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continuum. ● What can be described as an organization’s response to a threat, and can change depending upon a number of factors? Stance. ● Invention of new techniques has made media relations more conversational and less formal. ● Customer relations is important because bad experience about a product or service can easily spread through word of mouth. Chapter 14: Preparing Materials for Mass Media **TEST QUESTIONS FROM HERE** The News Release ● Today’s basic version of the news release, commonly referred to as a press release, goes back more than a century when Ivy Lee wrote one for the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1906 ○ The reality of mass comm today is that reporters and editors spend most of their time processing info, not gathering. ○ No media enterprise has enough staff to cover every single event in the community. ○ News release is not paid advertising ○ Printed is double spaced ● Planning a News Release; can you answer these questions? These planning questions should also include an ethical component. ○ Who is the key message? This should be expressed in one sentence ○ Who is the primary audience for the release? Is it journalists in traditional media, bloggers, or consumers looking for info via a search engine. ○ What does the target audience gain from the product/service? What are the potential benefits and rewards? ○ What objective does the release serve? Is it to increase product sales, enhance the organization’s reputation, or increase attendance at an event? ○ Is a news release the best format for the information? ● Circulation vs. Impression numbers ○ Was it successful or not? ○ Impression number 2.5-3.5; the number is moving back towards circulation numbers. There may be one newspaper in the house but six people read it. ● The Basic Online News Release ○ Use single spacing ○ 200 words or less○ Individuality “Dear ___ (Specific journalist)” Helps. ■ You should specifically know your journalist. ○ Use the inverted pyramid approach, in which the most important info is first, followed by less important details. ○ The top line should give the name of the organization and perhaps its logo. ○ The second line should give the date. ○ The third line should be the headline in boldface with a slightly larger font than the text. This often serves as the subject line in an email, so it should give the key message in 20 words or less. It’s also important to include a keyword or phrase for search engine optimization (SEO) ○ Provide the city of origination at the start of the lead paragraph. ○ Write a succinct lead of only two or three sentences that gives the essence of the news release. ○ Use a pull quote in the news release. This is a quote highlighted in a box that gives a major point about the release. ○ Provide links in the news release so that readers can easily click on sites that provide related info. ○ The last paragraph should provide basic info about the organization. ○ The release should end with the name, telephone number, and the email address of the public relations contact person so that a reporter or blogger can easily contact him or her for more information. ○ BL Ochman, suggest that PR personnel “ think of the online news release of the teaser to get a reporter or Editor to your website for additional information.” he makes the following suggestions based on his axiom “ right like you have ten seconds to make a point. because online you do.” ■ use a specific subject line that identifies exactly what the news release is about ■ make your entire release a maximum of 200 words or less, and in 5 short paragraphs. ● The idea is brevity so that reporters see the news release on one screen and don't have to scroll ■ write only two or three short sentences in each of the 5 paragraphs ■ Use bulleted points to convey key points ■ above the headline or the bottom of the release, be sure to provide a contact name, phone number, email address, and URL for additional information ■ never send a release as an attachment. ● journalists because of possible virus infections rarely open attachments ○ Global PR firms, with offices in Many Nations, Austin serve their clients by having a local staffs write, Translate, and distribute media materials ● The multimedia news release ○ AKA “Smart media release” (SMR) or social media news release.