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UM / Marine Science / IMCS 111 / What is diel vertical migration?

What is diel vertical migration?

What is diel vertical migration?

Description

School: University of Miami
Department: Marine Science
Course: Introduction to Marine Science
Professor: Claire paris-limouzy
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Ocean and Atmosphere, Oceanography, Ocean, marine biology, marine mammalogy, Ocean Primary Productivity Phytoplankton Oceanography NPP, and Fish
Cost: 25
Name: MSC 111 Week 10 Notes
Description: These notes cover from the very end of plankton all the way through cetaceans.
Uploaded: 10/28/2016
12 Pages 43 Views 1 Unlocks
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"}ul.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-5 > li:before{content:"■ 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li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-0}ol.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-8 0}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxthiz7xn4gt-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_8p485s8s90eg-7 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-2}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-6 0}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5}ul.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8 0}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-3}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-6}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-7 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7t9wp9zhm3zv-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_7t9wp9zhm3zv-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7t9wp9zhm3zv-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-1}.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_7t9wp9zhm3zv-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3x43kkf442m3-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-4}.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_f7rs2bk9d7b1-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_hsg63mj1m6c4-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f7rs2bk9d7b1-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hsg63mj1m6c4-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hsg63mj1m6c4-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f7rs2bk9d7b1-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_f7rs2bk9d7b1-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hqdpbfar5r0-7 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f7rs2bk9d7b1-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_hsg63mj1m6c4-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rd9wbly2jwb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hqdpbfar5r0-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_hqdpbfar5r0-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e7c520dkgwp5-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hsg63mj1m6c4-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5rd9wbly2jwb-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fzall9ls8n91-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ocg7tkz5ky3l-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_5rd9wbly2jwb-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-4 0}.lst-kix_ocg7tkz5ky3l-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-4 0}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ocg7tkz5ky3l-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ocg7tkz5ky3l-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_16ukm1hnbi6e-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ocg7tkz5ky3l-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw3jbh7l0s47-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_x1f3wv97rn5w-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hqdpbfar5r0-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_hqdpbfar5r0-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_esbu76vo6riy-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-8}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gytftwccj02i-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-5 0}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ol.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-3 0}.lst-kix_4pkujpdpddk0-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ay0b6j80i59i-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ol.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-2 0}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_to9fl2bpdf7h-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wc8iozq5kzt6-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ua4fltx1om0e-3}.lst-kix_mypjte9fh4qp-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-2}.lst-kix_4pkujpdpddk0-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f48pety8xdaj-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_oie2i9pnekby-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_oie2i9pnekby-0,decimal) ". 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Hornet jet, 300 body lengths/sec vs body lengths per secondWe also discuss several other topics like What are the properties of relation?

34.45 Staying Afloat

  •  Many planktonic larvae and holoplankton are denser than H2O.
  • Strategies to remain in H2O column:
  • Active swimming
  • Appendages to ↑ drag and ↓ sinking
  • Small size
  • Buoyant compounds
  •  Diel Vertical Migration
  • Diurnal: Events that occur during day
  • Nocturnal: events that occur at night
  • Diel: events that occur with a 24-hour periodicity
  • Diel Vertical Migration (DVM): generally upward migration at dusk and downward migration at dawn
  • Representatives of almost all holoplanktonic groups
  • Each specie has a preferred day + night depth range
  • Varies with life stages and/or sex
  • Consequences for scientific sampling: day + night samples will differ in species and biomass
  • Distance traveled varies among taxa
  • Even small taxa can migrate several 100m
  • Larger taxa may migrate over 800m
  • Long dist in body lengthsHow fast?
  •  Small taxa: Upward velocities 10-170 m/hr
  •  Large: 100-200 m/hr

  • Deep scattering layer
  • Layers in ocean detected by sonar
  • Appear to be “hard” layers
  • Day: up to scattering layers
  • Night: merge ↑ into shallower band
  • Moved with diel periodicity
  • Animals with strong density contract and/or sand-speed contract will produce strong echoes
  • DSL dominated by euphausiids, shrimp + small fish
  • May also contain heteropods, pteropods and copepods
  •  Migration cues
  • Ambient light appears likely
  • Animals follow isolines
  • Evidence: sunny vs. cloudy days, eclipses

Reasons for Migration

  1.  For herbivores, food is near surface
  2.  Reduce vulnerability to visual predates
  3. DVM most pronounced when predatory fish are abundant
  4.  Moderated by food availability
  •  When food is more abundant, more time spent at surface
  • O2 minimum layer occurs at about to m below the surface
  • Food sinking draws organism which respire, consuming O2
  • Decay of organic material consumes O2

 If you want to learn more check out Enumerate the four functions of inventory.

Plankton, micronekton, and nekton

  • True plankton, carried with currents, drifters
  •  Micro-nekton exhibit swimming behavior thought it is limited in scope such that their distribution is “planktonic” in at least the horizontal
  •  Nekton are swimmers
  • Net systems:
  • Straining the ocean
  • MOCNESS: Multiple opening and closing nets
  • Includes CTD, sensors
  •  What are Nekton?
  • Fish
  • Large invertible (squid)
  • Reptiles
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  •  Mobility allows nekton to use more ocean volume + diverse habitats
  • Light ↓ with depth
  • Pressure ↑ with depth
  • Lack of shelter, structure in open ocean
  • Patchy distribution of resources (horizontal)
  • Resources density declines with depth and in regions with low primary productivity
  • Taxis sensory info
  • Phototaxis: sensing light
  • Geotaxis: sensing orientation
  •  Vertical variation in pelagic habitats
  • Nekton present at depths to 6000m for abyssal plains, 10,000m for deep oceanic trenches
  • Shel made of bone
  • Swim bladders for buoyancy
  • o   Compensates for dense shell
  • Most ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii)
  • Few lobe-finned (Sarcopterygii) such as lungfish and coelacanth

 Body Morphologies

  1. Laterally compressed: turn + escape
  2. Flattened: benthic
  3. Elongate: Hiding
  4. Irregular: camouflage

 Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three types of receivables?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the gi bill of rights, 1944?
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Coloration

  •   Functions
  • Warning coloration
  • Danger, poison, bad taste
  • Cryptic coloration
  • Camouflage-hide, stalk prey
  • Disruptive coloration
  • Break outline of indiv – confuse predators
  • Countershading
  • Dark top, light bottom
  • Camo in open water

Feeding

  • Sharks and cartilaginous fishes
  • Bite pieces from large prey
  • Tiger: Diverse stomach contents
  • GWS: Wand and wait
  •  Cookie cutter: cut out chunks
  • Ingest smaller prey whole
  • o   Nurse: benthic invertebrates
  • Filter plankton – Gill feeders
  • Whale shark – warm
  • Basking: cold
  • Megamouth
  • Manta Ray

  • Bony fishes
  • Capture large prey whole
  • Barracuda
  • Frogfishes
  • Pickers-ingest smaller prey whole
  • Butterfly fish, slipmouth

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