Professor Heather A. Raley
Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, and 11 Review Sheet
Lecture 1 (10/3/16) – Chapter 3 – Sensation and Perception ∙ Sensation – A representation in the brain of stimuli (or a stimulus)
o Sent to the brain from the receptor via nerve impulse o A sound, sight, odor, feeling, taste, or any combination ∙ Perception – Process that makes sensory patterns meaningful ∙ Transduction – Transforming one form of energy to another ∙ Creation of Sensory Experiences
o Proximal Senses – Direct contact senses
Vestibular (sense of balance)
Proprioception (where your body is in space)
o Distal Senses – No direct contact of stimuli with body Smell
o Absolute Threshold – The weakest stimulus that can be detected correctly at least half of the time
o Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference) – The minimal change in a stimulus that can be detected
accurately half of the time
∙ Signal Detection Theory – We detect “signals” or stimuli due to a judgment of our sensory system AND observer characteristics o Fluctuates in humans
∙ Sensory Adaptation – Loss of responsiveness in senses after prolonged exposure
o Gotten used to it
o However, any change in the stimulus will be detected o Main purpose of the sensory systems is to detect change ∙ Subliminal Messages If you want to learn more check out 18000 cycle
o Based on Freud’s work re” the unconscious mind
o Studies have found that subliminal words can “prime” a person’s responses later on
o Literally means “below the threshold,” but really is not below since is being detected at some level
o No scientific research to support that this is effective in advertising
∙ Visual Sensation
o Retina – Thin layer at the back of the eyeball that contains the photoreceptors
Rods – 125 million; dim light or night vision;
Cones – 7 million; sensitive to color vision
o Fovea – A concentration of cones; a tiny area of the retina that has the sharpest vision
o Optic Nerve – Group of nerves that carries visual information from the retina to the brain Don't forget about the age old question of Assuming an APR of 3%, calculate how much you should deposit monthly?
Blind Spot – Where the optic nerve exits the eye; no photoreceptors, so gap in visual field; any stimuli
here cannot be seen
∙ Visual Processing
o Brightness – Amplitude (intensity) of light reaching retina o Color (hue) – Wavelengths from the “visible light” portion of the “electromagnetic spectrum”
Trichromatic Theory – We sense red, green, and blue (aka Young Helmholz Theory)
Opponent Process Theory – We process colors in complimentary pairs If you want to learn more check out What is microfauna?
∙ Color Blindness
o Often a genetic disorder
o Inability to distinguish a color
o Most common is red-green color blindness
o Much more common in males (1/12)
∙ Sensation of Sound
o Tympanic Membrane – Eardrum
Sounds waves strike eardrum
Vibrate bones in outer ear, which pass vibrations to cochlea, primary organ of hearing
o Basilar Membrane – From cochlea
Vibrations sent to basilar membrane
o Transduction – Converts vibrations into neural activity, which transmit this info to the auditory cortex in the brain ∙ Auditory Processing
o Frequency – Number of cycles a wave completes in a given amount of time; measured in Hertz (Hz), CPS (Cycles per second)
Pitch – Psychological sensation of frequency We also discuss several other topics like biology study guide chapter 1
o Amplitude – Intensity of a wave; volume, loudness; measured in decibels (dB)
o Timbre – Psychological characteristic only; no physical aspect to it; complexity; pure rich, no measurement ∙ Olfaction
o Smell; nose hairs act as receptors for odors (chemical signals)
Pheromones – Light odor secreted by mammals
(signal danger, reproduction, etc.)
∙ Taste (Gustation) – Based on chemicals received from the stimulus also; proximal sense; taste receptors are on tongue and are called taste buds If you want to learn more check out lattc psychology
o Umami – Taste of MSG (Asian cuisine) We also discuss several other topics like psy 342 purdue
o Temperature, pain, type of contact
o Pain as a defense mechanism
o Placebo effect
∙ Perceptual Processing
o Feature Detectors – Cells in cortex that specifically detect differences in features in human faces; done unconsciously and automatically
o Bottom-Up Processing – Cues from the stimulus are combined and analyzed by brain (stimulus driven
o Top-Down Processing – Expectations and knowledge are involved in the perception; conceptually driven
∙ Visual Illusions
o Illusion – Incorrect perception of a stimulus
Your brain playing a trick on you
∙ Gestalt Theory
o “The whole is greater that the sum of its parts”
o Perception is shaped by innate factors
o Figure and ground
o Laws of Perceptual Grounding
Max Wertheimer (1923) – People group stimuli due to similarity, proximity, and continuity, common fate,
Law of Pragnanz – Simplicity; we perceive the
simplest pattern possible
∙ Depth Perception
o Monocular Cues – Information taken from one eye in order to perceive depth; relative size, light, and shadow,
interposition, haze or fog
o Binocular Cues – Information from both eyes; disparity looking at objects closer than farther away
o Around 6-7 mos. of age, a child begins to perceive depth and that it can be dangerous
∙ Environmental Influences
o Expectations – We see what we expect to see
o Perceptual Set – We are primed to notice specific sounds in certain contexts
o Extra sensory perception
o 65% of general population believe it is a “likely possibility” or a fact (only 35% of psychologists believe in it)
o Three Categories
Telepathy – Direct communication between one mind and another