○ SEO is the process of carefully selecting keywords for the news release that make the content easily retrievable. ■ Uses audio and infographics. ■ Infographics: ● Simple is better ● High rate of placement on websites and in newstories. ○ The SMR has expanded the audience Beyond just the traditional media Outlet ○ Tips: ■ include links to Pages where multiple instances of your keywords/phrases reinforce your message. ■ Place terms in key positions like headlines and first paragraphs ■ distribute a release through a service that carries hyperlinks to down stream sites such as Yahoo finance, AOL news, and Netscape. ■ don't go link crazy. ● too many links will confuse journalists and draw Focus away from Key messaging ■ don't use low-resolution images. ● opt for high-resolution multi-media that can be easily used by layout Pros ■ Don't use all tools, all the time. ● Focus first on the message. ● use bells and whistles to complement the campaign ○ The vast majority of news releases are still basic releases about mundane activities that don't require photos, videos, and audio components Publicity Photos ● More people read photographs than read articles. ● Suggestions: ○ Quality: ■ 72dpi (dots per inch) for fast download, but print publications need photos at 300 dpi in jpeg or gif format. ○ Subject Matter: ■ “Grip and grin” photo of a person receiving an award or the CEO shaking hands with a visiting dignitary. ■ Large-group photograph is appropriate for the club newsletter but is never acceptable for a newspaper. ● Instead take photos of groups of 3 or 4 from the same city and send only that photo to editors in that specific city. ○ Composition: ■ Uncluttered photos. ■ Tight shots with minimum background ■ Emphasis on detail, not whole scenes ■ Limiting wasted space by reducing gaps between individual sor objects■ Context matters ○ Action: ■ Makes a photo interesting. ■ No static photos. ○ Scale: ■ Show scale ○ Camera Angle: ■ Interesting angles can make the photo more compelling ○ Lighting: ■ Background is important ■ Use the sun ○ Color: ■ Have several formats available and send what the publication or news website wants. Media Kits ● Aka press kit ● they are usually prepared for major events and new product launches, and their purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of information that makes it easier for the reporter to write about the topic. ● typical contents (9X12 Folder) ○ a basic news release ○ a news feature about the product or service ○ a fact sheet about the product, organization, or event ○ Photos ○ bios on the spokesperson or chief executives ○ a basic brochure ○ contact information such as email addresses, phone numbers, and website urls. ● E-Kits: Electronic Media Kits ○ Distributed via email, a website, a cd or a flash drive. ○ Also posted to organizational websites or to servers so that journalists and bloggers can easily access them. Mat Releases: Mat Feature Release ● A variation of the traditional news release. ● The concept is geared towards providing helpful consumer information and tips about a variety of subjects in an informative way with only a brief mention of the nonprofit or corporation that has distributed the release via affirms. Media Alerts and Fact Sheets. ● AKA a media advisory ● May be sent with an accompanying news release or by themselves.● Two Kinds ○ Basically a summary sheet about the characteristics of a new product that serves as a quick reference for a journalist writing a story. They are used to support a media alert or to support a fact sheet. ■ Often distributed as part of a media kit or with a news release to give supplemental information about a new product. ○ Corporate Profile: a one page summary in bulleted list format that gives the basic facts about an organization or a company. ■ Purpose: provides reports with a “crib sheet” so that they can verify basic facts. ■ Profile; it doesn’t change a lot. The Art of Pitching a Story. ● Pitch/engagement/building relationships: the objective is to contact journalists and bloggers on the one-to-one basis and convince them that you have a newsworthy story or idea. ○ Can take the form of a note or letter, phone call, email, text message, or tweet. ○ Research each journalist before you pitch an idea, don’t cold call. ■ Understand their individual deadlines. ○ Basic Guidelines for pitching by email: ■ Use a succinct subject line that tells the editor what you have to offer; don't try to be cute or gimmicky. ■ Keep the message brief, one screen at the most ■ Don't include attachments unless the reporter is expecting you to do so. ● Many reporters, due to the possibility of virus attacks, never open attachments unless they personally know the source. ■ Don't send “blast” emails to large number of editors. ● Email systems are setup to filter messages with multiple recipients in the “To” and “BCC” fields, a sure sign of spam. if you do send an email to multiple editors break the list into small groups ■ Send tailored email pictures to specific reporters and editors; the pitches should be relevant to their beats and publications ■ Regularly check the names and your email database to remove redundant recipients. ■ Give editors the option of getting