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UH / History / HIST 2353 / What are the new techniques in agriculture?

What are the new techniques in agriculture?

What are the new techniques in agriculture?

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HIST 2353 WESTERN CIV FROM 1450


What is the new techniques in agriculture?



TEST 2 

DISCLAIMER

Your essays should be in your own words. These are simply  facts about events from the questions asked in the Exam 2  questions handout that you received during class. Simply  using facts and not making a coherent, well written essay,  will not give you a good grade. Please use this wisely

1.How did the Agricultural Revolution and the  globalization of food production and markets  affect Europe and its empires in the 1700- Late 1800s period?

-Expanding Markets for agricultural goods

-Growing marketplace due to needs of a city

-Cities didn't produce food yet had great demand  for it

-Agriculture improved to capitalize on this expanded  market

-New Techniques in Agriculture


What social, political, and cultural anxieties surfaced in europe in the forty years leading up to wwi?



-New tools and new types of crops introduced -Ends small farmers because common lands are  removed. Many people become employees on farms  -Start to chop down forests and drain swamps to  make room for new farming lands.

-Greater need to grow cotton thanks to industrial  revolution. Greater importance over subsistence  farming, now growing cash crops.  

-Crisis of overproduction in agriculture leads to  problems for all agricultural nations in the world (great  depression of 1873-1896) Don't forget about the age old question of How many pairs of chromosomes, human has?

-Shift in agricultural focus in colonies

-Instead of food, in India, they are growing cotton, opium, and tea

-Palm oil, ground nuts, cotton, and cocoa in Africa -Rice and wheat become global products

-Food becomes cheaper thanks to mass production of  food crops all over the colonies of empires


What were the central tenets of victorianism?



-There are labor migrations in the colonies. People from  Asia, India, and Africa move all over the world to work  at other colonies' commodities

-Cash cropping and sending food to markets  destabilizes local good grow which leads to famines.  -Agriculture commodity growers no longer grow  food and have to buy food for themselves If you want to learn more check out What are the functions of a modern presidency?

2.What social, political, and cultural anxieties  surfaced in Europe in the forty years leading  up to WWI?

-Bismarck created multiple political anxieties. His  efforts to create a German state introduced a new  superpower into Europe, throwing off the balance of the  4 powers of England, France, Russia, and Austria  Hungary.

-Wars of German Unification

-The Danish War

-Austro Prussian War

-Franco Prussian War

-France gives up Alsace-Lorraine to Germany,  creating tension between France and Germany  that would be a cry to arms during World War I

-Seizing of colonies, especially by Germany leads to  political conflict

-Technological superiority lead to a kind of arms race  amongst the super powers.  

-Scientists like Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer and  Freud create social anxieties

-Humans evolved from monkeys

-Survival of the fittest

-Attacking the idea that humans are rational beings -Theories of craniology create more social anxieties as  men are being pronounced smarter than women  because of having a bigger head We also discuss several other topics like What is a zoonotic disease?

-The idea of Eugenics creates social and cultural  anxieties as some people believe their race is superior  and want to stop others from procreating Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of social information processing?
We also discuss several other topics like Anthropocene is a movement of what?

-The triple alliance and the Franco Russian alliance  creates more political anxieties as nations are taking  sides.

3.What were the central tenets of  

Victorianism? How did it reflect the rise of  the middle class in Europe in the 18th and  19th centuries?  

-Queen Victoria

-Culture of consumption

-Culture adhered to by many

-Mainly followed by middle class

-Middle class is urban

-Eventually followed in rural areas

-Age of sobriety

-Men try to look older

-Combines to enlightenment ideas and middle class  life

-White man's burden

-Seen as the duty of the white man to end savagery  in the colonies and bring these backward people to  the modern age

-Strict rules about moralityDon't forget about the age old question of What happens if a spleen ruptures?

-Discipline and self-discipline were key as well as  etiquette

-It was proper to have someone come over to clean and  do multiple chores around the house

-This reflects the rise of the middle class as now  they are able to afford housemaids and other types  of help around the house

-People also bought fairly sizable homes and had  many possessions that had to be cleaned

-There was a strict way that women and men were to  hold themselves when around the opposite sex and  courtship was a complicated process.

-Middle class people now have enough money to  essentially "date".

-People also adhered now to the latest fashions. It was  improper to have what was considered old or last  season's fashion

-This reflects the middle class' new found disposable  income that they can buy frivolous things

-Men were expected to do all the work while the wives  would stay at home, keep things proper and be a good  wife.  

-This reflects the wealth of the middle class that now  they can live comfortably off of one pay check rather  than needing both husband and wife to do some type  of labor or work that pays.

4.How did the First and Second Industrial  Revolutions impact Europe? How were they  related to and from each other?

-Defining the Industrial Revolution

-A sustained and permanent growth in output per  person

-1750 - 1850 is the initial stage of the Industrial  Revolution

-1750 - 1830 Textile phase

-Focus on textiles, iron, and transportation

-Heavy Industry

-Largely Associated w/ Western Europe

-Iron, coal, transportation

-Cottage Industry (ended by Industrial Revolution) (first) -Countryside people produce items at home during a  fix schedule.

-Transportation (first)

-Many roads and Canals were built and improved in  order to improve transportation for trading goods -Coal is the new fuel, mining for coal leads to the  Newcomen Steam Engine (first)  

-Begin to use coal gas as a fuel (allows for street  lights) (first)

-Advances in Technology

-First Industrial Revolution focused on textile  industry.  

-Fled shuttle, spinning jenny, compton's mule -Leads to factories because of expense of  

machines and mass production of textiles.  

-Great production of cotton leads to greater need for  cotton to be grown.

-Mobile steam engine (locomotive) allows for greater  transportation of raw and manufactured goods and  people at a much faster speed than ever before.

-Creates greater divide between Western Europe and  Eastern Europe b/c Western Europe is ahead and  Eastern Europe is lagging behind.

-Health

-improvement in income, shorter people due to  malnutrition, increased mortality for adults and  especially infants.  

-Social changes

-Men, children and women all work together.  -Women and children now earn wages

-Women and men get more promiscuous b/c of  working together in close quarters.

-People stop going to church as much  

5.What popular political ideas and movements  emerged in the 1815-1848 period? What was  their influence after 1848?

-Conservative Ideas

-Religion as foundation of social and political order -Natural order justified by legitimacy and history -Sanctity of property

-Agriculture and land as basis of wealth

-Regulation of the economy necessary

-Suspicion of ideas of reason and progress

-Paternalism and deference

-Very pessimistic about human nature

-(Very backwards way of thinking, holding on to  monarchies and old ways)

-Liberal Ideas

-Individual is the basis of social order

-Civil liberties

-Constitutional, representative government

-Free market economy, free trade

-Minimal government intervention

-Balanced budgets, limits on spending

-Suspicious of democracy, want property  

qualifications of the vote

-Utilitarianism

-Jeremy Bentham

-Once you judge how an action's consequences  affects people, then Bentham believes that the  greatest good for the greatest amount of people  should be carried out

-Nationalism (all ideas from this period eventually lead  to nationalism)

-Coming out of the revolution (liberal ideas) -Middle class phenomena

-Create an authentic nation

-Dynastic nations are fake nations

-Nationalism is a way for people to learn more about  their own people

-Language is a sign of national identity

-Linguistic diversity in most countries

-Notion of ethnicity is complicated

-Part of nationbuilding is a feeling of belonging to a  nation

-National Identity

-Taught in schools

-Pushing for universal manhood suffrage influenced  women to seek suffrage

-Not a popular movement

-Mostly middle class women

-Some women become militant

-Movement becomes confrontational

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