Clairvoyance – Direct mental perception of a state of physical affairs
Precognition – Accurate prediction of the future
Lecture 2 (10/10/16) – Chapters 4 & 5 – Learning and Memory ∙ Learning – A lasting change in mental processes or behavior that results from exposure
∙ Habituation – Becoming used to stimuli; learning to not respond after repeated exposure
o Mere Exposure Effect – Learned preference for a stimuli to which we have been previously exposed
∙ Learning Theory
o Behavioral Learning
∙ Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – Russian medical
o Dog experiment (bell, feeding, salivation)
o Classical Conditioning – When an innate
reflex is produced by a once neutral
o Conditioned Stimulus (CS), unconditioned
stimulus (UCS), conditioned response
(CR), unconditioned response (UCR)
∙ Before Classical Conditioning
o Neutral Stimulus No response (bell no
o UCS UCR (Food salivation)
∙ During Classical Conditioning
o Neutral Stimulus (bell) UCS (food)
∙ After Classical Conditioning
o CS (bell) CR (salivation)
Acquisition, Extinction, and Recovery
∙ Acquisition – Initial learning stage
∙ Extinction – Withholding the UCS after the CS leads to elimination of the CR (sounding the
bell and not giving food, leading to no
salivation after hearing bell)
∙ Spontaneous Recovery – CR reappears at a
quicker rate, than when initially learned
Case of Little Albert
∙ 1920 – Unethical today
∙ Conditioned a baby boy – Albert – to be scared of a white lab rat
∙ Rat (Neutral Stimulus) Loud noise (UCS)
Albert cried (UCR)
∙ Then: Rat (CS) Albert crying (CR)
Generalization – Apply the CR to stimuli that are not exact to but represent the CS
Discrimination – Respond to a specific stimuli but not similar ones
Food Aversions – Nauseous feeling (CR) after sight or smell of a particular food (CS), if food was once associated with an illness
∙ After an experience of food poisoning
∙ Cancer patients and licorice flavored ice cream o Behavioral Learning
Operant Conditioning (trial and error learning)
∙ B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) – UPenn. Researcher ∙ The stimulus is AFTER the response ∙ Reinforcement vs. Punishment
o Reinforcement is meant to strengthen a response by either adding or removing a stimulus
o Punishment is an aversive stimulus after a response that is meant to decrease
∙ Meant to produce a new behavior, compared to classical conditioning, which is meant to elicit a reflex (natural response)
o Positive – A stimulus presented after the response, meant to increase the
likelihood of that response, reward
o Negative – Removal of an aversive stimulus after a desired behavior
o Positive – Application of an aversive stimulus after an undesired behavior
o Negative – Removal of a desired stimulus meant to reduce undesired behavior
o Punishment to be most effective should be immediate, certain, and limited in
duration and intensity
o Should fit the crime
∙ Skinner Box (Operant Chamber)
o Programmed to deliver rewards and punishments depending on the behavior of the rat
o Could receive food or water, or electrical shocks, or loud obnoxious noises
∙ Schedule of Reinforcement
o A schedule specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements (rewards,
o Continuous vs. Intermittent
Continuous – Correct behaviors are always reinforced (best method for
learning new behaviors)
Intermittent – Correct responses
are reinforced some of the time
o Ratio vs. Interval Schedules
Ratio Schedule – Reinforcement
depends on the number of correct
∙ Fixed Ratio – Number of
responses stays the same
∙ Variable Ratio – Still based on
a number of responses, but
the number of attempts to
obtain the desired result
Interval Schedule – Reinforcement
based on a time period instead of
∙ Fixed interval –
Reinforcement is given in a
fixed time period
∙ Variable Interval – Time
between reward varies from
trial to trial
∙ Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
o Primary – Rewards that have a biological
value to the receiver, an innate
advantage; food, drink, sex
o Secondary – Conditioned; neutral stimuli
that have a learned association with a
primary reinforce; money, token
o Observational Learning
A type of cognitive learning
Albert Bandura (1960s)
Cognitive (not behavioral) learning after observing others behave and watching the consequences of
Aggressiveness and media violence
∙ Memory – System that encodes, stores, and retrieves information; applies to a human, animal, or computer o Different from computers because we include an interpretive system that organizes information into meaningful patterns; cognitive system
o Information Processing
Encoding – Modify information to fir the preferred format for the memory system; rehearsal
Storage – Retention of encoded material; can store in different ways
Retrieval – Location of recovery of information; content and state dependent; incorrect retrievals o Eidetic Memory
A memory more vivid and accurate than most human memories
More common in children, and in those who have not gained as much formal education as others
Different from “flashbulb” memory of events o Forming Memories
∙ Working memory
∙ Long term memory (Atkinson and Shiffin Model, 1968)
∙ No encoding
∙ Duration = ¼ Second
∙ Capacity = 12-16 items
∙ Biological bases are the sensory pathways
o Different sensory register for each sense
∙ Encodes info by meaning
∙ 7±2 Chunks
∙ 20-30 Sec duration
∙ Hippocampus or frontal lobes
o Central Executive – Directs attention to
information from sensory memory or LTM
o Phonological Loop – Stores sounds,
o Sketchpad – Store and manipulate
o Duration (only 20-30 Sec)
Rehearsal – Maintenance vs.
