membership to a specific group

25. What are the five causes of prejudice?  

a. Dissimilarity and social distance

b. Economic competition

c. Scapegoating

d. Conformity to social norms

e. Media stereotypes

26. Define scapegoating.

An innocent person or small group gets blamed for a larger  problem

27. What happened in the Robber’s Cave Experiment? Groups of boys were randomly assigned to two groups: Eagles or  Rattlers. They played competitive games all day, where they  developed a dislike between groups. They were then worked on  to have them like each other again.  

28. What is Mutual Interdependence?

Groups had to rely on each other and work together toward a  common goal

29. What is terrorism? Who tends to commit it? Violent, unpredictable acts of a small group against a larger  group; those in poverty, less educated or censored, powerless, or insecure

30. What must be agreed upon prior to an experiment? Informed consent

31. What must happen in an experiment is any deception was  involved?

Debriefing

32. What are the five APA General Ethical Principles? Explain  them.

a. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence – Strive to take care of  and do no harm to patients

b. Fidelity and Responsibility – Upholding professional  standards

c. Integrity – Promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness d. Justice – Fairness to all

e. Respect – People’s rights, dignity, and worth

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