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psych 1001

psych 1001

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology (Lecture)
Professor: Jennifer stratford
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, general, psych, and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: Psych Unit 1 Study Guides
Description: - 2 study Guides - Full set of Unit 1 notes - Study guide routine specific to class
Uploaded: 10/26/2016
34 Pages 197 Views 1 Unlocks
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History of Psychology VOCAB: ● Localization ● Reaction Time ● Nativism ● Tabula Rasa What is Psychology? Psychology​ - Scientific study of mind and behavior - “To study the soul” - Mind​: Private inner experience - Behavior​: Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals 3 Questions Psychologists ‘Want’ to answer… 1. How do we experience and perceive our world, and how do these experiences form who we are? 2. How does the mind help us successfully navigate the world? 3. Why does the mind sometimes ‘glitch’ (in small and large ways)? Perspective Time Active Key Questions Prominent Figures Contribution of each figure 1.Philosophy ofMind ‘The Birth of Psychology’ 400 - 300 BC How do children learn? Plato Aristotle ‘Nativism’​ - some knowledge is innate or inborn (reflexes) ‘Tabula rasa’​ - mind is a blank state, which experiences are written (born blank and learn everything)


How do we experience and perceive our world, and how do these experiences form who we are?



2. Dualism 1600 - 1800 What role does the brain play in our mental world? Descartes Gall Flourens and Broca Flourens Broca Brain controls mind and body via a ‘gland’​ in the brain (pineal gland) Brain size​ controls mind (bigger brain = smarter Smaller brain = Not as smart) Independently determined that specific brain areas serve specific functions (localization)​ Removed parts of living animals brains and observed how that change their behavior Studied the brains of stroke patients who lost their ability to speak (once they died) - Broca’s Area 3. Structuralism - Looking at independent parts of brain 1800 - 1920’s What does each part of the brain contribute to our mental world? Helmholtz Wundt Estimated how long it takes nerve messages to travel in body (reaction time​) Opened first psychological laboratory


How does the mind help us successfully navigate the world?



We also discuss several other topics like fiu ecology

4. Functionalism ‘A reaction to structuralism’ - Looking at the brain as a whole 1850s - 1920s How does the brain work together to form our mental world? William James Charles Darwin Wrote first psychology book (The Principles of Psychology) Concept of natural selection was inspired by functionalism (and william james) 5. Clinical Psychology 1825 - present What causes mental illness (and how can it be treated)? Sigmund Freud Originated concepts of: - Unconscious:​ operates outside of awareness bt influences conscious thoughts, feelings and actions - Psychoanalysis:​ To treat mental disorders, patients must bring unconscious material into conscious awareness 6. Behaviorism 1880s - present What can we learn about the mind by studying behavior? Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Our actions (responses) are reactions to stimuli [action vs reaction] Behaviors are influenced by their consequences (reinforcement/punishment) 7. Cognitive Psychology 1880s - present How do perception, thoughts, memory, and reasoning contribute to our mental life? Jean Piaget Noam Chomsky Cognitive development in children Language development in children


Why does the mind sometimes ‘glitch’ (in small and large ways)?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the social dimension?

8. Behavioral Neuroscience 1960s - present How can psychologic al processes be explained by the actions of the nervous system? Karl Lashley Founded physiological psychology field 9. Social Psychology - Reaction to Nazism and holocaust 1940s - present How does our social environmen t influence our behavior and our minds? Gordon Allport Stereotyping, prejudice and racism are errors in perception

We also discuss several other topics like fraud is described as the use of one's job for personal gain through the deliberate misuse of