∙ Maintenance – Keeps
information fresh but
effective to transfer to LTM
∙ Elaborative – Make
connection with knowledge
already stored, makes it
o Limited Capacity (7±2)
“Chunking” – Any meaningful unit
Long Term Memory
∙ Storage of information
∙ Unlimited capacity and duration
∙ Mostly housed in the cerebral cortex
o Procedural Memory – Memory of how
things are done
o Declarative Memory – Stores facts and events
Episodic Memory – Surrounding
Sematic Memory – Studying
o Failing Memory
Serial Position Effect (remembering a certain number
of words), Misattribution (remembering a word never
Amnesia (Loss of memory, not a result of a medical
∙ Retrograde – Loss of previous memories
∙ Anterograde – Inability to form memories for
newly learned information
o Retrieval of Memories
Explicit – Memory processed with attention and
conciously recalled; aware
Implicit – Not learned deliberately but affects
o Improving Memory
∙ Method of Loci – Associate words with
landmarks; items on a list associated with a
∙ Natural Language Mediators – Associate words
to remember with a common ground;
acronyms; “link method”
∙ Names – Form an association between
personality/looks and name
Lecture 3 (10/17/16) – Chapter 6 – Thinking and Intelligence ∙ Concept – Mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, or experiences
o Natural – Objects or events from personal experience Prototype
o Artificial – Defined by rules, definitions, or formulas o Concept Hierarchy – Most general to most specific breakdown
o Applied for all senses
o Adds complexity and richness to thinking
o Cognitive Maps – Mental maps that represent reality’ also effected by culture
∙ Schemas and Scripts
o Schema – Cluster of related concepts that make up a framework for thinking about a specific concept
Used in expectations, inferences, scripts, and many other ways
o Scripts – “Event schemas; “ knowledge of actions expected to occur in a certain way in a particular setting
∙ Problem Solving
1. Identifying the Problem – Consider ALL possibilities 2. Selecting a Strategy – Select the best strategy for the problem at hand
Algorithms – Always works; not helpful for abstract things
Heuristics – “Rules of thumb;” not guaranteed
∙ Searching for Analogies – Comparison
∙ Breaking a big problem into smaller ones –
Long-term goals (ex. HW)
∙ Working Backward
o Start from “finish” in a maze
o Only effective when end goal is clearly
o Three Obstacles
Mental Set – Respond to a new problem as you have a problem in the past
Functional Fixedness – Inability to see a new use for an object you are familiar with for another purpose
∙ Ex. The candle problem
Self-Imposed Limitations – Limiting oneself to
confines that aren’t there
∙ Ex. 9-dot Problem
∙ Judging and Biases
o Confirmation Bias – Overestimate ability to predict future Ex. Presidential Election
o Hindsight Bias – Overestimate ability to predict future Ex. Losing FB game (“I knew we’d lose”)
o Anchoring Bias – Decide based on an estimate of an unrelated quantity
Ex. Multiply 1x2x3x4x5 vs. 5x4x3x2x1
o Representativeness Bias
Availability Bias – Judge by how readily an example comes to mind
∙ Ex. Being on a jury
o Creativity – The mental process that produces new responses that contribute to solving problems
o Aptitude – Innate expertise or exceptional skill in a certain area; predictive potential (Ex. SAT)
o Creativity requires a well developed skill in a specific area o Intelligence – The mental capacity to acquire knowledge, think rationally (reason), and effectively problem solve
No correlation between creativity and intelligence Normally distributed trait (normal≠ equal)
∙ Intelligence Testing
o Binet-Simon (1904) – First intelligence test; developed for French school children
Measured mental age (MA) vs. Chronological Age (CA)
o Testing in America
Became big due to immigration, education
requirement, and military recruitment
Lower IQ: Morons, idiots, imbeciles unfair testing! Intelligence Quotient
∙ Lewis Terman – Adapted Stanford-Binet test for
o IQ – Term from William Stern (1914)
o IQ = Mental Age
Chronolgoical Age x 100
o Ex .MA=15
CA=30 x 100 = 50 IQ
∙ Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
o Developed by David Weschler
o Most widely used intelligence test in the
o Individual test
o WISC – Weschler Intelligence Scale for
∙ Bell-shaped curve
∙ Now how IQ scored, along the bell curve, NOT by calculating MA/CA
o The Extremes
Intellectual Disability (previously, mental retardation) ∙ Deficits in intellectual functioning (IQ of 70 and below)
∙ Deficits in adaptive functioning
(communication, social skills, independence,
∙ Limitations occur during developmental period (usually before age 18)
∙ IQ of 130 or above
∙ If discover this about a child, enrolling in
special classes or any special treatment will
NOT help enhance abilities, though it will not
hurt child either
Savant Syndrome – Exceptional skill in one area but may lack in others
Psychometric Theory (mental measurements) – general term components
Charles Spearman (19020’s)
∙ “g factor” – General Intelligence Factor
o Single, common, innate factor that
Raymond Cattell (1963) – Cognitive Theory
∙ General Intelligence (g) can be broken down into two components
o Crystallized Intelligence – Knowledge a
person has acquired and ability to store
and retrieve information (sematic
o Fluid Intelligence – Ability to solve
problems and see complex relationships
o Both equally important but acquired in
Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
∙ Three intelligences that work independently
gut that each person possesses
o Practical Intelligence – “Street smarts;”
ability to cope with the environment
o Analytical Intelligence – Logical
reasoning; measured by most IQ tests
o Creative Intelligence – Development
ideas and relationships
Howard Gardner – Theory of Multiple Intelligences
∙ Believed that traditional IQ tests only
measured a small range of human abilities and
that seven should be measured
