Biology Study Guide - Lee
Biology Study Guide - Lee Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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Popular in Biology
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Saturday April 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/04/15
Biology Study Guide How do organim work Comparative approach Who is a shark related to You could have a human that is related to a white shark Bacterium heterotroph simple extracellular digestion propulsion with a flagellum a white shark is like other organisms It needs to eat but it eats differently A lot of labs will be about eating Bacteria has a very simple diet digesting dissolved nutrients Same principles that govern bacteria also govern a white shark but differently Sea anemone carnivore but also benefits from algae sedentary smart because it has algae inside of it that gives it food White shark Apex predator Jawed chordate not every animal has jaws Structural adaptations fast swimming Physiological and biochemical adaptations fast swimming flotation Reproductive adaptations important for success Biological engineering they have ways of engineering themselves on a microscale for fast swimming Lam prey jawless fish attaches itself to other organisms and sucks the blood out White Shark Jaw create a hinge teeth that are sharp if you cut a head off a shark it s jaws will still chomp HeHcop on weird jaws Idaho State found a fossil with the intactjaw in a helicoprion Ancestor of a shark The lowerjaw looks like a spiral buzzsaw turns out it used the jaw the serrations scrape and cut Master cutter We think it cuts jellyfish They re super slippery White shark more symmetric tail fastswimmer iCIicker Why does the goblin shark have such an unusual bite A increase bite strength B ambush prey we know it can t swim fast and the snout is probably a sensory organ It can t change because of its nose It probably lies extremely still and then just zips out it s mouth C intimidate enemies D increase bite speed E specializes in eating seaweeds Thresher shark asymmetric tail uses tail to stun prey Swimming performance High aspect ratio tail least amount of drag is a symmetric tail Super fast Asymmetric isn t as fast Vertebrate segmented muscle and cartilaginous skeleton Streamlining Must swim constantly pectoral fins generate lift Biochemical nitrogenous wastes urea and other amines create buoyancy Tuna sword fish shark probably fast All have that tail Designed to create lift swimming constantly Generating power Skeletal muscle with sarcomeres Closed circulatory system hemoglobin Heated swimming muscle Warm blooded 30 degrees Higher body temperature higher power Bioengineering Placoid scales generate fonNard thrust Sharks are engineers made their skin covered with scales Not flat like normal fish but spiny sandpaper like spikes Engineers have 3D printed shark skin and put it on robots The skin actually generates fonNard thrust The 3D printed skin is resistant to bacteria Figure 324 A traditional view of animal diversity based on bodyplan grades Do you really know what animals are Understand their relationships to other animals Phylogenetic trees Know characteristics of a phyla Tree has all of the different phyla and the branches that are based on what the animals look like Starfish next to us Based on body structure Sequencing genomes which DNA is most similar Figure 328 Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSUrRNA Diagram you need to know from the test The diversification of animals through evolution helps us to understand what an animal is All models are false but some are useful George Box Professor of Statistics University of Wisconsin Evolution as a model it provides us with the greatest insight into what an organism is There is a reason why we don t expectjellyfish to fly or walk around anytime soon Figure 3213x Burgess Shale fossi The tree of life that exists today is not the one that existed 2 million years ago Most of the fossils observed had hard body parts Calms and vertebrates Most animals are not preserved well lt preserved soft body oganisms Opabinia five stalked eyes a backwardfacing mouth under the head and a long flexible hoselike proboscis which extended from under the front of the head and ended in a quotclawquot fringed with spines Looks like maybe a fried shrimp except it has 5 eyes and a vacuum cleaner like thing with teeth at the end A lot of times when they found this fossil they thought it was a shrimp eating a worm and got killed in the middle of eating Preserved because there was probably a tsunami or earthquake lt buried an entire group You find this fossil with a weird mouth and assume that he was eating Then you find another with the same thing Realize that the mouth is actually part of the weird