Is psychology a ‘Real Science’? ● Psychologists use Empiricism​, in conjunction with the Scientific Method, to gain knowledge ● Empiricism​ - knowledge only comes from the things we can see (seeing is believing) ● Scientific Method​ - A series of steps used to determine the relationship between an idea and the evidence that supports/refutes the idea The Scientific Method # Step in Scientific Method What it means What you are doing 1 Ask a Question ‘I want to know something about the world’ Observe​ the world to come up with a question you want to answer 2 Do background Research ‘What do others know about this’ Read​ about what is known about your question (literature review) ** STEPS 1 & 2 = THEORY Theory:​ An overall, broad, hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomena 3 Construct a Hypothesis ‘I predict this thing will happen’ - Prediction​ about theory - Falsifiable (can be disproven) - Theories and hypotheses never prove anything, but rather just disprove * we can never be sure of anything 100% of the time 4 Test Hypothesis with Research ‘Let’s test out my prediction’ - Measuring something​ in the world that related to the hypothesis - Operationalize:​ Transform broad topic (happiness) into a concrete, explicit definition it in the experiment (happiness scale) A measurement must have: - Validity:​ the measurement measure what you think it is measuring - Reliability​: The measure gets the same results every time (consistent) - Power:​ The measurement is sensitive enough to detect the conditions you want to measure 3 main kinds of research: 1. Observational (how often something occurs) 2. Correlational (Are two things related?) 3. Causal (Did one thing cause changes in the

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other?) 5 Analyze Data and Draw Conclusion ‘My prediction was correct/incorrect’ What is Data? - Anything measured in your research What you are doing: - Use statistics​ to determine underlying patterns and trends ** Statistics determine which of your data points are meaningful/relevant ** Aka - ‘Statistical significance’ - Probability that your result/outcome is the ‘real’ one - Want less than a 5% chance of being wrong What you are doing: - Use graphs​ to visually represent​ these patterns and trends (describe the data) - Graphs show which data points represent the ‘typical’ value for your measurement 6 Communicate Results ‘I’m going to tell others what I found out’ - Telling​ other psychologists and the public about your research and what you find Do this in: - Scientific Presentations - Conference Posters - Published journal article

What about ethics in research?? ● Psychologists are bound by a code of ethics to protect the wellbeing of research participants ● 3 main principles: 1. Respect for persons - Informed consent (participants understand the risks and benefits of participating in an experiment) - Protection of vulnerable populations (ex - children, prisoners, mentally incapacitated) 2. Research should beneficent - What is the benefit for society? 3. Research should be just- Should not unfairly target one particular group How are the ethics of Human and Animal research assessed? Humans: ● Ethical reporting of data and approval from Institutional Review Board (IRB) ○ Assesses whether a proposed study follows ethical guidelines Animals: ● IACUC committees (like an IRB) for animals ● Focus on: 1. Replacement​ (alternatives to using animals?) 2. Refinement​ (best techniques used?) 3. Reduction​ (smallest number of animals used?) SCIENTIFIC METHOD Is psychology a ‘Real Science’? ● Psychologists use Empiricism​, in conjunction with the Scientific Method, to gain knowledge ● Empiricism​ - knowledge only comes from the things we can see (seeing is believing) ● Scientific Method​ - A series of steps used to determine the relationship between an idea and the evidence that supports/refutes the idea The Scientific Method # Step in Scientific Method What it means What you are doing 1 Ask a Question ‘I want to know something about the world’ Observe​ the world to come up with a question you want to answer 2 Do background Research ‘What do others know about this’ Read​ about what is known about your question (literature review) ** STEPS 1 & 2 = THEORY Theory:​ An overall, broad, hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomena 3 Construct a Hypothesis ‘I predict this thing will happen’ - Prediction​ about theory - Falsifiable (can be disproven) - Theories and hypotheses never prove anything, but rather just disprove * we can never be sure of anything 100% of

We also discuss several other topics like keratinocytes produce a fibrous protein to protect the epidermis

the time 4 Test Hypothesis with Research ‘Let’s test out my prediction’ - Measuring something​ in the world that related to the hypothesis - Operationalize:​ Transform broad topic (happiness) into a concrete, explicit definition it in the experiment (happiness scale) A measurement must have: - Validity​: the measurement measure what you think it is measuring - Reliability​: The measure gets the same results every time (consistent) - Power​: The measurement is sensitive enough to detect the conditions you want to measure 3 main kinds of research: 1. Observational (how often something occurs) 2. Correlational (Are two things related?) 3. Causal (Did one thing cause changes in the other?) 5 Analyze Data and Draw Conclusion ‘My prediction was correct/incorrect’ What is Data? - Anything measured in your research What you are doing: - Use statistics​ to determine underlying patterns and trends ** Statistics determine which of your data points are meaningful/relevant ** Aka - ‘Statistical significance’ - Probability that your result/outcome is the ‘real’ one - Want less than a 5% chance of being wrong What you are doing: - Use graphs​ to visually represent these patterns and trends (describe the data) - Graphs show which data points represent the ‘typical’ value for your measurement

