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HIST 2353 WESTERN CIV FROM 1450
Your essays should be in your own words. These are simply facts about events from the questions asked in the Exam 2 questions handout that you received during class. Simply using facts and not making a coherent, well written essay, will not give you a good grade. Please use this wisely
1.How did the Agricultural Revolution and the globalization of food production and markets affect Europe and its empires in the 1700- Late 1800s period?
-Expanding Markets for agricultural goods
-Growing marketplace due to needs of a city
-Cities didn't produce food yet had great demand for it
-Agriculture improved to capitalize on this expanded market
-New Techniques in Agriculture
-New tools and new types of crops introduced -Ends small farmers because common lands are removed. Many people become employees on farms -Start to chop down forests and drain swamps to make room for new farming lands.
-Greater need to grow cotton thanks to industrial revolution. Greater importance over subsistence farming, now growing cash crops.
-Crisis of overproduction in agriculture leads to problems for all agricultural nations in the world (great depression of 1873-1896) Don't forget about the age old question of How many pairs of chromosomes, human has?
-Shift in agricultural focus in colonies
-Instead of food, in India, they are growing cotton, opium, and tea
-Palm oil, ground nuts, cotton, and cocoa in Africa -Rice and wheat become global products
-Food becomes cheaper thanks to mass production of food crops all over the colonies of empires
-There are labor migrations in the colonies. People from Asia, India, and Africa move all over the world to work at other colonies' commodities
-Cash cropping and sending food to markets destabilizes local good grow which leads to famines. -Agriculture commodity growers no longer grow food and have to buy food for themselves If you want to learn more check out What are the functions of a modern presidency?
2.What social, political, and cultural anxieties surfaced in Europe in the forty years leading up to WWI?
-Bismarck created multiple political anxieties. His efforts to create a German state introduced a new superpower into Europe, throwing off the balance of the 4 powers of England, France, Russia, and Austria Hungary.
-Wars of German Unification
-The Danish War
-Austro Prussian War
-Franco Prussian War
-France gives up Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, creating tension between France and Germany that would be a cry to arms during World War I
-Seizing of colonies, especially by Germany leads to political conflict
-Technological superiority lead to a kind of arms race amongst the super powers.
-Scientists like Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer and Freud create social anxieties
-Humans evolved from monkeys
-Survival of the fittest
-Attacking the idea that humans are rational beings -Theories of craniology create more social anxieties as men are being pronounced smarter than women because of having a bigger head We also discuss several other topics like What is a zoonotic disease?
-The idea of Eugenics creates social and cultural anxieties as some people believe their race is superior and want to stop others from procreating Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of social information processing?
We also discuss several other topics like Anthropocene is a movement of what?
-The triple alliance and the Franco Russian alliance creates more political anxieties as nations are taking sides.
3.What were the central tenets of
Victorianism? How did it reflect the rise of the middle class in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries?
-Culture of consumption
-Culture adhered to by many
-Mainly followed by middle class
-Middle class is urban
-Eventually followed in rural areas
-Age of sobriety
-Men try to look older
-Combines to enlightenment ideas and middle class life
-White man's burden
-Seen as the duty of the white man to end savagery in the colonies and bring these backward people to the modern age
-Strict rules about moralityDon't forget about the age old question of What happens if a spleen ruptures?
-Discipline and self-discipline were key as well as etiquette
-It was proper to have someone come over to clean and do multiple chores around the house
-This reflects the rise of the middle class as now they are able to afford housemaids and other types of help around the house
-People also bought fairly sizable homes and had many possessions that had to be cleaned
-There was a strict way that women and men were to hold themselves when around the opposite sex and courtship was a complicated process.
-Middle class people now have enough money to essentially "date".
-People also adhered now to the latest fashions. It was improper to have what was considered old or last season's fashion
-This reflects the middle class' new found disposable income that they can buy frivolous things
-Men were expected to do all the work while the wives would stay at home, keep things proper and be a good wife.
-This reflects the wealth of the middle class that now they can live comfortably off of one pay check rather than needing both husband and wife to do some type of labor or work that pays.
4.How did the First and Second Industrial Revolutions impact Europe? How were they related to and from each other?
-Defining the Industrial Revolution
-A sustained and permanent growth in output per person
-1750 - 1850 is the initial stage of the Industrial Revolution
-1750 - 1830 Textile phase
-Focus on textiles, iron, and transportation
-Largely Associated w/ Western Europe
-Iron, coal, transportation
-Cottage Industry (ended by Industrial Revolution) (first) -Countryside people produce items at home during a fix schedule.
-Many roads and Canals were built and improved in order to improve transportation for trading goods -Coal is the new fuel, mining for coal leads to the Newcomen Steam Engine (first)
-Begin to use coal gas as a fuel (allows for street lights) (first)
-Advances in Technology
-First Industrial Revolution focused on textile industry.
-Fled shuttle, spinning jenny, compton's mule -Leads to factories because of expense of
machines and mass production of textiles.
-Great production of cotton leads to greater need for cotton to be grown.
-Mobile steam engine (locomotive) allows for greater transportation of raw and manufactured goods and people at a much faster speed than ever before.
-Creates greater divide between Western Europe and Eastern Europe b/c Western Europe is ahead and Eastern Europe is lagging behind.
-improvement in income, shorter people due to malnutrition, increased mortality for adults and especially infants.
-Men, children and women all work together. -Women and children now earn wages
-Women and men get more promiscuous b/c of working together in close quarters.
-People stop going to church as much
5.What popular political ideas and movements emerged in the 1815-1848 period? What was their influence after 1848?
-Religion as foundation of social and political order -Natural order justified by legitimacy and history -Sanctity of property
-Agriculture and land as basis of wealth
-Regulation of the economy necessary
-Suspicion of ideas of reason and progress
-Paternalism and deference
-Very pessimistic about human nature
-(Very backwards way of thinking, holding on to monarchies and old ways)
-Individual is the basis of social order
-Constitutional, representative government
-Free market economy, free trade
-Minimal government intervention
-Balanced budgets, limits on spending
-Suspicious of democracy, want property
qualifications of the vote
-Once you judge how an action's consequences affects people, then Bentham believes that the greatest good for the greatest amount of people should be carried out
-Nationalism (all ideas from this period eventually lead to nationalism)
-Coming out of the revolution (liberal ideas) -Middle class phenomena
-Create an authentic nation
-Dynastic nations are fake nations
-Nationalism is a way for people to learn more about their own people
-Language is a sign of national identity
-Linguistic diversity in most countries
-Notion of ethnicity is complicated
-Part of nationbuilding is a feeling of belonging to a nation
-Taught in schools
-Pushing for universal manhood suffrage influenced women to seek suffrage
-Not a popular movement
-Mostly middle class women
-Some women become militant
-Movement becomes confrontational