2. Logical – mathematical
5. Bodily – Kinesthetic
∙ Numbers 6 and 7 make up emotional
∙ Labels and Expectations
o When label self or others “a C student,” “smart,” or “shy,” you may limit yourself or that person
o Influence on performance
o Self-fulfilling prophecy – Behaviors and observations that are a result of expectations
∙ Differences in IQ
o Social class and IQ are positively correlated
o No good evidence that racial groups have different IQs Lecture 4 (10/24/16) – Chapter 11 – Social Psychology
∙ Situationism – The theory that then environment has as much effect on a person’s actions as personality
∙ Social Roles – Unwritten rules of behavior in a given setting or group
∙ Social Norms – Group’s expectations regarding what is not appropriate
∙ Conformity – Social pressure; tendency for people to adopt behavior of other group members
o Asch Effect (1950s) – Study of the different length lines ~67% of people conformed (AKA, most people (2/3) conformed at least once)
o Three factors that influence conformity
1. Size of the majority
2. Presence of a partner who disagrees with the
3. Size of discrepancy between correct answer and majority’s answer
4. If the task appears to be difficult or ambiguous, they are more likely to conform because they doubt their own thoughts
o Poor judgments and bad decisions made by members of groups that are influenced by perceived group consensus or the leader’s point of view
∙ Obedience to Authority
o When authority figures command the obedience of large groups
o Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study 1963
Yale college students in experiment, then tested general public
“Teacher” to give electrical shocks to “learner” for each wrong answer, and increase the voltage by a
fixed amount each time
How far would the “teachers” go??
“Learner” has different sounds and words they would say at each level
More likely to obey
∙ When a peer modeled obedience
∙ When the victim could not be seen
∙ When the “teacher” was right next to the
∙ When the authority figure had a higher status
title, “Professor” or “Dr.” vs. “Mr.”
∙ Bystander Inaction Problem
o Case of Kitty Genovese, NYC, 1964
Diffusion of responsibility
o Latane and Darley Study – college student suffering from a “seizure”
The more people, the less likely they were to help o Theft study on the beach
o Smoke in a room study – Much more likely to report smoke filling a room when alone than when in a group, and this is proportional to the size of the group
∙ Stanford Prison Experiment
o Students divided into two groups, guards and inmates, randomly, and given uniforms
o All tested previously and had no difference in violence, criminal history, or aggression
o Guards began showing power
o Immediately lost equality, due to a title and a uniform o The two-week study needed to be ended after six days o Debriefed
∙ Bennington College Study
o Vermont’s Bennington College – 1930s
o Women in study from conservative families with strict values regarding politics
o Faculty: Young, liberal
o Most women transformed from conservative to liberal o 20 years later, those that switched to liberal were still liberal
o We tend to like those who provide us with rewards at minimum cost
∙ Matching Theory
o Influence on self-esteem
Expectancy-Value Theory – We decide to pursue a relationship or not based on weighing value and
expectation or success
Low Self-Esteem vs. Those on a high pedestal
∙ Cognitive Dissonance
o Way of self-justification
o Motivating mental state when people voluntarily act in a way that causes discomfort; conflicts with their attitudes when the undergo an unpleasant experience
o Festinger and Carlsmith’s Study – 1959 Blocks in the tray, getting rewards ($1 or $20)
$1 group actually enjoyed the task more than the $20 group
∙ Cognitive Attributions
o Internal (dispositional) vs. External (situational) attribution o Biases/Errors
Fundamental Attribution Error – Emphasize internal causes and ignore external pressure
Self-Serving Bias – Take credit for success and deny responsibility for failure
∙ Love and Romance
o Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love
∙ Passion (erotic attraction)
∙ Intimacy (sharing feelings and confidences)
∙ Commitment (dedication to put relationship
∙ Romantic – High passion and intimacy
∙ Friendship – High intimacy and commitment
∙ Infatuation – High passion and commitment
∙ Complete/Consummate Love – All high
o Negative attitudes toward someone based solely on their membership to a specific group
o 5 Causes
Dissimilarity and Social Distance – Someone unlike you
Economic Competition – Populations competing for same resource
Scapegoating – An innocent person or small group gets blamed for a larger problem
Conformity to Social Norms – Discrimination
∙ Aggression and Violence
o Robber’s Cave Experiment
Randomly assigned 11-12 year old boys to groups, Eagles and Rattlers
Played competitive games all day, led to dislike
Now work to have them grow to like each other again
Mutual Interdependence – Groups had to rely on each other and work together toward a common goal;
o Violent, unpredictable acts of a small group against a larger group
o International (9-11) and intranational (VT Massacre) o Those in poverty, less educated or censored, powerless, or insecure are more likely to follow such drastic orders
∙ Ethical Issues
o Do the risks outweigh the benefits??
o Informed consent must be agree upon prior to experiment o Debriefing must be done if any deception took place o APA General Ethical Principles
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence – Strive to take
care of and do no harm to patients
Fidelity and Responsibility – Upholding professional standards
Integrity – Promote accuracy, honesty, and
Justice – Fairness to all
Respect – People’s rights, dignity, and worth
Chapter 3 – Sensation and Perception
1. What is a sensation?
A representation in the brain of stimuli (or a stimulus) 2. What is a perception?