off your email list; this will ensure that your list is targeted to those who are interested. ● By the same token give editors the opportunity to sign up for regular updates via RSS feeds or from your organization's website. if they cover your industry they will appreciate it. ■ Establish an email relationship. ● As one reporter said, “ the best emails come from people I know; I delete emails from PR people or agencies I don't recognize ● Tapping into Media Queries○ One of the oldest services that match reporter queries with PR sources is ProfNet. ■ Pay the fee, see what’s going on, obtain the contact information to be matched ■ Very effective tool ■ After first story with journalist you have a real contact. Distributing Media Materials ● 5 major methods: ○ First-class mail. ○ Fax ○ Email ○ Electronic wire services: PR news wire: PR personnel pay a fee for it to be posted on the wire. ○ Online newsrooms. ● Electronic News services. ○ Purposes: they do the distribution ○ Benefits: saves time and money because it is very targeted ■ Convert a lot of what you do: news releases to customized seach engine optimization ○ Corporate and financial info must be released according to SEC guidelines to multiple media outlets at exactly the same time. ○ No paper is involved ○ Business Wire has “Smart” news releases that can be embedded with visuals and audio. ○ Electronic news services provide a cost-effective way to directly reach thousands of media across the nation and even the globe with a single click. ● Online Newsrooms ○ Most major organizations have a pressroom or a newsroom as part of their website. ○ (Look at this for you project) ■ Very efficient because there is an enormous amount of material at your fingertips ○ A good online newsroom should have (at minimum): ■ Current and archived news releases ■ The names, phone numbers, and direct email addresses of PR contacts. ■ Photographs ■ Product information ■ An opportunity for journalists to sign up for a daily RSS feed if they regularly cover that particular company or industry. ○ Reporters seeking info usually look first at the organization's website and online newsroom. ○ Other tips:■ Keep the online newsroom somewhat simple ● Don't use sophisticated animation that might not be compatible with reporters’ computers ■ Make high-resolution photos and graphics available that can be used for publication ■ Link the pressroom to the company home page. Media Interviews ● A great deal of media coverage is generated by reporters calling an organization's spokesperson or working through the PR department to arrange an interview with an executive or expert. ● Need for preparation: prepare the interviewee ○ The things you give the media give to the interviewee ○ No journalist gives the questions in advance ○ Prepare the interviewer the same way (here’s a bio on who you’re going to be talking to) ○ Do all the work for them that you can. ○ Try to be the puppetmaster ● Preparing for an interview ○ Understand the interview’s purpose ○ Short, direct answers delivered without hesitation help a person project an image of strength and credibility. ● The Print Interview ○ An interview with a newspaper reporter may last about an hour and take place perhaps at lunch or over coffee in an informal setting. ○ Result may be a published story of 400-600 words. ○ Never ask to view the material before it is published. ■ Rebuffed as a form of censorship ○ A shorter Q and A type thing, sometimes done on the phone/skype News Conferences. ● AKA press conference ● Only use it for NEWS! You never know what else is going to happen in the world that makes your news conference null. ● Makes possible quick, widespread dissemination of a person’s comments and opinions to a number of reporters at the same time ○ Most planned in advance ○ Regularly scheduled conference held by a public official at state times, even when there is nothing special to announce: briefing. ● Planning and conducting a news conference ○ Never do one outside of Washington DC○ The essential element is the news. ■ If you’re in a crisis ○ Checklist for PR staff organizing a news conference: ■ Select a convenient location with minimal travel time. ■ Set the date and time ● Between midmorning and midafternoon ● No friday afternoons. ■ Distribute a media advisory about the upcoming news conference when appropriate. ● Depends on the importance of the event ■ Write a statement for the spokesperson to give at the conference and make sure that he or she understands and rehearses it. ● Rehearse the entire conference ■ Try to anticipate questions so that the spokesperson can readily answer difficult queries ● problem/solution rehearsals prepare the spokesperson ■ Prepare a media kit ● Should include a brief fact sheet with names and titles of the participants, a