animal Find that there are all of these things that don t look anything like they do now Figure 3213 A sample of some of the animals that evolved during the Cambrian The world is already pretty diverse but if there was another whole set of animals that just disappeared What we look at what used to be the coast of Seattle a long time ago you see a ton of crazy fossils of animals that don t exist anymore They started lumping these fossils into existing groups but it got to the point where they couldn t place the fossils in existing categories Animals that were around at that time were very different so the phylum that he shows us 328 was actually probably more of a huge bush with multiple more branches We have to spend at least 3 lectures talking about it if they all still existed Can find all of these existing groups in the Burgess Shale there s also just a ton that don t exist anymore Figure 331 Review of animal phylogeny iClicker There are been about 5 mass extinction events the Permian 250mA was the most severe resulting in the extinction of of all species 100 96 54 22 0 W909 Choanoflagellate colony Choanoflagellate first animal look like protist your body has different types of proteins Your cells aren t going to link up or crawl around on other cells These ones link up This had to have some sort of advantage A group of cells vs free swimming cell which do groups have a better advantage Reason why colonies do better is because they are better at capturing particles They are filter feeders That they are superior to the individuals Phylum Porifera First split in the phylogeny is the eumetazoa vs parazoa from choanoflagellate The only things that exist now in the parazoa are the sponges There may have been more but right now all of the sponges are in one group only in the marine environment This one lonely branch are the sponges They look very similar to the ancestral choanoflagellate Sponges most simple phylum colony of flagellated cells choanocytes Porocytes on surface individual cells can potentially regenerate into a new individual No true tissues no symmetry Spicules spongin Know the characteristics for sure Figure 333 Anatomy of a sponge Colony of things that look like choanoflagellate Has a flagellum with a structure that can filter out particles If it is by itself it will trap the food If you put a lot of choanoflagellates together coanaflaggeside You have a lot of flagellum that form the spores some things work as protection and others that form a protein called spongin Specialized cells on the outside and specialized cells on the inside filtering water The water that s coming out is sterile in terms of bacteria any bit of food will get removed You see them in places where food is really scarce Sponges are really primitive As far as an organism goes this is as stripped down and minimal as possible Their cells are not divided into tissues Totally do whatever you want in terms of body shape One of the only phyla has no symmetry A lot of sponges in tide pools will just crust onto rocks Very disorganized No sensory organs They have no idea what s going on Can t tell if it s light or dark no muscles for contractions and stuff Pretty much no to everything Radial Other creatures the eumetazoa they do have symmetry Two types of symmetry bilateral and radial symmetry Figure 325 Body symmetry a Radial symmetry works pretty well More simple organisms Easier Cells are next to each other b Bilateral symmetry not trivial Phylum Cnidaria Radial symmetric simple organism Hydras jellyfish sea anemones corals True tissues nervous system muscles sensory organs digestive system generally two tissue layers gastrodermis epidermis gastrovascular cavity stinging cells Radiata Figure 334 Polyp and medusa forms of cnidarians A polyp sea anemone A medusa a jellyfish Always form the radial symmetric way If you take one sponge cell they ll all grow into a new cell Some cells are internal layer gastrodermis Some are outer layer epidermis Sponges are completely different they don t have both layers Have nervous system and sensory organisms Figure 335 A cnidocyte of a hydra A cnidarian also has a harpoon called nematocyst The fastest speed in the animal kingdom is involved in the shooting of a nematocyst out of the cnidocyte Some have venom Like jeHy sh One inch 2 cell layered creature can kill a 6 foot human Echarged cnidocyte Harpoons that are coiled inside stinging cells They re venomous Cnidarians Medusa forms Medusa form jellyfish Polyp form coral and anemone The lrukandji Carukua barnesi 1 inch diameter Australia Can kill human in a few days Microscopic video footage ofjellyfish nematocysts firing The video was created by the TASRU Tropical Australian Stinger Research Unit of James Cook University The video shows nematocysts along a section