Process that makes sensory patterns meaningful
3. What is transduction?
Transforming one form of energy to another
4. What are the steps of the creation of sensory experiences? Stimulation, transduction, sensation, perception
5. How is a sensation sent to the brain?
Via a nerve impulse
6. What are proximal senses? Give a few examples of them. Direct contact senses; taste, vestibular, proprioception 7. What are distal senses? Give a few examples of them. Senses that have no direct contact with the body; smell, audition, vision
8. What is an absolute threshold?
The weakest stimulus that can be detected correctly at least half the time
9. What is a difference threshold?
The minimal change in a stimulus that can be detected accurately half of the time
10. What does the Signal Detection Theory say? We detect “signals” or stimuli due to a judgment of our sensory system and observer characteristics
11. What is sensory adaptation?
Loss of responsiveness in senses after prolonged exposure 12. What is the main purpose of the sensory system? Detect change
13. What does subliminal mean? Does it actually do what it means?
Below the threshold; it is not really below the threshold since it is being affected on some level
14. What is the retina?
Thin layer at the back of the eyeball that contains the photoreceptors
15. What are rods? How many of them are there? Aid in dim light or night vision as well as peripheral vision; 125 million
16. What are cones? How many of them are there? Sensitive to color vision; 7 million
17. What is the fovea?
A concentration of cones – a tiny area of the retina that has the sharpest vision
18. What is the optic nerve? What is contained in it and what does it do?
Group of nerves that carries visual information from the retina to the brain; the blind spot is contained in it, which is where the optic nerve meets the eye and there are no photoreceptors, so there is a gap in the visual field
19. What is brightness?
Amplitude (intensity) of light reaching the retina
20. What is color (hue)?
Wavelengths from the “visible light” portion of the
21. What is the trichromatic theory? What is it also known as? We sense red, green, and blue; also known as the Young Helmholz Theory
22. What is the opponent process theory?
We process colors in complimentary pairs
23. What is color blindness? Is it inherited or non-inherited? What is the most common type? Is it found more commonly in men or in women?
Inability to see color; inherited; red-green color blindness; men 24. What is the tympanic membrane? What is it also known as? The eardrum
25. How does the tympanic membrane play a part in hearing? Sound waves strike it and vibrate bones in the outer ear towards the cochlea, which is the main organ of hearing
26. How does the basilar membrane play a part in hearing? Vibration are sent to it from the cochlea
27. What is transduction when it comes to audition? Converting vibrations into neural activity, and transmitting this information to the auditory cortex in the brain
28. What is frequency? What is it measured in? Number of cycles a wave completes in a given amount of time; Hertz (Hz) of Cycles per second (CPS)
29. What is pitch?
Psychological sensation of frequency
30. What is amplitude? What is it measured in? Intensity of a wave, volume, loudness; decibels (dB) 31. What is timbre?
Psychological characteristic only; no physical aspect; complexity of a sound
32. What are pheromones?
Light odors secreted by mammals to signal something 33. What is taste based on? What are taste receptors called? Chemicals received from the stimulus; taste buds
34. What is umami?
Taste of MSG
35. What are feature detectors? Are they conscious or unconscious?
Cells in cortex that specifically detect differences in features in human faces; unconscious and automatic
36. What is bottom-up processing?
Cues from the stimulus are combined and analyzed by the brain 37. What is top-down processing?
Expectations and knowledge are involved in the perception 38. What is an illusion?
Incorrect perception of a stimulus
39. What does the Gestalt theory say? What is does it claim perception is shaped by? What laws came of it?
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts;” innate factors; laws of perceptual grouping
40. What did Max Wertheimer claim about people? They tend to group stimuli due to similarity, proximity, and continuity, common fate, and Pragnanz
41. What does the law of Pragnanz say?
We perceive the simplest pattern possible
42. What are monocular cues?
Information taken from one eye in order to perceive depth 43. What are binocular cues?
Information from both eyes
44. Around how old does a child begin to perceive depth? 6-7 mos.
45. What is a perceptual set?
We are primed to notice specific sounds in certain contexts 46. What does ESP stand for? What percentage of people believes it’s a possibility? What percentage of psychologists believes it?