basic news release, and basic support materials.The ■ Make advance arrangements for the room ● Enough chairs ● Leave a center isle for photographers ● Lectern must be able to accommodate several microphones. ■ Arrive 30 to 60 minutes early to double check arrangements ● Test microphones ● Arrange name tags ● Distribute literature. ● Online News Conferences ○ Many news conferences today are interactive webcasts so that journalists and bloggers around the world can participate. ○ Attendance is usually better. ■ Cheaper and more time efficient ○ Find who the most influential online people are and pr people can tailor their pieces just for them. Media Tours and Press Parties ● Media Tours: trip/junket ○ Familiarization trip “fam trip” is offered to travel writers and editors by the tourism industry. ○ The organization’s executives travel to key cities to talk to selected editors ○ By invitation only, and its appropriate ● Press Parties: may be a luncheon, a dinner, or a cocktail party.○ Usually for consumer goods, especially fashion. ○ Becoming fewer and fewer. Chapter 15: Radio and Television The Reach of Radio and Television ● Still dominant sources in the US ○ Radio is free ○ Free aspects of tv ● 2.5 hours a day for radio. 5 hours a day for tv ● They reach the vast majority of the US public on a daily basis. ○ Radio and tv content has expanded to other digital platforms. ○ Broadcast media generate larger audiences for a particular program or event than any other single media platform. ○ Radio and tv are what the economist describes as “an inherently lazy form of entertainment” ○ Requires a special perspective Radio is free ● Audio News Releases (ANRs) ○ Radio news releases are written for the ear. ○ More concise and to the point. ○ Writing style ■ Online is more formal and uses standard English Grammar and punctuation. ○ Guidelines on how to write a radio news release: ■ Time is money in radio. Stories should be no longer than 60 secs. Stories without actualities (soundbites) should be 30 seconds or less. ■ The only way to time your story is to read it out loud, slowly ■ A long or overly commercial story is death. Rather than editing it, a busy radio newsperson will discard it. ■ Convey your message with the smallest possible number of words and facts. ■ An ANR is not an advertisement; it is not a sales promotion piece. A radio news release is journalism - spoken. ■ Announcers punctuate with their stories; not all sentences need verbs or subjects. ■ Releases should be conversational. Use simple words and avoid legal-speak. ■ After writing a radio news release, try to shorten every sentence.■ Never start a story with a name or a vital piece of info. While listeners are trying to figure out the person speaking and the subject matter, they don’t pay attention to the specific info. ○ Format: the most effective approach is to provide a radio station with a recording of someone with a good radio voice reading the entire announcement: this is called actuality ■ A second approach is to have an announcer and also include what is called a soundbite from a satisfied customer or a company spokesperson. ■ Message must come from a real person ○ Production and Delivery: every ANR starts with a carefully written and accurately timed script ■ The next step is to record the words ■ Most organizations use a professional recording and distribution service such as Strauss Radio Strategies. ● These services have state-of-the-art equipment and skilled personnel who can take a script, edit it, record it at the proper sound levels, and package it for distribution to broadcast outlets via phone, CDs, MP3 format, Webservers, and even through such networks as ABC and CNN radio. ○ Use of ANRs: somewhat of a bargain. ■ Despite their cost-effectiveness, ANRs should not be sent to every station. ■ The use of ANRs is increasingly popular with radio stations. ■ PR Tactics gives some additional tips from Trammell ● TImeliness ● Localization ● Humanization ● Human Appeal ● Radio PSAs ○ Public Service Announcements by nonprofit organizations ○ Defined by the FCC: an unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or voluntary agencies or that serves the public interest. ○ Format and production: submit multiple psas on the same subject in various lengths; the idea is to give the station flexibility ■ 2 lines = 10 seconds = 25 words ■ 5 lines = 20 seconds = 45 words ■ 8 lines = 30 seconds = 64 words ■ 16 lines = 60 seconds = 125 words ○ Adding sound ■ Adding sound and other voices can make a radio PSA more interesting. ○ Delivery: in four ways ■ Mailing a script to the station’s public service director ■ Sending a cd with announcements of varying lengths■ Providing an 800 number ■ Providing downloads from a sponsoring organization’s web server ○ USe of