Study Guide for Sociology 101 Mid term 1. What is sociology? The systematic study of human society. 2. What is society? People who live in a defined territory and share a way of life. 3. What is the sociological perspective? The sociological perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, as well as how those interactionsIf you want to learn more check out fiu ecology
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shape groups and society as a whole. Seeing the general in the particular. 4. What is a theory? A statement of how and why specific facts are related. 5. What is a theoretical perspective? A theoretical perspective can be defined as a hypothetical model that provides explanation for a given point of view. 6. What is the structural-functionalist approach? Society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. (August Comte) 7. Social conflict approach? Society is an arena of inequality in terms of money, power, education and social prestige. (Karl Marx) 8. Symbolic interactionist approach? Society is a product of the everyday interaction of individuals. (Max Weber) 9. According to Comte, what is society like? Society is the product of three stages of historical development. Positivism – a scientific approach based to knowledge based on positive facts opposed to mere speculation. 10. According to Berger, what kind of people should stay away from sociology? 11. According to Berger, when does the sociological thought have the best chance to develop? In historical circumstances marked by severe jolts to the self-conception, of a culture. People are more likely to be motivated to think beyond the assertions of self-conception and question authority. 12. What is the dominant assumption held in the west about why people marry? People marry because they are in love. 13. According to Berger, what do sociologists discover when they investigate our patterns of courtship and marriage? The sociologist investigating our patterns of “courtship” and marriage soon discovers a complex web of motives related in many ways to the entire institutional structure within which an individual lives his life—class, career, economic ambition, aspirations of power and prestige. 14. What does Berger mean when he says there is a debunking motif inherent in sociological consciousness? The sociologist will be driven time and again, by the very logic of his discipline, to debunk the social systems he is studying.15. What is the scientific method? A systematic approach to researching questions and problems through observation, collection and analysis of fata, direct experimentation, and replication of these procedures. 16. What are the stages of the scientific method? 17. What is the difference between the scientific theory and conventional wisdom? The scientific theory is based on empirical evidence that has been tested. Conventional wisdom is based on commonly held beliefs that have not been tested. 18. What is a social structure? Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior. 19. What is a social function? the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole. 20. What is a social dysfunction? Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society. 21. What is a latent function? The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern. 22. Manifest function – The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern. 23. What is a macro-level orientation? A broad focus on social institutions that shape society as a whole. Structural functional and social conflict approaches have this. 24. What is micro level orientation. A close up focus on social interaction in specific situations. (Symbolic interaction) 25. According to Mills, why do people in the US tend to think of the operation of society in personal terms? 26. According to Mills, what does the sociological imagination enable us to do? Enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society. Enables us to take into account how many individuals have become falsely conscious of their social positions. 27. According to Mills, what is one sort of question social analysists ask? What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? 28. What is the difference between Mills’ concept of Troubles and Issues? A trouble is a private matter, while an issue is a private matter. 29. What is socialization? A social experience in which people develop human potential and learn culture. 30. What is the looking glass self? The self-image based on how we think others see us. 31. What are the three dimensions of the looking glass self? We imagine our appearance in the image or eyes of the other. We imagine some judgement of that appearance. We experience some self-feeling. (pride or shame) 32. What is the social self? A part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image. 33. What is the “I” and the “Me”? The “I” gives us free will to choose our particular behavior in a given situation. The “Me” allows us to take on the role of the other in a given situation. (“I” am too loud, so I should talk quieter.) 34. What are significant others and generalized others? Significant people such as parents, who have special importance for socialization. Generalized- term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves. 35. What is a peer group and mass media? A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common. Means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience. 36. Childhood – The first 12 years of life. Adolescence – teenage years. Adulthood – time when most of life’s accomplishments take place. Early adulthood ends at 40. Health problems begin to develop. Old age- final stage of life beginning in the mid-sixties. Gerontology – the study of aging and the elderly. 37. What is resocialization? Radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling his or her environment. (Rehabilitation) 38. Total institution – a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by administrative staff. (Prison, mental hospitals, nursing homes.) 39. According to White, what distinguishes man from other living creatures? Our ability to generate and use symbols. 40. According to White, where is the meaning or the value of a symbol derived from? Determined by the organisms who use them; meaning is bestowed by human organisms upon physical things or events which thereupon become symbols. 41. According to White, why is articulate speech the most important form of symbolic expression? Without articulate speech we would have no human social organization. 42. What is the difference between symbolic and non-symbolic human behavior? Nonsymbolic behavior is that of man the animal. Symbolic is that of man the human being. Symbolic behavior is unique to man, while non-symbolic can occur between different animals. 43. What is culture? The ways of thinking, the ways of acting and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life. -Material Culture – Objects shared by a group of people -non-material culture- abstract ideas shared by a people like behavior. 44. What are values and beliefs. Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautifuland serve as broad guidelines for social living. Beliefs-specific thoughts or ideas that a people hold to be true. (Belief in god, evolution, ghosts) 45. What are norms; mores; folkways? Rules and expectations by which a society guides behavior of its members; norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance (incest is taboo); norms for routine or casual action (raising hand in class, holding a door open) 46. What is high culture, popular culture, subculture, counterculture? High – cultural patterns that distinguish a societies elite Popular- cultural patterns that are widespread among societies population. Subculture-cultural patterns that are set apart some segment of societies population. Counterculture- cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society. 