of tentacle from Carukia barnesi lrukandji jellyfish discharging after artificial stimulation The image has been filmed through a microscope and is magnified about 400 times Cnidaria Deep water anemone search for anemone swimming Stomphia didemon Orange swimming anemone 80160m depth Usually attached to horse mussels around sandy substrates Phylum Ctenophora Comb jellies comblike ciliary plates for propulsion no stinging cells sticky tentacles instead True tissues nervous system muscles sensory organs digestive system 23 tissue layers gastrovascular cavity Radiata Important to the evolution of animals Bilateral What we are mirror image Lot of phyla Figure 326 Body plans of the bilateria acoelomate pseudocoelomate coelomate WHAT ARE THE THREE TISSUE TYPES OF A BILATERAL ORGANISM endoderm inner ectoderm outer mesoderm middle Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms dorsoventrally flattened no segmentation gastrovascular cavity bilateral no coelom protostome Figure 3310 Anatomy of a planarian Figure 3312 Anatomy of a tapeworm Phylum Nematoda Roundworms unsegmented no circulatory system bilateral pseudocoelomate protostome iClicker What is a potential problem faced by a tapeworm living inside a human s intestine A constant threat of predators B food availability is very low C low chance of encountering another worm of same species for sexual reproduction D poor cell phone reception L0ph0phorates several phyla Bryozoans lampshells brachiopods bilateral coelomate protostome Phylum MOIIUS Clams snails squids foot visceral mass mantle bilateral coelomate protostome Table 333 Major Classes of Phylum Mollusca Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Mollusca Euspira lewisii Moon snail one of the largest to be found intertidally in the Northwest It does not usually stay inside the shell long because it cannot breathe lt crawls across sandflats and mudflats with its huge foot partly extended in front of the shell like a snowplow pushing through the sediments in search of clams Vampyroteuthis infernalis Vampire squid from hell httpwwwyoutubecomwatc hvS3CJKKSUpg No ink production produces bioluminescent mucus cloud Black surface Lives in the oxygen minimum zone Hawaiian bobtail squid Houses bioluminescent Vibrio bacteria in a crypt Uses the light for counterillumination when they hunt at night There is a reflector and lens as part of the light organ Phylum Annelida Segmented worms bilateral coelomate protostome Giant palouse earthworm Driloleirus americanus The white lily scented denizen of the region s fertile deep soils reportedly can grow to 3 feet long Thought to be extinct Specimen found by Ul researcher in 2006 Phylum Arthronoda Crustaceans insects spiders segmented body jointed appendages exoskeleton bilateral coelomate protostome Interesting arthronods Pistol shrimp lsopods Look like pillbugs normally small Mantisshrimo Stomatonods Second leg is a spear or club special hard chitin Echinodermata urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Red sea urchin eats kelps jaw like structure these urchins live over 100 years and found some near Vancouver Island that may be 200 years old A prime food for sea otters httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvMXQF7thDSYampfeaturerelated httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvb44 bxr07w Echinoderms Sea cucumber radial symmetry forms cylinder shape Phylum Chordata Lancelets tunicates vertebrates notochord nerve cord bilateral coelomate deuterostome Figure 328 Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSUrRNA Diagram you need to know from the test Figure 3325a Freeliving nematode Lophophorates several phyla Bryozoans lampshells brachiopods bilateral coelomate protostome Figure 3314 Lonhobhorates Bryozoan left brachionod right Phylum Mollusca Clams snails squids foot visceral mass gills mantle 3 main body parts bilateral coelomate protostome complete digestive system flow through digestive system Table 333 Major Classes of Phylum Mollusca Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Figure 3316 Basic body plan of mollusks all have a shell too the shell was protection and made out of the same thing as cement which means they could come on land too Mollusca Euspira lewisii Moon snail one of the largest to be found intertidally in the Northwest It does not usually stay inside the shell long because it cannot breathe It crawls across sandflats and mudflats with its huge foot partly extended in front of the shell like a snow plow pushing through the sediments in search of clams KNOW DEFINITION OF EACH OF THE DIFFERENT PHYLUM Figure 3318 The resui of torsion in a gastronod could come on land too the problem was gravity and that they could dry out the shell that was mainly evolved for protection it was also a way to