Radio PSAs ■ Local community issues and events are most likely to receive airtime, followed by children’s issues. ■ Relatively low cost and the convenience of conducting numerous short interviews from one central location ■ Satellite media tour (SMT) ■ Do your homework and know that timing is a consideration. Television: a powerful and influential medium because it taps both sight and sound. ● Several approaches for getting an organization’s news and viewpoints on tv: ○ Send a standard news release ○ Send a media alert/advisory ○ Make a pitch by phone or email ○ Produce a video news release (VNR) package ○ Conduct a satellite media tour (SMT): around talk shows, primarily interviews on morning talk shows. ■ Produce the promo for the station ○ Arrange for your spokesperson to appear on a tv talk or magazine show. ○ Do a product placement in tv entertainment shows. ● Video news releases: need for a potential of national distribution and multiple pickups. ○ Because of the cost, a pr department or firm must carefully analyze the news potential of the info and consider whether the topic lends itself to a fast-paced, action-oriented visual presentation. ○ Format: somewhat complicated ■ 90second news report with voiceover narration on an audio channel separate from that containing soundbites and natural sound. ■ A B-Roll. THis is video only, without narration, giving a tv station maximum flexibility to add its own narration or use just a portion of the video as part of a news segment ■ Clear identification of the video source ■ Script, spokespeople info, media contacts, extra sound bites, and story background info provided electronically. ○ Production: pr departments and firms usually outsource production. ■ Tips: ● Give tv news directors maximum flexibility in editing the tape using their own anchors or announcers. ● Produce the VNR with news footage in mind. Keep soundbites short and to the point. Avoid commercial-like shots with sophisticated effects.● Never superimpose your own written info on the actual videotape. Tv news departments usually generate their own written notes in their own typeface and style. ● Never use a stand-up reporter. Stations do not want a reporter who is not on their own staff appearing in their newscast. ● Provide tv stations with a local angle. This can be done by sending supplemental facts and figures that reflect the local situation. THis can be added to the VNR when it is edited for broadcast. ● Good graphic, including animation, are a plus. Stations are attracted to artwork that shows things in a clear, concise manner. ● The New Trend: B-Roll Packaging ○ The new normal. ○ Contain additional soundbites and video that tv news staffs can use for repackaging the story. ○ “Fake news” ○ There are new standards for disclosure and transparencies. ● TV PSAs: ○ TV stations, like radio stations, use PSAs on behalf of governmental agencies, community organizations, and charitable groups. ○ They must be short, to the point, and professionally produced. ■ Both audio and visual elements must be present. ■ Talking head: someone speaking directly to the camera. ● Satellite Media Tours (SMT) ○ A series of prebooked, one-on-one interviews from a fixed location (usually a television studio) via satellite with a series of television journalists or talk show hosts. ○ Time efficient. ○ A staple of the pr and tv industries. ○ Co-op smts: when organizations are represented on an SMT with a common theme or topic. ○ News feeds: A variation on the SMT is a news feed that provides video and soundbites of an event to tv stations across the country via satellite or through webcasts. Guest Appearances ● Radio and tv stations operate on round-the-clock schedules. ● The most valuable communication tools in reaching these people are the telephone and the persuasive pitch. ● Do your homework ● Actually watch the program and study the format. ● Possibilities are immense, a successful radio or tv show guest appearance has 3 requirements:○ Preparation ○ Concise speech ○ Relaxation: ■ The pr advisor can compensate for difficulties by in advance, sending the host a fact sheet summarizing the important information and listing questions. ■ May go cold. ● Talk Shows: a staple of broadcasting: ○ 1960 KABC first talk show format ○ The advantage of talk shows is the opportunity to have viewers see and hear the organization’s spokesperson without the filter of journalists and editors interpreting and deciding what is newsworthy. ○ Guidelines, guests should be ■ Personable and approachable when producers conduct preinterviews on the phone. THey should also be forthright but not aggressive. “If you’re wishy-washy, non-committed, or stilted, you’re not going much further.” ■ Should have strong opinions. “We don’t call certain people back because they