Extrasensory perception; 65%; 35%
47. What are the three categories of ESP? Define them. a. Telepathy – Direct communication between one mind and another
b. Clairvoyance – Direct mental perception of a state of psychical affairs
c. Precognition – Accurate prediction of the future
Chapters 4 & 5 – Learning and Memory
1. What is learning?
A lasting change in mental processes or behavior that results from experience
2. What is habituation?
Becoming used to a stimuli; learning to not respond after repeated exposure
3. What is the Mere Exposure Effect?
Learned preference for a stimulus to which we have been previously exposed
4. What are the two types of learning referenced in the Learning Theory?
Behavioral Learning and Observational Learning
5. What was Ivan Pavlov’s experiment?
Dog experiment; ringing the bell, feeding, salivation
6. Where was Pavlov from?
7. What is classical conditioning?
When an innate reflex is produced by a once neutral stimulus 8. What happens before classical conditioning?
The neutral stimulus is used, and there is no response. The UCS is used and produces the UCR.
9. What happens during classical conditioning?
The neutral stimulus is used and then the UCS is given, producing the UCR.
10. What happens after classical conditioning?
The CS is given and the CR is produced.
11. What is acquisition in classical conditioning? The initial learning stage
12. What is extinction in classical conditioning
Withholding the UCS after the CS leads to the elimination of the CR
13. What is spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning? CR reappears at a quicker rate that when initially learned 14. What happened in the Case of Little Albert in 1920? The researchers conditioned Albert (a baby boy) to be afraid of a white lab rat. The rat (NS) was shown, and then a loud noise was made (UCS). Albert cried because of the loud noise (UCR). Then, when shown the white rat (CS), Albert cried (CR).
15. What is generalization in classical conditioning Applying the CR to stimuli that are not exact to but represent the CS
16. What is discrimination in classical conditioning? Responding to specific stimuli but not similar ones
17. What is a food aversion?
A nauseous feeling (CR) after sight or smell of a particular food (CS), if food was once associated with an illness, like after an instance of food poisoning.
18. What is operant conditioning?
Trial and error learning
19. What experiment did B.F. Skinner conduct? What did it test?
Skinner basically put a rat in a box, and depending on what the rat did, it received rewards (like food or water) or punishments (electrical shocks or loud noises). Through this, the rat learned
what to do and what not to do. This tested operant conditioning and rewards and punishments.
20. What is reinforcement meant to do?
Strengthen a response by either adding or removing a stimulus 21. What is punishment meant to do?
It’s an aversive stimulus after a response that is meant to decrease that response
22. Do positive and negative mean good and bad when it comes to operant rewards and punishments? If not, what do they mean?
No, positive means adding and negative means taking away. 23. What is operant conditioning meant to produce as opposed to classical conditioning?
A new behavior as opposed to a reflex (natural response) 24. What is positive reinforcement?
A stimulus presented after the response, meant to increase the likelihood of that response; a reward
25. What is negative reinforcement?
Removal of an aversive stimulus after a desired behavior 26. What is positive punishment?
Application of an aversive stimulus after an undesired behavior
27. What is negative punishment?
Removal of a desired stimulus meant to reduce undesired behavior
28. What should happen for punishment to be most effective? It must fit the crime, and it must be immediate, certain, and limited in duration and intensity
29. What is a schedule of reinforcement?
A schedule specifying the frequency and timing of
reinforcements, rewards, and punishments
30. Compare and contrast continuous and intermittent reinforcement. What is the best method for learning new behaviors? What is the best method for maintaining already learned behaviors?
Continuous reinforcement is when correct behaviors are always reinforced (best for learning new behaviors). Intermittent reinforcement is when correct behaviors are sometimes reinforced (best for maintaining already learned behaviors).
31. Compare and contrast ratio vs. interval schedules. A ratio schedule is reinforcement depending on the number of correct responses. An interval schedule is reinforcement based on a time period instead of correct responses.
32. Compare and contrast fixed ratio vs. variable ratio. A fixed ratio is when the number of correct responses stays the same. A variable ratio is still based on the number of responses, but the number of attempts to obtain the desired result varies.
33. Compare and contrast fixed interval vs. variable interval. Fixed interval reinforcement is given in a flexed time period. Variable interval reinforcement is when the time between rewards varies from trial to trial.
34. Compare and contrast a primary reinforcer vs. a secondary reinforcer.
Primary reinforcers are rewards that have biological value to the receiver, an innate advantage. Secondary reinforcers are conditioned, neutral stimuli that have a learned association with a primary reinforcer.
35. What type of learning is observational learning? Cognitive
36. What is observational learning?
Cognitive learning after observing others behave and watching the consequences of their behaviors.
37. What is memory? What can it apply to?
System that encodes, stores, and retrieves information; can apply to humans, animals, or computers
38. How is human memory different from that of a computer? Humans include an interpretive system that organizes information into meaningful patterns.
39. What is encoding when it comes to memory? When one modifies information to fir the preferred format for the memory system.
40. What is storage when it comes to memory? Retention of encoded material
41. What is retrieval when it comes to memory? Location of recovery of information
42. What is retrieval dependent on?
Content and state
43. What is another phrase for “eidetic memory?” What is an eidetic memory? Is it more common children or adults? What about the formally educated vs. non-formally educated? Is it the same as “flashbulb” memory?