47. What is a status, status set, ascribed status, achieved status, master status? Status- a social position a person holds (daughter, freshman, teacher) Status set-all the statuses a person holds (wife and mother) Ascribed- a social position a person receives at birth o takes on involuntarily later in life. (daughter, African American) Achieved – social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort. (teacher, freshman) 48. What is role, role set, role conflict, role strain, role exit? Role- behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status (president commands military forces) Role set- a number of roles attatched to a single status. (teacher prepares classes, leads classes, grades homework) Role conflict-a conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses. (student athletes have to balance athletics and academics) Role strain-tension among the roles connected to a single status (teacher has to balance assessments of students with their responsibility to grade students objectively, not subjectively. Role exit- the process by which people disengage from important social roles (divorce, single to marriage, graduating high school and going to college) 49. What is a social construction of reality? The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction. Things do not become real until we say they are real. 50. What is ethnomethodology and dramaturgical analysis? Ethnomethodology- the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.Dramaturgical analysis- the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. (a status is the part we play and the role is the script) 51. According to Goffman, what are the practical reasons that people try to acquire information about individuals who enter their presence? Information about the individual helps to define the situation, enabling others to know in advance what he will expect of them and what they may expect of him. The others will know the best way to act in response. 52. “ “, what is the difference between the expression that one gives and the expression that one gives off? The first involves verbal symbols to convey the information the others are known to attach to these symbols. The second involves a wide range of action that others can treat as symptomatic of the actor, the expectation being that in the action was performed or reasons other than the information conveyed in this way. 53. What is the information game? A potentially infinite cycle of concealment, discovery, false revelation, and rediscovery. 54. Define the concept of tact. Defensive practices we employ to protect ourselves from embarrassment in a situation and safeguard the impression fostered by an individual during his presence before others. 55. What is social stratification, caste, class, meritocracy? Social stratification- a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy (race, gender, income, wealth) Caste- social stratification based on ascription or birth Class-social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement (upper class, middle class, working class, lower class) Meritocracy- social stratification based on personal merit 56. What is income and wealth? Income – earnings from work or investments Wealth – the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts. 57. What is alienation, who are capitalists, who are proletarians? Alienation- the experience of isolation and misery reulsting from powerlessness for workers. Capitalist-people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursiot of profits. Proletarians – people who sell their labor for goods. 58. According to Ehrenreich, what is the reason for her research project? Why does she say that her project is not the perfect experiment? To observe the lives and struggles of low wage workers. Her experiment was not perfect because she had things that most low wage workers would not have like good health, a working car, and no children. 59. “ “, what are the roles of the managers in the workplace? To make sure all exployees are working to ensure production. 60. Why did she take a second job? She was not earning enough money at her first job. 61. What is gender, gender stratification? Gender- personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male or female. Gender stratification- the unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between men and women. 62. What is matriarchy, patriarchy, and sexism? Matriarchy-a form of social organization where females dominate males Patriarchy- males dominate females Sexism-a belief that one sex is innately superior to the other. 63. What is feminism, liberal feminism, radical feminism, multicultural feminism? Feminism-support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism. Liberal feminism-the rights and opportunities should increase within the present structure of society Radical feminism-society must elimate the concept of gender in order to achieve gender equality Socialist feminism- socialism will create a more equal division of labor for women Multicultural feminism- the life experiences of women in different parts of the world are shaped by gender stratification and their respective position within the global hierarchy. 64. According to Kilbourne, what is the evidence against the idea that advertising has no influence on individuals? Companies spend over $200 billion a year on advertisements. 65. How does the Us differ from countries like Belgium, Denmark, and Norway in regards to advertising to children? The other countries have banned advertising to children. Children in America have value as new consumers. 66. According to Kilbourne, what is wrong with advertisers simply telling parents to turn off the TV to protect them from any negative impact of advertising? Advertisement is everywhere, not just on TV. It’s a part of our environment. 67. According to Kilbourne, what does advertising sell us other than products? Sells values, images, concepts of love and sexuality, romance, success, and normalcy. 68. What is subtle sex discrimination? The unequal and harmful treatment of women that is typically less visible and obvious than blatant sex discrimination. 69. Why do most people not notice subtle sex discrimination? People perceive subtle sexist behavior as normal, natural, or acceptable. It is not documented as serious or harmful. 70. What are two forms of supportive discouragement? 1. encouraging women to succeed but not rewarding their achievements because the latter may not reflect traditionally male interests 2. Encourages women to be ambitions, but puts many obstacles in their path to limit or derail progress. 71. What does Benokraitis mean when she says that shared parenting reflects more rhetoric than reality? What is one piece of evidence that she presents to support this statement. While a man and a woman may be sharing parental duties, the man is usually the one that makes better advancements. Employed mothers spend 24 hours more a week in child-care activities than their husbands do because the husband’s job usually takes priority over the wife’s job.