have been trained not to say anything. The stronger your position is, and the higher up it is, the more media attention you’re going to get. Nobody likes guests who play it safe.” ■ Passionate about the subject. “We don’t want people who are robotic - who just spit out facts. If you convey passion about what you’re talking about, you jump off the screen.” ■ Able to debate without getting personal or mean-spirited. “Smile... audiences like to see someone who is comfortable on-screen - someone who is happy to be there.” ■ Have engaging, outgoing personalities. “Talking heads and ivory-tower types don’t do well on tv. They’re better suited for print, where their personality - or lack of it - can’t turn audiences off.” ● Magazine Shows: ○ The term magazine refers to a tv program format that is based on a variety of video segments in much the same way that print magazines have a variety of articles. ● Pitching a Guest Appearance ○ For success: do your homework, be creative, and be succinct. ○ Checklist of questions to consider: ■ IS the topic newsworthy? Does it have a new angle on something already in the news? ■ Is the topic timely? Is it tied to some lifestyle or cultural trend? ■ Is the info useful to viewers? How-to and consumer tips are popular ■ Does the spokesperson have viewer appeal? A celebrity may be acceptable, but there must be a natural tie-in with the organization and the topic to be discussed■ Can the spokesperson stay on track and give succinct, concise statements/ the spokesperson must stay focused and make sure that the key messages are mentioned ■ Can the spokesperson refrain from getting too commercial? Talk show hosts don’t want guests who sound like an advertisement. ○ Be familiar with the program, its style, and its content ○ The contact for the talk show may be the executive producer or assistant producer of the show. ■ If it is a network or nationally syndicated show, the contact person may have the title of talent coordinator or talent executive. ■ Whatever title,t hese people are known in the broadcasting industry as bookers (not hookers) because they are responsible for booking a constant supply of timely guests for the show. ○ Be honest to retain credibility Product placements ● Tv’s dramas and comedy shows, as well as the film industry, are good vehicles for promoting a company’s products and services ○ Aka plugs: are often negotiated by product publicists and talent agencies ○ “Stealth marketing.” ○ PR specialists should always be alert to opportunities for publicity on television programs and upcoming movies. ○ In some cases, it’s a matter of mutual benefit ● Issues Placement ○ Convincing popular tv programs to write an issue or cause into their plotlines ○ The idea is to educate the public about a social issue or a health problem in an entertaining way. ○ The flip side of asking scriptwriters to include material is asking them to give a more balanced portrayal of an issue ● DJs and media-sponsored events ○ Another form of product placement is agreements with radio stations to promote a product or event as part of their programming. ○ They must be convinced that their involvement will benefit the station in terms of greater public exposure, increased audience, and improved market position. Summary Chapter 14 The News Release ● The news release is the most commonly used PR tactic ● New releases are sent to journalists and editors for possible use in news columns, and they are the source for a large percentage of articles that are published. ● News releases must be accurate, informative, and written in journalistic style.● Online news releases are similar to traditional news releases, but the format is condensed and single-spacing is used. ○ Most widely distributed news releases are now sent by email or posted on organizational websites. ● Multimedia news releases harness the capabilities of the internet and social media by embedding photos, video, links, social tags, etc.,, into the basic news release. Publicity Photos ● Often accompany news releases to make a story more appealing ● Must be high resolution and well composed ● Can be made more interesting by manipulating the camera angle and lighting and by showing scale and action. ● Color photos are now commonly used in most publications. Media Kits ● Aka press kit ● Traditionally a folder containing news releases, photos, fact sheets, and features about a new product, event, or other newsworthy projects undertaken by an organization. ● Electronic press kits (EPKs) are now commonly used and are produced on CD, emailed, or placed on organizational websites. ● Usage: mostly online now and become part of the website or news release. Mat Releases ● A form of news release that primarily has a feature angle instead of hard news ○ They provide consumer