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TOWSON / Sociology / SOC 101 / What is the structural-functionalist approach?

What is the structural-functionalist approach?

What is the structural-functionalist approach?

Description

School: Towson University
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro to Sociology
Professor: William tsitsos
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: sociology
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Sociology 101 Midterm
Description: These are the answers to the questions on the midterm study guide. Some of them I could not find the answers to, but a majority of the questions are answered.
Uploaded: 10/26/2016
7 Pages 229 Views 0 Unlocks
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What is the structural-functionalist approach?




What is a theoretical perspective?




What is the sociological perspective?



Study Guide for Sociology 101 Mid term 1. What is sociology? The systematic study of human society.  2. What is society? People who live in a defined territory and share  a way of life. 3. What is the sociological perspective? The sociological perspective  is the study of human life and social interactions, as well as  how those interactionsIf you want to learn more check out fiu ecology
Don't forget about the age old question of What time period is considered as the "Birth of Psychology"?
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Don't forget about the age old question of chewing gum and soft drinks are sold in grocery stores, service stations, convenience stores, drugstores, discount stores, and motel vending machines. this is a an example of a(n) _____ distribution strategy.
Don't forget about the age old question of unlimited funds vs capital rationing
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shape groups and society as a whole.  Seeing the general in the particular.  4. What is a theory? A statement of how and why specific facts are  related. 5. What is a theoretical perspective? A theoretical perspective can be defined as a hypothetical model that provides explanation for  a given point of view. 6. What is the structural-functionalist approach? Society is a complex  system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and  stability. (August Comte) 7. Social conflict approach? Society is an arena of inequality in  terms of money, power, education and social prestige. (Karl  Marx) 8. Symbolic interactionist approach? Society is a product of the  everyday interaction of individuals. (Max Weber) 9. According to Comte, what is society like? Society is the product of  three stages of historical development. Positivism – a scientific approach based to knowledge based on positive facts opposed  to mere speculation.  10. According to Berger, what kind of people should stay away from  sociology? 11. According to Berger, when does the sociological thought have  the best chance to develop? In historical circumstances marked by severe jolts to the self-conception, of a culture. People are  more likely to be motivated to think beyond the assertions of  self-conception and question authority. 12. What is the dominant assumption held in the west about why  people marry? People marry because they are in love. 13. According to Berger, what do sociologists discover when they  investigate our patterns of courtship and marriage? The sociologist  investigating our patterns of “courtship” and marriage soon  discovers a complex web of motives related in many ways to  the entire institutional structure within which an individual  lives his life—class, career, economic ambition, aspirations of  power and prestige.  14. What does Berger mean when he says there is a debunking motif inherent in sociological consciousness? The sociologist will be  driven time and again, by the very logic of his discipline, to  debunk the social systems he is studying.15. What is the scientific method? A systematic approach to  researching questions and problems through observation,  collection and analysis of fata, direct experimentation, and  replication of these procedures.  16. What are the stages of the scientific method?  17. What is the difference between the scientific theory and  conventional wisdom? The scientific theory is based on empirical  evidence that has been tested. Conventional wisdom is based  on commonly held beliefs that have not been tested.  18. What is a social structure? Any relatively stable pattern of  social behavior. 19. What is a social function? the consequences of a social  pattern for the operation of society as a whole. 20. What is a social dysfunction? Any social pattern that may  disrupt the operation of society.  21. What is a latent function? The unrecognized and unintended  consequences of any social pattern.  22. Manifest function – The recognized and intended  consequences of any social pattern.  23. What is a macro-level orientation? A broad focus on social  institutions that shape society as a whole. Structural functional and social conflict approaches have this. 24. What is micro level orientation. A close up focus on social  interaction in specific situations. (Symbolic interaction) 25. According to Mills, why do people in the US tend to think of the  operation of society in personal terms?  26. According to Mills, what does the sociological imagination enable  us to do? Enables us to grasp history and biography and the  relations between the two within society. Enables us to take  into account how many individuals have become falsely  conscious of their social positions.  27. According to Mills, what is one sort of question social analysists  ask? What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? 