deal with gravity and the problem of drying out land snails looks just like an undenNater marine snail except the shell is more centered over the body mass the unfortunate part of that is you are pooping on your own head makes cement in this case the mantle making the shell you get this invagination of the mantle thats forming a modified lungs Phylum Mollusca Class Bivalvia take things like the foot mantle the gills and modify them for different purposes in this phylum you have things that move on land sedentary things etc Figure 3321 Anatomy of a clam this thing doesn t move very much generally they are like sponges Freshwater mussel Lampsilis reevesiana Breathe with mantle so it has a stipend and using it as a snorkel This way you can still filter particles and get fresh water to breathe Clam shell like thing that made a mantel look like a fish It makes a swimming motion it sticks out of the shell iClicker Why does the mussel lampsiis have a modified mantle that resembles a fish A attract real fishes that try to eat the fake fish B blend in with the environment C it gives them the ability to swim D identity crisis There are babies in the mussel39s shell When the fish try to eat the fake fish the babies are injected into the fishes mouth and the fish is the new baby momma The fish comes up to the fake fish and when it opens its mouth it squirts the larvae into the fishes face and the larvae hook on and get into the fishes gills Humboldt squid A nasty apex predator Animal is the bilateral body plant modified to match the function it needs to do in life Vampyroteuthis infernalis Vampire squid from hell httpwwwyoutubecomwatc hvS3CJKKSUpg No ink production produces bioluminescent mucus cloud Black surface Lives in the oxygen minimum zone Hawaiian bobtail squid Houses bioluminescent Vibrio bacteria in a crypt Uses the light for counterillumination when they hunt at night There is a reflector and lens as part of the light organ Phylum Annelida Segmented worms bilateral coelomate protostome Giant palouse earthworm Driloleirus americanus The white lily scented denizen of the region s fertile deep soils reportedly can grow to 3 feet long Thought to be extinct Specimen found by Ul researcher in 2006 Phylum Arthropoda Crustaceans insects spiders segmented body jointed appendages exoskeleton bilateral coelomate protostome problem with molting and having to change shells but besides that they are invincible You can have some speed and armor They are very abundant They also have jointed appendages We also have those joints and fingers These also have something similar to that but the skeleton is on the outside They could also text if they had big enough brains Interesting arthronods Pistol shrimp lsopods Look like pillbugs normally small Mantisshrimo Stomatonods Second leg is a spear or club special hard chitin Mantis shrimp isn t just beautiful has specialized claw that has super fast musculature and it thrusts it out Either has a spear or a club It clubs into the clams body armor Phylum Echinodermata Starfish sea urchins Endoskeleton water vascular system tube feet pedicellaria spines regeneration capability bilateral coelomate deuterostome Figure 3338 Anatomy of a sea star Echinodermata starfish Pycnopodia helianthoides Sunflower star Voracious predator httpwwwyoutu becomwatchv Tys0w3CgApQ httpwwwyoutu becomwatchv ALaMoSvaE Echinodermata urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Red sea urchin eats kelps jaw like structure these urchins live over 100 years and found some near Vancouver Island that may be 200 years old A prime food for sea otters httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvMXQF7dhVDSYampfeaturereated httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvb44 bxr07w Echinoderms Sea cucumber radial symmetry forms cylinder shape Phylum Chordata Lancelets tunicates vertebrates notochord nerve cord bilateral coelomate deuterostome Animal Nutrition 1 Some of the best known and fascinating adaptations of animals involve their feeding and digestion Animal diversity of feeding strategies and digestive physiology Filterfeeders predators Digestive systems no true tissues and organs gastrovascular cavity true digestive system alimentary canal Simple Intracellular Digestion Example paramecium Food taken up into food vacuoles where enzymatic and chemical digestion occurs Extracellular digestion A outside organism B gastrovascular cavities C alimentary canal Secrete digestive enzymes onto food source Absorb nutrients Best known in fungi and bacteria some higher animals Gastrovascular cavity Hydra extracellular digestion increased surface area disadvantage ic parts of alimentary canal mouth mechanical digestion storage absorption anus Mechanical Enzymatic Salivary amylase Digests starch Food formed into