In The Path of a Killer Volcano – Video Study Guide
U.S. Geological Survey
GIS Specialist: an individual that works with geographic information systems to solve problems, present data, and store information.
One critical part of this job is predicting if and when an eruption may occur so they can effectively advise people to evacuate
VDAP Volcanologists: Andy Lockhart, John Power, John Ewert, Rick Hoblitt, Dave Harlow PVO – The Pinatubo Volcano Observatory
Spring 1991 – Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
April 2, 1991: a series of small steam explosions began
When first studied, the blast the mountain was giving off was concluded to be the volcano only giving off steam – no eruption was to occur.
However, continuous earthquakes were occurring underneath the surface which led the U.S. Geological Survey to look further into this volcano.
*Approximately 50 volcanic eruptions occur each year
There were 3 possibilities of this mountain’s activity:
(1.)The mountain was only letting off steam – nonthreatening
(2.)Magma was rising from the earth’s crust – life-threatening
(3.)Tectonic stressors were occurring in the earth’s crust – not life-threatening
Heavily eroded volcanic ash and rock deposits extend for miles on every side of the mountain which is strong evidence that when the volcano erupts it will be huge.
∙ If there is a recorded earthquake five miles below the surface – this indicates a threatening possibility
∙ Measuring Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the air surrounding the mountain – if this is increasingly high it indicates magma
Alert Level One: Abnormal
Activity detected. Eruption not imminent.
Alert Level Two: Increasing Activity If you want to learn more check out Describe the mapk signalling pathway?
Activity more intense. Eruption probable.
Alert Level Three: Increasing Tendency Towards Eruption
Eruption now likely. Possibly within two weeks.
Alert Level Four: Hazardous Eruption Imminent
Eruption possible within 24 hours
Brief Timeline Leading to Eruption (major events):
June 3 – Level 2 was declared: 20,000 people evacuated
June 5 – Level 3 was declared then retracted
June 6 – Level 3 was declared again
June 7 – Level 4 was declared due to continuous earthquakes underneath the surface Everyone within 12 miles of the mountain was to be evacuated
In total 120,000 people temporarily evacuated
*June 7-12: first magma reached the surface of Mount Pinatubo
June 10: Full evacuation
June 12 – First Eruption takes place
Gas-charged magma reached the surface and created the volcano’s first spectacular eruption First Eruption: causes summit to give away, traps 43 people and burned them to death
June 15 – The volcano exploded in a cataclysmic eruption that ejected more than one mile *cataclysmic: can refer to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, tornados, landslide
Evacuation kept the death total at under 500
Mount Pinatubo is the second-largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century Approximately 650,000 jobs lost We also discuss several other topics like What is an inventory system where companies manufacture or purchase goods only when needed for use?
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Approximately 50,000 permanently lost homes:
10,000 indigenous people
40,000 low land families