28. What is the difference between Mills’ concept of Troubles and  Issues? A trouble is a private matter, while an issue is a private  matter.  29. What is socialization? A social experience in which people  develop human potential and learn culture.  30. What is the looking glass self? The self-image based on how  we think others see us.  31. What are the three dimensions of the looking glass self? We  imagine our appearance in the image or eyes of the other. We  imagine some judgement of that appearance. We experience  some self-feeling. (pride or shame) 32. What is the social self? A part of an individual’s personality  composed of self-awareness and self-image. 33. What is the “I” and the “Me”? The “I” gives us free will to  choose our particular behavior in a given situation. The “Me”  allows us to take on the role of the other in a given situation.  (“I” am too loud, so I should talk quieter.) 34. What are significant others and generalized others? Significant people such as parents, who have special importance for  socialization. Generalized- term for widespread cultural norms  and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves.  35. What is a peer group and mass media? A social group whose  members have interests, social position, and age in common.  Means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast  audience.  36. Childhood – The first 12 years of life. Adolescence –  teenage years. Adulthood – time when most of life’s  accomplishments take place. Early adulthood ends at 40.  Health problems begin to develop. Old age- final stage of life  beginning in the mid-sixties. Gerontology – the study of aging  and the elderly. 37. What is resocialization? Radically changing an inmate’s  personality by carefully controlling his or her environment.  (Rehabilitation) 38. Total institution – a setting in which people are isolated  from the rest of society and manipulated by administrative  staff. (Prison, mental hospitals, nursing homes.) 39. According to White, what distinguishes man from other living  creatures? Our ability to generate and use symbols.  40. According to White, where is the meaning or the value of a  symbol derived from? Determined by the organisms who use  them; meaning is bestowed by human organisms upon physical things or events which thereupon become symbols.  41. According to White, why is articulate speech the most important  form of symbolic expression? Without articulate speech we would  have no human social organization.  42. What is the difference between symbolic and non-symbolic  human behavior? Nonsymbolic behavior is that of man the  animal. Symbolic is that of man the human being. Symbolic  behavior is unique to man, while non-symbolic can occur  between different animals.  43. What is culture? The ways of thinking, the ways of acting  and the material objects that together form a people’s way of  life.   -Material Culture – Objects shared by a group of people  -non-material culture- abstract ideas shared by a people like behavior.  44. What are values and beliefs. Culturally defined standards  that people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautifuland serve as broad guidelines for social living. Beliefs-specific  thoughts or ideas that a people hold to be true. (Belief in god,  evolution, ghosts) 45. What are norms; mores; folkways? Rules and expectations by  which a society guides behavior of its members; norms that  are widely observed and have great moral significance (incest  is taboo); norms for routine or casual action (raising hand in  class, holding a door open) 46. What is high culture, popular culture, subculture, counterculture? High – cultural patterns that distinguish a societies elite Popular- cultural patterns that are widespread among societies population. Subculture-cultural patterns that are set apart some segment  of societies population. Counterculture- cultural patterns that strongly oppose those  widely accepted within a society.  47. What is a status, status set, ascribed status, achieved status,  master status? Status- a social position a person holds (daughter, freshman,  teacher) Status set-all the statuses a person holds (wife and mother) Ascribed- a social position a person receives at birth o takes on involuntarily later in life. (daughter, African American) Achieved – social position a person takes on voluntarily that  reflects personal ability and effort. (teacher, freshman) 48. What is role, role set, role conflict, role strain, role exit?  Role- behavior expected of someone who holds a particular  status (president commands military forces) Role set- a number of roles attatched to a single status.  (teacher prepares classes, leads classes, grades homework) Role conflict-a conflict among the roles connected to two or  more statuses. (student athletes have to balance athletics and  academics) Role strain-tension among the roles connected to a single  status (teacher has to balance assessments of students with  their responsibility to grade students objectively, not  subjectively.  Role exit- the process by which people disengage from  important social roles (divorce, single to marriage, graduating  high school and going to college) 49. What is a social construction of reality? The process by which  people creatively shape reality through social interaction.  Things do not become real until we say they are real.  50. What is ethnomethodology and dramaturgical analysis?  Ethnomethodology- the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.Dramaturgical analysis- the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. (a status is the part we play and the role is the script) 51. According to Goffman, what are the practical reasons that people try to acquire information about individuals who enter their presence?  