info and tips in an objective manner, with only a brief reference to the client that is distributing the info via a distribution firm such as Family Features. ● These canned features appear in the food, travel, automotive, and business sections of a newspaper ● Looks like a news article today. ○ Paid for by PR. ● Clients go for quantity more than quality. (lots of hits) ○ Mat Releases get picked up now. ○ Lots of work now because you hire the photographers, stylize everything, visualize it, write, work with graphics and designers to lay it all out. ○ Benefit: a controlled message ● In between a news release and advertising. Media Alerts and Fact Sheets ● Advisories, or alerts, let journalists know about an upcoming event such as a news conference or photo or interview opportunities.● Fact sheets give the five Ws and H of an event in outline form. Fact sheets also can be used to provide background on an executive, a product, or an organization. The Art of Pitching A Story ● PR personnel “pitch” journalists and editors with story ideas about their employer or client. ● Such pitches can be telephone calls, email, or even text messages and tweets. ● A good pitch is based on research and a creative idea that will appeal to the journalist or editor. Distributing Media Materials ● Electronic news services such as Business Wire provide an efficient way to distribute news releases around the world. ● Online newsrooms are often part of an organization’s website. THey allow the media and the public to access news releases, photos, videos, and other PR materials. Media Interviews ● Journalists often seek interviews with sources, and the role of the PR person is to facilitate their requests. ● PR personnel often do media training to ensure that sources give competent media interviews. News Conferences ● Such events should be held rarely and only when there is major news or intense media interest. ● PR personnel are usually in charge of logistics and arrangements for news conferences ● Online news conferences are popular because journalists in different locations can easily attend. Media Tours and Press Parties ● Company executives often go on a media tour to visit editors in various locations and discuss a new product, such as the iPad ● Press parties are primarily social events that allow an organization’s executives to meet journalists and develop working relationships Chapter 15 The Reach of Radio and TV ● In today’s society, radio and tv reach the vast majority of people on a daily basis ● The average american spends about 37 hours per week watching tv, which is more than the time spent with any other medium, including the internet.Radio ● Radio releases, unlike those for print media, must be written for the ear and should be no longer than 60 seconds. ● A popular format is the audio news release (ANR) which includes an announcer and a quote (soundbite) from a spokesperson. ● Public service announcements (PSAs) are distributed by nonprofit organizations that wish to inform and educate the public about health issues or upcoming civic events. ● PSAs should be written in various lengths to give maximum flexibility for broadcast use. ● A radio media tour (RMT) involves a spokesperson being interviewed from a central location by journalists across the country. Each journalist is able to conduct a one-on-one interview for several minutes. Television ● The video news release (VNR) is produced in a format that television stations can easily use or edit based on their needs. ● VNRs are relatively expensive to produce, but they have great potential for reaching large audiences through TV stations, websites, or even Youtube Channels. ● B-Rolls, the compilation of video clips and soundbites, are increasingly preferred by tv news departments. ● TV PSAs must have audio and visual elements. ● Satellite media tours (SMTs) allow tv newscasters to interview a spokesperson on a one-to-one basis. ● With a news feed, an organization arranges for coverage of a particular event, and tv stations across the country can watch it in “real time” or receive an edited version of it for later use. Guest Appearances ● PR personnel often book spokespersons on radio and tv talk shows. The guest must have a good personality, be knowledgeable, and give short, concise answers. ● Booking a guest on a talk or magazine show requires a creative pitch to get a producer’s attention. Product Placements. ● Companies are increasingly making deals with producers to get their products featured on tv shows or movies. NOnprofit organizations also lobby to have scripts mention key health messages and deal with various social issues. ● Radio and tv stations often cosponsor a civic event with an organization,which leads to increased visibility for the station and the civic organization.