bolus Moistened and dissolving with saliva Peristaltic contraction to stomach Stomach Muscular organ approx 1 liter capacity esophageal sphincter pyloric sphincter rugae ridges Digestive Mechanisms in Stomach Mechanical Chemical enzymatic Mechanical Mixing and churning Digestive Mechanisms Mechanical mixing and churning Chemical pH around 2 Also breaks food down Enzymatic Pepsin protease breaks down protein Absorption low surface area water small molecules such as ethanol aspirin TEST Why doesn t pepsin digest in the stomach Mucus helps you The inside has hydrochloric acid One enzyme can break down a lot of things a second They produce something close to pepsin Activation of pepsin chief cells pepsinogen inactive so totally a test question produce pepsinogen and once you take that off its active When its secreted it s inactive two different types of cells Chief and parietal In a healthy person digestion is happening in the stomach not on the walls Once you get the pepsin started from pepsinogen it will self activate parietal cells HCl test question produce HCl protons everything s moving out iClicker Infection of stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori causes parietal cells to produce excess HCL this results in A pepsinogen that is never activated B Stomach pH rise to pH 12 C Self digestion and gastric ulcers Small intestine Most of the enzymatic digestion occurs here Acid neutralized Starch protein lipids digested Why doesn t the small intestine digest itself Like pepsin but is not active Trypsinogen gt trypsin Procarboxypeptidase gt carboxypeptidase Chymotrypsinogen gt chymotrypsin Once activated they can start digesting Interesting in biology often times you turn something on you get a chain reaction and everything starts happening like microwave popcorn when the membrane bound enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen it makes trypsin Trypsin then activates everything else Most nutrient absorption takes place in small intestine Structure another example of increasing surface area Large intestine colon Major function is to reabsorb water Rich in symbiotic bacteria Bacteria digest cellulose Some symbiotic bacteria produce vitamin K Variations of vertebrate digestive system Herbivorous mammals Specialized fermentation chambers Cecum or multichambered stomachs Are there ways to figure out what animals eat without observing them in nature Natural trace materials are stored in an animal and can tell you its history and what it ate Pollutants metals Stable isotopes of C and N Variations on the vertebrate digestive system Pythons big infrequent meals of meat and bone Herbivores eating plant cellulose Python incredible ups and downs of digestion Capable of ingesting prey over 12 of its body weight monthly Between meals no digestive enzymes or stomach acid is produced intestine villi are shrunken heart mass shrinks After swallowing prey rapid body changes increase digestive enzymes acid intestine heart and other organs increase in size 44 fold increase in metabolism Variations of vertebrate digestive system Herbivorous mammals Specialized fermentation chambers Cecum or multichambered stomachs Coyote vs Koala Carnivore vs Herbivore Koala has a huge swirl cecum between small and large intestine and longer large intestine Koala specialized to eat on eucalyptus trees Cecum is really long and big and the coyote has small little hump Why does herbivory require specializations Plant tissue not like meat Meat has high calories Harder to break up Contains cellulose Nutrients less concentrated than meat Cellulose also called dietary fiber Cellulose and chitin are the most abundant polymers on earth Some protists and bacteria can break down cellulose Enzyme is cellulase generally not produced by anything but produce and bacteria Cellulose degradation is slow and generally requires anaerobic zero oxygen conditions Scientists are interested in cellulose breakdown for biofuel purposes iClicker Which of the following would be a good characteristic of a fermentation chamber like the cecum A Cellulose spends a long time in chamber so it has time to be digested B Rich supply of blood vessels so that the organ and cellulose are always oxygenated C Internal conditions that will kill bacteria and protists Cecum Allows breakdown of cellulose in herbivores One opening and exit lower oxygen slower passage Digested cellulose must be reintroduced to digestive system Ruminant 4 chambered stomach First two chambers where symbiotic bacteria and protists break down cellulose Cow rechews food 3rd chamber where water is absorbed 4th chamber further digestion by cow s enzymes Mutation of lysozyme bacteria degrading enzyme high amounts of pepsin and HCI resistant form secreted in stomach Cecum Allows breakdown of cellulose in