Don't forget about the age old question of visceroceptors

6 Communicate Results ‘I’m going to tell others what I found out’ - Telling​ other psychologists and the public about your research and what you find Do this in: - Scientific Presentations - Conference Posters - Published journal article

What about ethics in research?? ● Psychologists are bound by a code of ethics to protect the wellbeing of research participants ● 3 main principles: 1. Respect for persons - Informed consent (participants understand the risks and benefits of participating in an experiment) - Protection of vulnerable populations (ex - children, prisoners, mentally incapacitated) 2. Research should beneficent - What is the benefit for society? 3. Research should be just - Should not unfairly target one particular group How are the ethics of Human and Animal research assessed? Humans: ● Ethical reporting of data and approval from Institutional Review Board (IRB​) ○ Assesses whether a proposed study follows ethical guidelines Animals: ● IACUC​ committees (like an IRB) for animals ● Focus on: 1. Replacement​ (alternatives to using animals?) 2. Refinement​ (best techniques used?) 3. Reduction​ (smallest number of animals used?) RESEARCH METHODS What makes a good sample: - Cannot observe an entire population, instead draw a sample (part of greater population) 1. Represent Population​ (not be biased) 2. Be selected randomly Importance of a random sample: ● Chicago Tribune mistakenly predicted that Thomas Dewey would beat Harry truman for president (1948)● Polling done by telephone and Dewey voters more likely to have telephones than Truman voters Is it ever ‘OK’ to not use a random sample? ● Case method​: Method of gathering scientific information from a non-random sample ● Ex. Child prodigy Jay Greenburg provides important insights into how the rest of us work (even if only a single sample) Research Type 1.​Observational  (aka descriptive) 2. Correlational 3. Causal (aka experimental) Question Asked How often does something occur? Are two things related? Did one thing cause changes in the other? Tool(s) Used Naturalistic Observation: Gathering scientific info by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments Correlations Two Different Correlations: 1. Positive​ - both variables increase/decrea se 2. Negative​ - As one variable increases, the other decreases Positive: Negative: Correlation Coefficients: Me ​ asure how strong two things are related - Measure direction and strength of a correlation: - -1 to 1 3 Different Variables: 1. Independent Variable​ (IV) - Manipulate (at least two groups) 2. Dependent Variable (​ DV) - Record/measure (‘data’) 3. Control Variables - Keep ‘the same’ - Gives you something you can compare to *The control variable can be part of the independent variable

- Closer to -1 or 1, stronger associati on (- or +) - Closer to 0, weaker associati on

Point(s) to Consider - Demand Characteristics : People being observed act in the way they think the observer would want - Observer Bias: The observer sees what they expect to see Solution: Double-Blind: True purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed Sometimes we see causal relationships that do not actually exist: - Third variable problem​: A third variable may cause the relationship between two variables ** CORRELATION DOES NOT CAUSE CAUSATION Importance of Control Variables: Without a group where you don't manipulate something, you cannot establish cause-and-effect

*all involve Variables - something that varies (must have at least two different kinds) Three things required to prove Cause-and-Effect: Requirement What it Means 1.Correlation - Relationship between variables As A changes, B changes; EX: as A increases, B decreases, and as A decreases, B decreases 2.Temporal precedence - 1st causes changes in 2nd A comes first in time, before B

3.No alternative explanation - Internal validity There is no possible alternative explanations for the change in B; A is the only thing that changed