Information about the individual helps to define the situation,  enabling others to know in advance what he will expect of  them and what they may expect of him. The others will know  the best way to act in response. 52. “ “, what is the difference between the expression that one  gives and the expression that one gives off? The first involves  verbal symbols to convey the information the others are known to attach to these symbols. The second involves a wide range  of action that others can treat as symptomatic of the actor, the expectation being that in the action was performed or reasons  other than the information conveyed in this way.  53. What is the information game? A potentially infinite cycle of  concealment, discovery, false revelation, and rediscovery.  54. Define the concept of tact. Defensive practices we employ to protect ourselves from embarrassment in a situation and  safeguard the impression fostered by an individual during his  presence before others. 55. What is social stratification, caste, class, meritocracy?  Social stratification- a system by which a society ranks  categories of people in a hierarchy (race, gender, income,  wealth) Caste- social stratification based on ascription or birth Class-social stratification based on both birth and individual  achievement (upper class, middle class, working class, lower  class) Meritocracy- social stratification based on personal merit 56. What is income and wealth?  Income – earnings from work or investments Wealth – the total value of money and other assets, minus  outstanding debts.  57. What is alienation, who are capitalists, who are proletarians?  Alienation- the experience of isolation and misery reulsting  from powerlessness for workers.  Capitalist-people who own and operate factories and other  businesses in pursiot of profits. Proletarians – people who sell their labor for goods. 58. According to Ehrenreich, what is the reason for her research  project? Why does she say that her project is not the perfect  experiment? To observe the lives and struggles of low wage  workers. Her experiment was not perfect because she had things that most low wage workers would not have like good  health, a working car, and no children.  59. “ “, what are the roles of the managers in the workplace? To  make sure all exployees are working to ensure production.  60. Why did she take a second job? She was not earning enough  money at her first job.  61. What is gender, gender stratification? Gender- personal traits and social positions that members of a  society attach to being male or female.  Gender stratification- the unequal distribution of wealth,  power and privilege between men and women. 62. What is matriarchy, patriarchy, and sexism? Matriarchy-a form of social organization where females  dominate males Patriarchy- males dominate females Sexism-a belief that one sex is innately superior to the other. 63. What is feminism, liberal feminism, radical feminism,  multicultural feminism?  Feminism-support of social equality for women and men, in  opposition to patriarchy and sexism. Liberal feminism-the rights and opportunities should increase  within the present structure of society Radical feminism-society must elimate the concept of gender  in order to achieve gender equality Socialist feminism- socialism will create a more equal division  of labor for women Multicultural feminism- the life experiences of women in  different parts of the world are shaped by gender stratification and their respective position within the global hierarchy. 64. According to Kilbourne, what is the evidence against the idea  that advertising has no influence on individuals? Companies spend  over $200 billion a year on advertisements.  65. How does the Us differ from countries like Belgium, Denmark,  and Norway in regards to advertising to children? The other  countries have banned advertising to children. Children in  America have value as new consumers. 66. According to Kilbourne, what is wrong with advertisers simply  telling parents to turn off the TV to protect them from any negative  impact of advertising? Advertisement is everywhere, not just on  TV. It’s a part of our environment.  67. According to Kilbourne, what does advertising sell us other than  products? Sells values, images, concepts of love and sexuality,  romance, success, and normalcy.  68. What is subtle sex discrimination? The unequal and harmful  treatment of women that is typically less visible and obvious  than blatant sex discrimination. 69. Why do most people not notice subtle sex discrimination?  People perceive subtle sexist behavior as normal, natural, or  acceptable. It is not documented as serious or harmful.  70. What are two forms of supportive discouragement?  1. encouraging women to succeed but not rewarding their  achievements because the latter may not reflect  traditionally male interests 2. Encourages women to be ambitions, but puts many  obstacles in their path to limit or derail progress.  71. What does Benokraitis mean when she says that shared  parenting reflects more rhetoric than reality? What is one piece of  evidence that she presents to support this statement. While a man  and a woman may be sharing parental duties, the man is  usually the one that makes better advancements. Employed  mothers spend 24 hours more a week in child-care activities  than their husbands do because the husband’s job usually  takes priority over the wife’s job.

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