herbivores One opening and exit lower oxygen slower passage Digested cellulose must be reintroduced to digestive system Cecum does not absorb nutrients as well They have night feces which they reeat Ruminant 4 chambered stomach First two chambers where symbiotic bacteria and protists break down cellulose Cow rechews food 3rd chamber where water is absorbed 4th chamber further digestion by cow s enzymes Mutation of lysozyme bacteria degrading enzyme high amounts of pepsin and HCI resistant form secreted in stomach When a cow eats the food spends a long time in the stomach and everything starts working on it To make more surface area they regurgitate their food and swallow it back They keep working on it and working on it until it is all digested Converting grass into bacteria Once you ve done this you can move the digested cellulose to the other chambers The other chambers take away the water the last one has digestive enzymes iClicker A giant isopod in Japan has not eaten for 1500 days A this may be normal since they are sit and wait predators in the deep sea where encountering a meal and be extremely rare B This is impossible animals must eat 3 times a day C Someone must be sneaking it food Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Keywords cellular respiration Diffusion of gases Speed of diffusion Effect of size on oxygen supply Gas exchange structures Gills lungs Gastrovascular cavity Surface area Themes that we ll often come across Organisms have similar functional needs but have developed diverse ways of meeting them Organisms must obey physical laws Understanding how an organism works involves biochemistry cell biology physiology ecology and evolution Cellular respiration A type of controlled combustion Reduced carbon eg glucose 02 gt C02 H20 Takes place inside cells by mitochondria bacterialike organelles The simple view is true for animals but there are differences Need to consider the problem of how gases get into and out of an animal Bacteria can just use their body surface but they are extremely small Body plan Differences are observed in types of respiratory surfaces This will be the focus of today s lecture Major caus for these differences Size big vs small Metabolic rate 02 consumption Breathing air vs water Why doessize matter in respiration Rate of diffusion of gases eg oxygen How fast is diffusion of oxygen 1 micron pm in 104 seconds One millionth of a meter in one tenth of a millisecond Brownian motion Thusquot It takes a long time for molecules to diffuse over long distances Speed of oxygen diffusion in liquid 1 pm in 104 seconds 1000 pm 1 mm in 100 seconds Thus diffusion can supply oxygen only over very short distances Examples where oxygen diffuses only short distances Vertebrate lung Very small organisms How small does an organism have to be to rely on diffusion alone Consider a spherical sea creature 1 mm wide oxygen concentration in normal seawater is sufficient to support low rates of respWa on Predicted that oxygen concentration only needs to be 71 of normal levels What do you do if you want to be bigger than 1 mm Adaptations to enhance gas exchange Circulatory systems andor increased surface area Key Words Fish gill Filaments Lamellae Tracheal system Tracheoles Gastrovascular cavity Lung Tidal ventilation Ventilation in birds Scaling accounts in part for effect of body size on metabolic rate Small things can have high metabolic rates is because they re small and have better surface area to volume ratios Smaller animals tend to die younger could be due to oxygen consumption Gas Exchange Structures Surface only very small organisms lt 1mm Gastrovascular hydra jellyfish also flatworms increase surface area Gills tracheal systems lungs increase surface area Mixture of the above Gills definition Appendages around which the medium usually water passes often richly supplied with blood vessels Found in many types of invertebrates and vertebrates m important to have flow over the gills otherwise you lose the concentration gradient and gas flux goes to zero Same amount inside and outside of the gills theres no diffusion If you replenish the fluid then you ve got a gradient again Surface area and circulation of the fluid so that you can have a gradient Direction of the blood flow Opposite of the direction of the water How do gill surface areas compare among different fishes Puffer fish for example do not swim as fast Slow moving fish doesn t have gills with as much surface area Air doesn t go through the mouth Side of the insect is he spiracle where they breathe Tracheae Internal sacs Unlike insect tracheal system lungs do not contact entire body Circulatory system draws oxygen from lungs to tissues Found in snails a few fishes spiders vertebrates
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