RESEARCH METHODS What makes a good sample: - Cannot observe an entire population, instead draw a sample (part of greater population) 1. Represent Population​ (not be biased) 2. Be selected randomly Importance of a random sample: ● Chicago Tribune mistakenly predicted that Thomas Dewey would beat Harry truman for president (1948) ● Polling done by telephone and Dewey voters more likely to have telephones than Truman voters Is it ever ‘OK’ to not use a random sample? ● Case method​: Method of gathering scientific information from a non-random sample ● Ex. Child prodigy Jay Greenburg provides important insights into how the rest of us work (even if only a single sample) Research Type 1.​Observational  (aka descriptive) 2. Correlational 3. Causal (aka experimental) Question Asked How often does something occur? Are two things related? Did one thing cause changes in the other? Tool(s) Used Naturalistic Observation: Gathering scientific info by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments Correlations Two Different Correlations: 1. Positive​ - both variables increase/decrea se 2. Negative​ - As one variable increases, the other decreases Positive: 3 Different Variables: 1. Independent Variable​ (IV) - Manipulate (at least two groups) 2. Dependent Variable (​ DV) - Record/measure (‘data’) 3. Control Variables - Keep ‘the same’

Negative: Correlation Coefficients: Me ​ asure how strong two things are related - Measure direction and strength of a correlation: - -1 to 1 - Closer to -1 or 1, stronger associati on (- or +) - Closer to 0, weaker associati on - Gives you something you can compare to *The control variable can be part of the independent variable Point(s) to Consider - Demand Characteristics : People being observed act in the way they think the observer would want - Observer Bias: The observer sees what they expect to see Solution: Double-Blind: True purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed Sometimes we see causal relationships that do not actually exist: - Third variable problem​: A third variable may cause the relationship between two variables ** CORRELATION DOES NOT CAUSE CAUSATION Importance of Control Variables: Without a group where you don't manipulate something, you cannot establish cause-and-effect

*all involve Variables- something that varies (must have at least two different kinds) Three things required to prove Cause-and-Effect:  Requirement What it Means 1.Correlation - Relationship between variables As A changes, B changes; EX: as A increases, B decreases, and as A decreases, B decreases 2.Temporal precedence - 1st causes changes in 2nd A comes first in time, before B 3.No alternative explanation - Internal validity There is no possible alternative explanations for the change in B; A is the only thing that changed

Sensation and Perception What is the difference between perception and sensation: Perception: ​Organization, Identification, and interperception of a sensation in order to form a mental representation - Subjective (each person perceives the word differently) Sensation: ​Stimulation of part of the body by the environment (via a ‘sense organ’) - Objective (each person's sense organs stimulated same way 5 Senses: - Taste, Smell, Touch, Hearing, Vision 4 Things ALL senses have in common: 1. Environmental Stimulus: - Something environmental detected by body 2. Sensory Organs - Specialized part of body that detects environmental stimulus 3. Sensory Receptors - Neurons found within sensory organs that convert environmental stimulus into an action potential (transduction)4. Electrical Signal - Carried to the brain How do the same components result in very different experiences? Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: ● All nerves carry the same basic message - an electrical impulse ● Perceive the messages of different nerves in different ways ● Receptors and nerves for different senses are independent ● Confer specific experience (called labeled line) Synesthesia: ● A condition in which one sense is simultaneously perceived as if by one or more additional senses ● Word synesthesia comes from two greek words, syn (together) and aisthesis (perception). Therefore Synesthesia = “joined perception” ● ~4 % of the population Parts of the Eye: - The eye is designed to maximally detect light (eye anatomy) Function of Parts of Eye: Light passes through: 1. Cornea 2. Pupil​ (iris surrounding) 3. Lens - Lens changes thickness (accommodation) to focus light onto fovea of retina 4. Stimulates light-sensitive neurons in the retina, called photoreceptors- Converts light into an action potential (phototransduction) Some visual problems caused by dysfunction in accommodation Myopia​: nearsightedness Hyperopia​: farsightedness ● Caused by dysfunction of the muscles that control the shape of the lens ● Can be corrected with contacts of glasses Photoreceptors called - Rods and. Cones: - Carry light info to brain Cones Rods Dense in Central Retina (fovea) Dense in peripheral retina (not in fovea) Provide color info Provide black and white info Excellent acuity Poor Acuity