“Photographic memory;” a memory more vivid and accurate than most human memories; children; non-formally educated; no, it is not
44. What are the two categories under sensory memory? Working and Long Term (LTM) memory
45. What is the duration and capacity of sensory memory? Duration: ¼ second
Capacity: 12-16 items
46. What are the biological bases in sensory memory? Sensory pathways
47. What does the working memory do?
Encodes information by meaning
48. What is the duration and capacity of working memory? Duration: 20-30 Sec
Capacity: 7±2 chunks
49. What parts of the brain are associated with working memory?
The hippocampus and the frontal lobes
50. What is the structure of the working memory? Define the function of each item.
a. Central Executive – Directs attention to information from sensory memory or LTM
b. Phonological Loop – Stores sounds, mental “echo” c. Sketchpad – Store and manipulate visual/spatial information
51. What are the limitations or the working memory? The duration isn’t very long and the capacity is limited 52. Compare and contrast maintenance rehearsal vs. elaborative rehearsal.
Maintenance rehearsal keeps information fresh but effective to transfer to the LTM. Elaborative rehearsal makes connections with knowledge already stored and makes it meaningful. 53. What is function of LTM?
Storage of information
54. What is the duration and capacity of LTM?
55. Where is the LTM mostly housed?
56. What is the breakdown of the LTM?
The LTM is broken down into the procedural memory and the declarative memory. The procedural memory is memory of how things are done. The declarative memory stores facts and events. The declarative memory is also broken down into two parts: episodic and sematic memory. The episodic memory is memory of surrounding details and the sematic memory is studying traditionally.
57. What are two examples of failing memory? Explain them. a. Serial Position Effect – Remembering a certain number of things said/seen
b. Misattribution – Remembering something that was never said/seen
58. What is amnesia? What are the two kinds? Explain them. Amnesia is a loss of memory, not a result of a medical illness. The two kinds are retrograde and anterograde. Retrograde it loss of previous memories. Anterograde is the inability to form memories for newly learned information.
59. Compare and contrast explicit retrieval vs. implicit retrieval.
Explicit retrieval is memory processed with attention and consciously recalled. Implicit retrieval is not learned deliberately, but affects behavior.
60. One way to improve memory is through mnemonics. Describe three different kinds and define them.
a. Method of Loci – Associate words to remember with landmarks
b. Natural Language Mediators – Associate words to
remember with a common ground
c. Names – Form an association between personality/looks and name
Chapter 6 – Thinking and Intelligence
1. What is a concept?
Mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, or experiences 2. What are the two kinds of concepts? Define them.
a. Natural – Objects or events from personal experience b. Artificial – Defined by rules, definitions, or formulas 3. Do concept hierarchies go from most general to most specific or most specific to most general?
Most general to most specific
4. What does imagery do?
Adds complexity and richness to thinking
5. What are cognitive maps?
Mental maps that represent reality
6. What is a schema?
Cluster of related concepts that make up a framework for thinking about a specific concept
7. What are scripts?
Knowledge of actions expected to occur in a certain way in a particular setting
8. What are the two steps in problem solving? Explain them. 1) Identifying the Problem – Consider ALL possibilities 2) Selecting a Strategy – Select the best strategy for the problem at hand
9. What are two kinds of strategies in problem solving? Which one always works? Which is not a guaranteed solution? a. Algorithms – Always works
b. Heuristics – Not guaranteed
10. What are three ways that we use heuristics? a. Searching for Analogies – Comparison
b. Breaking and Big Problem Into Smaller Ones – Long-term goals
c. Working Backward – Only effective when end goal is clearly specified
11. What are three obstacles in problem solving? Explain them. a. Mental Set – Respond to a new problem as you have a problem in the past
b. Functional Fixedness – Inability to see a new use for an object you are familiar with for another purpose
c. Self-Imposed Limitations – Limiting oneself to confines that aren’t there
12. What is a confirmation bias?
Looks for things that confirm what you believe
13. What is a hindsight bias?
Overestimate ability to predict the future
14. What is an anchoring bias?
Decide based on an estimate of an unrelated quantity 15. What is a representativeness bias?
16. What is an availability bias?
Judge by how readily an example comes to mind
17. What is creativity?
The mental process that produces new responses that contribute to solving problems
18. What is aptitude?
Innate expertise or exceptional skill in a certain area 19. What does creativity require?
A well developed skill in a specific area
20. What is intelligence?
The mental capacity to acquire knowledge, think rationally, and effectively problem solve
21. Is there a correlation between creativity and intelligence? No
22. What was the first intelligence test? Who was it developed for? What did measure?
The Binet-Simon Intelligence test; French schoolchildren; mental age vs. chronological age
23. Why did intelligence testing become big in America? Immigration, education requirement, and military recruitment 24. What were people with a lower IQ called? Was this fair? Why or why not?
Idiots, imbeciles, morons; not fair; the testing was in a different language so they couldn’t understand it well
25. Who adapted the Stanford-Binet test for Americans? Lewis Terman
26. How do you calculate IQ? What would the IQ be of someone who’s mental age was 15 and chronological age was 30?
Chronological Age x 100; IQ = 50
27. What does WAIS stand for? What about WISC? Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale; Weschely Intelligence Scale for Children
28. Who developed the WAIS and WISC?
29. How is IQ scored today?
Along the bell curve
30. What is the IQ score of someone with an intellectual disability? What are the deficits in? When do the limitations occur?
