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USC / Geography / GEOG 103 / Is english an open language?

Is english an open language?

Is english an open language?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: Geography
Course: Introduction to Geography
Professor: Larianne collins
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: intro, to, geography, introtogeography, development, political, and GEOG103
Cost: 50
Name: Geography Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes are for the second exam of Mr. Byrum's intro to geography class.
Uploaded: 10/26/2016
6 Pages 78 Views 2 Unlocks


World Languages

Indo-European: a 41% of languages

        English is an open language

        Always adding words

Isolated languages: languages that are only spoken in a specific area

        Example: basque

Revived Extinct Language: Hebrew

Political Geography

State: area organized into a political unit and ruled by its own government

Sovereignty: a state having control of its internal affairs without interference of other states

        Formal recognition of a state of is achieved through UN membership

*Some states are occupied by different cultural groups

Example: Basques and Catalonians in Spain.

        Scotss and Welsh in UK

        Quebecois in Canada

United States

        Concept of all living together with equal rights

        Political system had to be flexible

Political Systems

        Countries with long histories usually started with one monarch

Political evolution

        Provided framework for a variety of different political systems

Economic Systems

  1. Capitalist: free market
  2. Socialist: government control of certain markets
  3. Communist: government control of all markets
  4. Mixed: some of both control

If you want to learn more check out What are the first three laws of thermodynamics?

Unrecognized States

  1. Kosovo: South of Serbia and North of Macedonia
  2. Western Sahara

Territorial Waters

  • Within 12 miles of land
  • 12-24 miles: some control
  • Up to 200 miles: economic control (can’t fish without permission)
  • 200+ miles: high waters
  • Types of States

    1. Prorupted: access to water
    2. Fragmented: disconnected pieces
    3. Compact: shape is close to a circle
    4. Elongated: example would be Chile
    5. Perforated: example would be South Africa

            (Lesotho is completely engulfed by South Africa)We also discuss several other topics like What factors lead to evolution in a population?
    We also discuss several other topics like When are preferences constructed?

    *Antarctica has no sovereign states

    Democracy vs. Autocracy

    1. Democracy

    Critizens express effective preferences about policies and leaders

    1. Autocracy
  • Hereditary ruler
  • Citizens’ participation suppressed
  • No checks and balances
  • Gerrymandering

  • The act of shaping country or state lines so that major portions of a certain party are out of certain areas
  • Examples: Nevada, SC
  • Iowa is an example of a state that is definitely not gerrymandered.
  • Nationality and Ethnicity

  • Nationality: citizens of a country
  • Ethnicity: groups with distinct ancestry and cultural traditions
  • Development

  • 20% of the world’s population consumes ⅚ of the world’s goods
  • Americans spend more on cosmetics than the cost of providing 2 billion schools
  • UN takes 3 development factors into consideration when measuring a country’s level:
    1. Decent standard of living (average income)
    2. Access to knowledge (years of schooling)
    3. A long and healthy life

    Jobs: 3 categories

    1. Primary: labor
    2. Secondary: manufacturing
    3. Tertiary: services

    Don't forget about the age old question of Can warm and cool colors be mixed?

    Quality education

  • Increases possibility of leading lives of value
  • pupil-teacher ratio
  • Literacy rate
  • Scandinarian countries lead world
  • Health Indicators

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Access to healthcare
  • Expenditures on healthcare
  • Most healthcare in MDCs is a public service (no cost)
  • Don't forget about the age old question of What did you learn in class about mlk’s “i have a dream” speech?
    If you want to learn more check out Name the factors influencing likelihood of modeling a behavior.

    GII (Gender Inequality by Index)

            Europe, Canada, and Australia have more inequality than US


  • High female education and participation
  • Low teenage pregnancy rate
  • Largest economy (⅓ of the world)
  • Gross National Income (GNI) has risen faster than any other country
  • Two paths to Development

    1. Self-sufficiency

    Investment spreads more equally

    Pace of development is moderate

    Reducing poverty more important than  great wealth

    Importation of goods limited by government

    1. International Trade
  • Concentrate scarce resources on expansion of distinctive local industries
  • Sale of products brings funds that can be used for financing development
  • Shortcomings of Two Paths

    1. Protects inefficient industries and requires large bureaucracy
    2. Local hardships, low prices hurt countries and developed countries grow slow

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