Day Vision Night Vision *** Why we see better in the day than at night Streams of Visual info: The dorsal stream is the Where​ pathway and is involved in the perception of spatial location. The ventral stream is the What​ pathway and is involved in the perception of Form. What is the difference between perception and sensation? Sensation and related but separate events ● Sensation​: Stimulation of part of the body by the environment (via a ‘sense organ’) ○ Objective​ (each person's sense organs stimulated same way)● Perception​: Organization, Identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation ○ Subjective​ (each person perceives world differently) Vision: Perception Psychophysics: ● Examine how perceptions differ between people ● Measurement of thresholds: 1. Absolute threshold: ​Minimal intensity needed to detect a stimulus at all (usually identification on 50% of trials) 2. Just noticeable difference (JND): ​Minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected Grouping: ​Occur when features such as color and shape are combined incorrectly How do we recognize objects (perception of form)?  Image-Based object recognition theory Parts-Based object recognition theory Objects are stored as templates - Template: Mental representation directly compared to a viewed shape Brain deconstructs viewed objects into a collection of parts/pieces (called ‘geons’)

How do we perceive depth and size?  Monocular depth cues Binocular disparity (depth cues) Visual information from one eye tell us about depth - Ex. relative size/height, familiar size, texture gradient - But not always accurate Difference in visual information from both eyes tells us about depth also - Brain makes assumptions based on surroundings

