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Clemson - PSYC 2010 - Exam 3 Review - Study Guide

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Clemson - PSYC 2010 - Exam 3 Review - Study Guide

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background image REVISED Study guide / Review sheet for Exam 3       Individual Differences Part 2 - Personality​ (chap 12)   Psychoanalytic perspective  Researchers find little support that defense mechanisms disguise and aggressive impulses  History doesn’t support this idea   
Sigmund Freud;  structure of personality (id, ego, superego) 
developed first comprehensive theory of personality  he said that if a symptom is not of physiological origin and the patient is consciously trying to 
stop it but cannot, then opposing the conscious will must be an unconscious counter-will of 
equal or greater magnitude 
when several motives, such as wishes, fears, and intentions which all have a direction and an 
intensity collide and conflict, the balance of these forces determines the person’s behavior, as in 
the case of a patient suffering from hysterical paralysis whose will to move her leg is 
unconsciously overridden 
ID → the reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy… driven by impulses  ■ characterized by primary process thinking: wishful, illogical  superego → acts as a conscious and source of ideals  ■ is parental voice within a person, established through identification  Ego → the structure that must somehow balance desire, reality and morality  ■ Freud described the ego as having to serve three masters : the id, the external world and  the superego    Unconscious / preconscious  conscious mental processes : are rational, goal oriented thoughts at the center of awareness  preconscious mental processes : are not conscious but could become conscious at any point, 
such as the knowledge of the color of robins 
unconscious mental processes : are irrational, organized along associative lines rather than by 
a logic 
■ they are inaccessible to consciousness because they have been repressed to avoid  emotional distress    Defense mechanisms   when people confront problems in their lives they typically draw on problem-solving strategies that have 
worked for them in the past rather than inventing new solutions to every problem 
repression : a person keeps thoughts or memories that would be too threatening to acknowledge from 
 regression :  ​a defense mechanism leading to the temporary or long-term reversion of the ego to an  earlier stage of development rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adult way  reaction formation : a defense mechanism in which the person turns unacceptable feelings or impulses 
into their opposite 
ex: at the same time that a televangelist, Johnny, was preaching the evils of sex to millions, he 
was regularly seeing a prostitute 
projection : a defense mechanism in which a person attributes his or her own unacknowledged feelings 
or impulses to others 
ex: the hard driving businessman who thinks his competitors, suppliers, and customers are 
always trying to cheat him may in fact be one with questionable ethics 
rationalization :  ​a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and  explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, and are made 
consciously tolerable 
background image displacement :  ​the moving of something from its place or position.   sublimation : a defense mechanism that involves converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially 
acceptable activities 
ex: a young boy may turn his feelings of competition with his father or brother into a desire to 
excel in competitive sports or to succeed in business when he is older 
  Trait perspective  What is a trait?  Trait  ■ A characteristic pattern of behavior 
■ A disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports 
What's the difference between a trait and a "type"?  Eysenck's two-factor model of personality  Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality 
■ People can be either introverted, extraverted OR BOTH 
■ Introverted and extraverted IS A RANGE 
■ People’s personalities are a combination of where they are on the scale 
The Big Five model of personality;  Are there really 5 dimensions of personality? 
Someone can be either very high or very low or right in the middle  There are 5 independent backers of personality  Emotional Stability  Calm versus anxious  Secure versus insecure  Self-satisfied versus self-pitying  Extraversion  Sociable versus retiring  Fun-loving versus sober  Affectionate versus reserved  Openness to experience  Imaginative versus practical  Preference for variety versus preference for routine  Independent versus conforming  Agreeableness  Soft-hearted versus ruthless  Trusting versus suspicious  Helpful versus uncooperative  Conscientiousness  Organized versus disorganized  Careful versus careful  Disciplined versus impulsive    How accurate is the trait perspective?  traits lend themselves to measurement and hence to empirical investigations through questionnaires  without them we wouldn’t have been able to assess the heritability or consistency of personality  We aren’t 100% sure that there are ONLY five factors involved  There are people who are messy BUT are able to accomplish their work very well  Ex: Einstein’s office was usually messy 
background image   We may not have all of the personality dimensions   Situational influences on behavior are more important to consider  People can fake desirable responses on self-report measures of personality  Averaging behavior cross situations seems to indicate that people do have distinct personality traits  When we are doing personality tests we are tapping into personality strategies that people use  Ex: introversion → what if because nervous system is more reactive...they are uncomfortable 
when they get overwhelmed  
If you go to a party with music, lights (being bombarded by stimuli), it looks like you are being 
shy by moving to the sides of the room but you aren’t shy you just need to get away from 
aggressive stimuli (loud music, many people) 
 Humanistic perspective  focuses on aspects of personality that are distinctly human, not shared by other animals  how do people find meaning in life?; how can they remain true to themselves?  Rogers (pg 467) :  He believed that psychology should not be studying people as OBJECTS of their investigations, 
but as SUBJECTS who construct meaning 
■ therefore, the fundamental tool of the psychologist is not a projective test, an experiment,  or a questionnaire but EMPATHY  Empathy : in Roger’s theory it is the capacity to understand another person’s experience 
cognitively and emotionally 
person-centered approach : Carl Roger’s theory of personality, which forces on understanding 
the individual's phenomenal world 
How accurate is the humanistic perspective?  lack of empirical evidence  the holistic approach allows for a great deal of variation and does not identify enough constant 
 Social-cognitive perspective  used in psychology, education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual's knowledge 
acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of 
social​ interactions,  experiences, and outside media influences  What's reciprocal determinism?  a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social 
Reciprocal determinism is a model composed of three factors that influence behavior: the environment, 
the individual, and the behavior itself. Essentially, Bandura believes that an individual's behavior 
influences and is influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics 
Factors in the social-cognitive perspective:  environment, behaviors and thoughts  Locus of control - internal vs. external  A person with an internal locus of control believes that he or she can ​ influence events and their  outcomes ​, while someone with an external locus of control blames outside forces for everything   learned helplessness  occurs when someone repeatedly fails at their task and loses hope    Cognitive style - optimism vs. pessimism:  positive and negative effects of optimism  optimism - hopefulness and confidence  pessimism - tendency to see the worst aspect of things   

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School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Edwin Brainerd
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: exam, three, study, and guide
Name: Exam 3 Review
Description: Study Guide Exam 3 NOT including chapter 13
Uploaded: 10/26/2016
9 Pages 65 Views 52 Unlocks
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