70 or below; intellectual functioning and adaptive functioning; developmental period (before 18)
31. What is the IQ score of someone who is gifted? Does special treatment help these children?
130 and above; no
32. What is savant syndrome?
Exceptional skill in one area but may lack in others
33. Who came up with the term, “g factor?” What is a g factor? Charles Spearman; single, common innate factor that determines intelligence
34. Who came up with the Cognitive Theory? What two categories can general intelligence be broken down into? Define them. Are they equally important?
a. Crystallized Intelligence – Knowledge a person has acquired and ability to store and retrieve information
b. Fluid Intelligence – Ability to solve problems and see complex relationships
Yes, equally important, but acquired in different ways 35. Who’s Triarchic Theory says that there are three intelligences that work interdependently but that each person possesses? List and define them.
a. Practical Intelligence – “Street smarts;” the ability to cope with the environment
b. Analytical Intelligence – Logical reasoning
c. Creative Intelligence – Development ideas and
36. Who had the theory of multiple intelligences? What seven abilities did he claim should be measured?
37. What happens when you label somebody?
It may cause a limitation
38. What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
Behaviors and observations that are a result of expectations 39. What are three things that can effect IQ?
Chapter 11 – Social Psychology
1. What is situationism?
The theory that then environment has as much effect on a person’s actions as personality
2. What are social roles?
Unwritten rules of behavior in a given setting or group 3. What are social norms?
Group’s expectations regarding what is not appropriate 4. What is conformity?
Social pressure; the tendency for people to adopt behavior and opinions of other group members
5. What happened in the study of the Asch Effect?
There were different length lines that the people had to say which length matched a picture, and majority of people went with the wrong answer because that’s what the group had gone with.
6. What are three factors that influence conformity? a. Size of majority
b. Presence of a partner who disagrees with the majority c. Size of discrepancy between correct answer and majority’s answer
7. If the task appears to be difficult or ambiguous, why is the person more likely to conform?
They doubt their own thoughts
8. What is Groupthink?
Poor judgments and bad decisions made by members of groups that are influences by perceived group consensus or the leader’s point of view
9. What happened in Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study in 1963? There was a “teacher” who was instructed to teach the “learner.” Whenever the learner gave the wrong answer, the teacher would administer an electoral shock to the learner, and the voltage would increase by a fixed amount each time. Many of the teachers went all the way because of obedience to authority.
10. What are four reasons that someone was more likely to obey?
a. When a peer modeled obedience
b. When the victim could not be seen
c. When the “teacher” was right next to the authority figure d. What the authority figure had a higher status title 11. What was the problem in the case of Kitty Genovese in 1964?
Diffusion of responsibility
12. In the Latane and Darley study, when were the students more likely to call for help more quickly?
The less people in the conversation, the more likely. 13. What happened in Stanford Prison Experiment? Students were divided into two groups, guards and prisoners, and were given uniforms. They had all been previously tested and had no difference in violence, criminal history, or aggression. The guards began to show power and the equality was immediately lost, due to title and uniform. The two-week study was ended after just six days.
14. What happened in the Bennington College Study?
Women in the study from conservative families with strict values regarding politics were put into classes with young, liberal teachers. Most women transformed from conservative to liberal, and 20 years later, were still that way.
15. What is attraction?
We tend to like those who provide us with rewards at minimum cost
16. What are four things that influence attraction? a. Proximity
c. Physical Attractiveness
17. What does the Expectancy-Value Theory say? We tend to pursue a relationship or not based on weighing value and expectation of success.
18. What is cognitive dissonance?
Motivating mental state when people voluntarily act in a way that causes discomfort, even though it conflicts with their attitudes when they undergo an unpleasant experience
19. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s study, who enjoyed the task more? The $1 group, or the $20 group?
The $1 group
20. What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? Emphasize internal causes and ignore external pressure 21. What is the self-serving bias?
Take credit for success and deny responsibility for failure 22. What are the three components in Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love?
23. What are the four types in Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love? What are the levels of the components in each one? a. Romantic – High passion and intimacy
b. Friendship – High intimacy and commitment
c. Infatuation – High passion and intimacy
d. Complete/Consummate Love – All high
24. What is prejudice?
Negative attitudes towards someone based solely on their membership to a specific group
25. What are the five causes of prejudice?
a. Dissimilarity and social distance
b. Economic competition
d. Conformity to social norms
e. Media stereotypes
26. Define scapegoating.
An innocent person or small group gets blamed for a larger problem
27. What happened in the Robber’s Cave Experiment? Groups of boys were randomly assigned to two groups: Eagles or Rattlers. They played competitive games all day, where they developed a dislike between groups. They were then worked on to have them like each other again.
28. What is Mutual Interdependence?
Groups had to rely on each other and work together toward a common goal
29. What is terrorism? Who tends to commit it? Violent, unpredictable acts of a small group against a larger group; those in poverty, less educated or censored, powerless, or insecure
30. What must be agreed upon prior to an experiment? Informed consent
31. What must happen in an experiment is any deception was involved?
32. What are the five APA General Ethical Principles? Explain them.
a. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence – Strive to take care of and do no harm to patients
b. Fidelity and Responsibility – Upholding professional standards
c. Integrity – Promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness d. Justice – Fairness to all
e. Respect – People’s rights, dignity, and worth