Two ways movement perceived: 1. Shading 2. Lighting The difference between taste and flavor is: ● Taste is another of our senses ● We often say our food ‘tastes’ funny ● But taste and flavor are two different things!PTC is a Harmless, Bitter-tasting su​ bstance. How you perceive it is determined by your: - ⅓ of population tastes it as ‘very bitter’ (supertasters) - ⅓ of population tastes it as ‘somewhat bitter’ (tasters) - ⅓ of population doesn't taste it (non tasters) Miraculin makes Sour​ things taste SweetPSYC 1001:002  Exam 1 Study Guide ● Exam 1 will cover materials presented from chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 ● Exam 1 will open at 7 am on TUESDAY, 9/20, and close at 7 am on WEDNESDAY 9/21 ● You can access Exam 1 under the ‘Quizzes’ portion of the ‘Assessments’ tab on D2L ● You MUST be somewhere with a reliable internet connection ● You MAY NOT work with anyone else on the exam ● We will not have class on Tuesday, 9/20, but WILL have class on Thursday, 9/22 CHAPTER 1: HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION Define the following: ● Psychology ● Mind ● Behavior General Psychology ● What are the three key questions psychologists want to answer? 1. 2. 3. Ancient Greeks ● What question about the mind did Plato and Aristotle want to address? ● What is nativism and how does it relate to Plato?● To which part of the nature vs. nurture debate does nativism belong? ● What is philosophical empiricism and how does it relate to Plato? ● What is another term for philosophical empiricism? ● To which part of the nature vs. nurture debate does philosophical empiricism belong? Dualism ● What question about the mind did dualism attempt to address? ● What was Descartes’ contribution to our understanding of the mind? ● What was the key feature of the brain that Gall thought was responsible for mental ability? ● What was the main contribution of Flourens and Broca to our understanding of the mind? Structuralism vs. Functionalism ● What question about the mind did structuralism attempt to address? ● What were the main contributions of Helmholtz and Wundt to our understanding of the mind? ● What question about the mind did functionalism attempt to address?● What was the main contribution of James to our understanding of the mind? ● How did functionalism inspire Darwin and natural selection? Modern Psychology ● What question about the mind does Clinical Psychology attempt to address? ● What was Freud’s contribution to Clinical Psychology? ● What question about the mind does Behaviorism attempt to address? ● What was the main contribution of Pavlov to our understanding of the mind? ● What was the main contribution of Skinner to our understanding of the mind? ● What question about the mind does Cognitive Psychology attempt to address? ● What was the main contribution of Piaget to our understanding of the mind? ● What was the main contribution of Chomsky to our understanding of the mind? ● What question about the mind does Behavioral Neuroscience attempt to address?● What question about the mind does Social Psychology attempt to address? ● What events led to the creation of the file of Social Psychology? CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODS: Define the following: ● Empiricism ● Scientific Method ● Theory ● Hypothesis ● Operationalize ● Reliability ● Validity ● Power ● Data ● Statistical Significance ● Case Method● Naturalistic Observation ● Demand Characteristics ● Observer Bias ● Double-Blind ● Independent Variable ● Dependent Variable ● Control Variable ● Temporal Precedence Research/Scientific Method ● What are the six steps in the scientific method, including what happens in each step? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.● Do theories and hypotheses prove things? Why or why not? ● What are the three main kinds of research, and what question does each ask? ● Why do we graph data? ● What three ethical principles are psychologists bound by, and what does each one mean? ● What is the difference between IRB and IACUC committees? Three Types of Research ● What are the two features of a ‘good’ sample for a research project? ● What is one strategy to minimize demand characteristics and observer bias? ● What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation? ● What does a correlation coefficient mean? Be prepared to interpret the direction and strength of a correlation based on a given correlation coefficient.● True or false: Correlation and Causation are the same thing. Why or why not? ● What is third variable problem and how does it relate to correlations? ● What are the three things required to prove cause-and-effect? CHAPTER 3: NEUROSCIENCE AND THE MIND Define the following: ● CNS ● PNS ● Neuron ● Sensory Neuron ● Motor Neuron ● Interneuron ● Electrochemical ● Action potential ● Neurotransmitter● Ion ● All-or-none ● Refractory period ● Nodes of ranvier ● Synapse ● Sulcus ● Gyrus ● Monozygotic ● Dizygotic ● Epigenetics Parts of a Neuron and Electrochemical Communication ● What are the four main parts of a neuron, and what is the function of each part? 1. 2. 3. 4.● What are the two broad steps in an action potential? ● How does myelin change the speed of action potentials (speed up or slow down)? ● What are the three steps in an action potential stimulating neurotransmitter release? ● Know the names of each of the neurotransmitters discussed in our 9/6 lecture, including the function of each Localization of Functions within the Brain ● How do we know that different brain regions perform different functions?● Who is Phineas Gage and what did he contribute to our understating of the mind? ● In what way are PET and fMRI scans similar? In what why are they different? ● Know the three broad parts of the brain (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain) and the function of each. ● Know the names and functions of each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. ● What are mirror neurons and for which aspect of human behavior are they important? ● What is the function of the thalamus? Of the hypothalamus? ● What does it mean to say the brain is ‘plastic?’ ● How does brain plasticity relate to Phantom Limb Syndrome? ● What condition can a mirror box help treat?PNS ● What are the two main parts of the PNS, including the function of each? Nature vs. Nurture ● What are twin studies and what do they contribute to our understanding of the mind? ● What are adoption studies and what do they contribute to our understanding of the mind? CHAPTER 4: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Define the Following: ● Perception ● Sensation ● Environmental Stimulus ● Sensory Organ ● Sensory Receptor ● Transduction ● Accommodation ● Mytopia ● Hyperopia● Photoreceptors ● Phototransduction ● Absolute threshold ● Just noticeable difference ● Grouping Common Features of Sensory Organs ● What four things do all sensory systems have in common? ● What role does the brain play in our senses? ● What does the Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies state? Vision: Sensation ● What is the environmental stimulus for vision?● Do humans perceive UV light? Do bees perceive UV light? ● Be prepared to identify the parts of the eye in a diagram. ● Which three structures control how much light gets into the eye? ● How does the process of accommodation relate to myopia and hyperopia? ● What are the similarities and differences of the two types of photoreceptors found in the retina (i.e. distribution within the retina, sensitivities to light, detect color or B and W, good vs. poor visual acuity)?● Which type of photoreceptor is used in day vision? Which one in night vision? ● What are the two pathways visual information is processed in the brain? What kind of visual information does each pathway process? Vision: Perception ● Why/how to optical illusions occur? ● What are the two theories of how we recognize objects? What does each theory involve? ● What are the two ways we perceive depth and size? Why is our perception of size sometimes incorrect? ● What are the two ways we perceive movement? Taste ● True or False: Taste and Flavor are the same thing? Why or why not? ● What is one example of how our perception of taste is determined by our genes? ● What is Miraculin and what does it do?
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