GEOG 204 Midterm II Study Guide
Russia: 74% (1 megacity)
Moscow: 16 million
Europe: 73% (2 megacities)
Paris: 10.5 million
London: 8.7 million
Africa: 37% (2 megacities)
Lagos (21 million)
Kinshasa (10 million)
South East Asia: 47% (2 megacities)
Jakarta: over 10 million
Manila: 12.8 million
Propiska system: system in Russia where individuals had to register to move to a certain place
Guestworkers: people in Europe who moved from other countries to help rebuild Europe; temporary jobs; most of the time moved there for years Sanctification: event was very important; only thing that happens there is memory; preserving the event
EX: concentration camp monument in California
Designation: where a reminder is put up of what happened and the rest of space is used up
EX: plaques on the UIUC campus
Rectification: place where something tragic happened but haven't marked the spot; usually reusing site for something else
EX: nightclub fire in Boston--torn down and built on top of it Obliteration: Event so horrible that try to forget but site is contaminated EX: house where serial killer lived--no one wants to live there; can't reuse it We also discuss several other topics like mp 2200
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Study Guide Questions:
1. The two sharp transitions in Russia’s history affected the placement and the size of its cities. The building of the Trans-Siberian railroad caused cities to build along the trail of the railroad. Also, when Peter the Great came into power he switched the orientation of the cities. He wanted to catch up to the West so he moved the capital westward to have some influence and connection with Europe.
2. In the early periods, Russia wanted to be just for Russia. The capital was built inside a wall and was not near Europe. When Peter the Great became Tsar, he moved the capital westward to be more connected with Europe and to catch up with the West. He sent explorers out east to explore.
3. The propiska system was where families and individuals had to register to move to a certain place. If there were too many people registering and moving to a certain city, the permit may be denied. In some cities, relatives were not allowed to visit and needed permission to enter the city. Other cities were completely closed off. One did not know it was there unless you lived there. These were secret cities that were used for military purposes. The people that lived there disappeared. This affected urban populations because this system controlled them. Russia’s ideal city size was about 60,000 people so the government regulated city size to that number of population. If the population was nearing that number, permits and permissions were denied. If you want to learn more check out sunstrate
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4. The greening of the city is tied to both national pride because the open green spaces are for the people and being able to utilize that space is what it means to be a citizen of Astana and Ashgabat. It is also authoritarian because the greenery glorifies the person in charge of the city. It is unsustainable because they are creating parks and growing grass in a desert where there is limited access to water. The water that should be going to the people is going to the parks and grass. It is hard to make a green city when there is not enough water.
5. The blue banana model of Europe is where all the most connected, most important, and most creative European cities are in a sort of an arc, shaped like a banana, across the countries. The green grapes model is where there are a bunch of those cities bunched in a groups in the countries, looking like grape clusters.
6. In the Classical period, there was a central market, defensive walls around the city where the inner city was laid out like a grid. The Greek city-states were more isolated because it was hard to control all the islands of the Greek territory. In Italy, Rome was the top city where the other cities went down in the hierarchical system based on importance. In the Medieval period, there was a shift from the urban areas to rural. There were cities that had certain qualities that pulled people near the city. There were a lot more walls and other fortifications around the cities. In the Renaissance period, the first capitals became present where they control larger regions in the country. Trade was more important so most cities were located on the ocean. Defense was becoming less important so the defensive walls were taken down and converted to parks. In the Industrial Revolution period, capitalism and industry became important so large scale urbanization was the result. Cities went from walking cities to transit cites. In the Post-industrial period, the service sector became more important so the deindustrialization of the cities began. Don't forget about the age old question of Anabolism consists of the processes that synthesize larger or?
7. Low rent housing is more in the transition zones near the central business district and the suburbs of the city. In these neighborhoods, it is very segregated with a lack of resources and employment. The citizens who live in these houses have less resources and thus are not able to get a job or seek any other opportunities because of this lack.
8. Sanctification is a location where an important event took place and there is only a memory of that event in that location. For example, Independence Hall was where the Declaration of Independence was signed and it has not been used for anything else. Designation is at the location of the event is a reminder of what happened there. For example, plaques are reminders of events that what happened in certain places, like the plaques around the UIUC campus. Rectification is where in the location of an event there is nothing to remind anyone there what happened. For example, the nightclub that caught on fire in Boston was torn down and built on top of. Obliteration is the location of an event or place so horrible that the site is tainted and nothing is there. For example, a house where a serial killer lived. No one would want to live in the house or reuse it for something else.
9. A dual city was where two types of people in the population of the cities. There was the native population that was living there before colonialization and the population that colonized the cities. This created segregated cities. This happened mostly in English colonies where the colonists used the existing political system to rule the colonies.
10. In the ancient/medieval cities of Africa, the cities were centered on trading centers which sold salt, gold, and slaves. There were also centers of learning in the middle of the cities as well. In the pre-colonial days, the ports grew because of the influence and settlements of the British and Dutch in the south and Arab and Asian influence in the east. In the colonial period, the Europeans divided up Africa and assigned positions of power to the minorities but were still the major power in their part of Africa. The British used the existing political system in place while the French completely took over their territories and forced the natives to speak their language. In the post-colonial period, there were still major ties to the countries that colonized them. Migrants moved towards those countries. The governments were unstable and corrupt and the economies depended on a single good. Cities grew very rapidly and are continuing to grow. More jobs are available in the cities and informal economies are growing.
11. Much of the city is segregated even though there is no apartheid anymore. Because the removal of so many non-whites, the city is still polarized. The cities are now trying to bring people in to help the cities grow. Reconstruction of the city helped depolarize the city but there is still a shortage of housing and lack of public transportation. Cape Town aimed to be world class and got the bid for the World Cup in 2010.
12. Rap in Dakar is global and local at the same time because the people who are able to listen to the music that is published globally are able to make rap music that is influenced by other cultures. Then, those people are also able to publish their songs and they may be able to go global and influence other rappers around the world as well.
13. The demographic transition is the shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. At first, both rates are high and usually occur during the pre-industrial period of a country. The death rate then drops because of better living conditions and medical discoveries. This is where the population booms. In the third stage, the birth rate begins to drop because most of the children are surviving. This normally occurs when a country is urbanizing. Families are moving to the cities so they can get better jobs than being farmers and they earn more income for the household. In the last stage, both the death and birth rates are low and may have negative growth.
14. The two types of pre-colonial cities were sacred cities and market cities. Sacred cities were usually founded on sacred sites and that site was usually the center of the city. The site is more important that the situation in these cities. Market cities were located on the coast and had a more diverse population than sacred cities. The situation was more important than the site in these cases. When colonialism hit, the market cities were more impacted than the sacred cities because of the trading centers located in those cities and because of their locations on the oceans.
15. Desakota existed in high density, rural areas. A lot of labor was required for the harvest season of rice. There was a high demand for rice in these areas which called for seasonal work. Desakota formed because of the demand for rice. In these cities, the city and the rural areas are intertwined because of the cultivation of the rice. Rice fields can be located next to a suburban area full of houses and shops.
16. Putrajaya is not a capital of Southeast Asia but a government center. It was built in districts with green spaces and public transit and not built by the center out. It is like Brasilia in a sense because of governmental importance. The city was designed by the Malaysians with the intent of being a cybercity and to be a step towards becoming a developed nation. The city was a blank slate but lacks diversity.