Unit 3 Study Guide Ch. 7, 8, & 9
End of Chapter 7 – Questions
1. What is photosynthesis?
2. Does photosynthesis occur in autotrophs or heterotrophs? 3. Where in the cell does photosynthesis happen?
4. What are the 3 key locations in which photosynthesis occurs? 5. Where is the light energy harvested and converted into energy intermediates?
6. What are the products of light reactions?
7. What is light?
8. True or False, energy carried by photons can be transferred to electrons.
9. Can chlorophyll absorb light energy?
10. What are the 2 parts of Photosystem II?
11. True or False, electrons never lose energy when being passed around.
12. Describe Photosystem I.
13. Name what is happening in this picture.
14. What are the 3 phases of the Calvin cycle/ dark reactions? 15. Describe the 3 phases.
End of Chapter 7 – Answers
1. The process by which the energy within light is captured and used to synthesize carbohydrates.
2. Autotrophs, organisms that make organic molecules from inorganic sources.
3. In the chloroplast.
4. Stroma, thylakoid membrane, and thylakoid lumen.
5. In the thylakoid membrane.
6. O2, energy intermediates: ATP & NADPH
7. Electromagnetic radiation carrying from the Sun. If you want to learn more check out How do costs change as volume changes?
8. True, photons bump into electron and transfers the energy.
9. Yes, it has electrons that can be photo-excited.
10. The light harvesting complex and the reaction center 11. False, electrons DO lose energy every time that they are passed around.
12. Electrons work their way to photosystem I from cytochrome complex, another photon joins chlorophyll, and eventually the electron gets photo-excited.
13. NADP reductase.
14. Carbon fixation, reduction and carbohydrate production, regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate
15. Carbon fixation: CO2 is added to ribulose bisphosphate and the 6 carbon molecule is then split into two 3 carbon molecules. Reduction and carbohydrate production: add electrons and NADPH & ATP as reactants, generates carbohydrate intermediates.
Regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate: convert the 3 carbon intermediate back into ribulose bisphosphate.
Chapter 9 – Questions
1. Define cell communication and explain what it does.
2. What are signals and give examples?
3. What are receptors? We also discuss several other topics like What is dividend and how is it calculated?
4. What are the 4 types of cell-to-cell communication?
5. Describe each type of cell-to-cell communication.
6. Describe the 3 steps to the process of responding to signals? 7. What is a ligand?
8. True or False, many ligands are hydrophilic so they bind to integral membrane receptors.
9. Describe the 4 types of cell surface receptors?
10. What is the role of second messengers?
11. What are some of the specific differences in signal transduction via cyclic adenosine monophosphate?
12. True or False, the effects of the ligand are independent of the receptor and the proteins inside the cell.
Chapter 9 – Answers
1. The process by which cells can detect and respond to certain signals in the extracellular environment. Within multicellular organisms it helps coordinate organism-wide processes.
2. Anything that can influence the properties of cells. Light, touch, temperature, or chemicals.
3. Specialized cellular proteins that respond to signals with a conformational change. If you want to learn more check out What is the function of late gene regulation?
4. Contact-dependent signaling, autocrine signaling, paracrine signaling, and endocrine signaling.
5. Contact-dependent: the signaling molecule is presented on the surface of the signaling cell and target cell.
Autocrine: signaling molecule is excreted from the signaling cell and binds to the receptors on the target cell.
Paracrine: signaling molecule is secreted by signaling cell and binds to receptors on neighboring (close by) cell but does not affect the target cell
Endocrine: signaling cell is far away from the target cell and uses some sort of transporting system to move the signals around
6. Receptor activation: signal binds to receptor and promotes a conformational change.
Signal transduction: conformational change leads to a series of changes for the proteins living inside the cell.
Cellular response: alters the functions and amount of cellular proteins. 7. A chemical signaling molecule.
8. True, they cannot cross the membrane without assistance. 9. Enzyme-linked: extracellular binding, activated catalytic component G-protein system: extracellular binding, conformational change causes G-protein activation
Ligand-gated ion channel: extracellular binding of ligand to receptor, conformational change opens ion channel We also discuss several other topics like What is a self-concept that is based on group membership and emotional attachments associated with that membership?
Cytosolic receptors: ligands themselves pass directly through the plasma membrane via passive diffusion, binds to receptors in cytoplasm, generates intracellular effects
10. They are small molecules/ ions that relay signals to the cell in response to the ligand binding and they help to facilitate cellular response.
11. After the ligand binds to the receptor, causing the conformational change, this causes the activation of G-protein complex, which forces the alpha subunit and Beta Gama subunits to separate. This activates alpha subunit alpha-GTP which activates adenylyl cyclase: ATP cAMP. Then cAMP levels activate protein kinase A.
12. False, the effects depend on them.
Chapter 11 – Questions
1. What is the difference between structure and a function? 2. Name 4 things that genetic material does for the cell. 3. Roughly describe the Griffith experiment and what he found. 4. What is the process by which cells incorporates environmental genetic
material and then uses that material, that was seen in the Griffith experiment?
5. True or False, structure determines function.
6. What are the functions of DNA? Don't forget about the age old question of The genetic material must exhibit what?
7. What are the 5 different complexity levels of DNA? Describe them. 8. What are the 2 nitrogenous bases that make up DNA?
9. Match up the following purines and pyrimidines together. A (adenine), G (guanine), C (cytosine), & T (thymine).
10. True or False, DNA have the same nitrogenous bases as RNA. 11. Explain directionality and what it has to do with DNA. 12. What was x-ray diffraction used for in Watson and Crick’s study? 13. If 15% of your DNA was made up by T bases, what would be the percentage of C bases?
Chapter 11 – Answers
1. The structure of something is what it looks like and the function is what is and how it does its job.
2. It is a source of information, transmits that information, helps with the replication of cells, and is the variation for genes. If you want to learn more check out Why is the bonding molecular orbital of h2 at lower energy than the electron in a hydrogen atom?
3. It was the experimentation on mice using smooth and rough bacteria. He injected mice with either smooth or rough bacteria which he then found that smooth bacteria caused death and rough did not. Then with another group of mice he injected them with heat-killed smooth bacteria and they lived. He then took one more group of mice and injected them with both heat-killed smooth bacteria and rough bacteria and they died. He found that even though the smooth bacteria were dead, the rough bacteria still used the information from the dead smooth bacteria with caused it to still be deadly.
4. Transformation, when the rough bacteria used the smooth bacteria’s information even though it was dead.
5. True, knowing what something looks like helps us understand how it does its job.
6. To store information and replication.
7. Nucleotides: monomers are the basic building blocks
Strand: many nucleotides are attached together by phosphodiester bonds
Double helix: 2 strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds Chromosomes: a double helix is wrapped around a protein Genome: the entire set of chromosomes for an organism
8. Purines and Pyrimidines
9. A – T and C – G
10. False, RNA does not contain guanine.
11. Directionality is the way in which these bonds’ form affects the direction in which the nucleic acids face. DNA’s two strands are going in opposite directions due to the directionality of the bonds’ form.
12. It was used to find out the 2 strands of DNA were held together by hydrogen bonds and that it was purine – pyrimidine pairing. 13. 35%