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ant 111

ant 111


School: Syracuse University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Professor: M. schwarz
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Anthro, Anthropology, Introd to Cul Anthro, Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, exam, study, Studyguide, Study Guide, and Midterm Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: ANT 111, Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Study Guide with notes for Exam 2 on November 2. M. Schwarz.
Uploaded: 10/28/2016
4 Pages 17 Views 12 Unlocks

Exam 2 Study Guide for ANT 111 

what is adolescence?

∙ Weddings were traditionally about having kids

∙ We can carry a taste or texture that reminds us of home

∙ People bring food from home to where they live because they want that  connection

∙ Animals feed, humans dine

∙ In every culture, eating is a formal ritual that speaks of a common humanity ∙ To prepare and serve a meal is a symbol of civilization

∙ Giving food is a powerful language and so is taking it away

∙ Ramadan fasting is a purification of the soul

∙ Fasting means not eating food between sunrise and sunset

∙ A big part of Ramadan is about apathizing with others

∙ If food is a symbol of love, a recipe passed on is a symbol of hope  Adolescence 

∙ Not all biological markers are universal

∙ In some cultures, a woman will go from being a child to being an adult  (marriage)

∙ Life Stages

what is kinship?

o Fetal

o Birth

o Infancy

o Toddlers

o Childhood

o Biological Maturation

∙ In many societies, non-adults are not considered to have specialized needs o Children’s dishes, toys, etc.

∙ Biological maturation

o In the U.S. girls are maturing much sooner

 Because of hormones in food containers

o In different parts of the world, sexual maturity comes at different ages ∙ Life expectancy is changing

o Men: 76-78 years old

o Women: 70-82 years old

∙ Notions of Self and Personhood

o Relational: individuals consider first and foremost their connections to  others

o Autonomous: emphasize their independence and separateness ∙ Children’s toys subtly gave racial and societal messages that weren’t realized until those children became adults and could see the underlying meaning


what is relatedness?

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∙ The degree to which kinship links modes of reproduction and ideology varies  across cultures

∙ In a small-scale society, kin take care of things

∙ In a large-scale society, we have systems in place that take care of situations  (police, welfare, etc.)

∙ Focuses on notions of power, women’s changing roles, reproduction decision making, ethnic identity


∙ Being based on relationships that are created through three means: o Marriage (affinity)

o Descent

 can be traced through both parents (bilateral)  

 can be traced through one parent (unilateral)

 can be traced through father (patrilineal)

 can be traced through mother (matrilineal)

o Sharing We also discuss several other topics like what is the ph of a 0.014 m ca(oh)2 solution
We also discuss several other topics like karen spikes northeastern

∙ Blood is the primary connections

∙ Marriage is a secondary connection

∙ Wari’ exogamy: have to marry someone outside the village but within the  Wari’ community If you want to learn more check out govt 2305 exam 4

o Breastmilk, sweat, semen, vaginal secretion all considered “blood” by  the Wari’

o Don’t believe a baby is born all at once, but there has to be lots of  sexual intercourse in a set period of time and that that will “build” the  baby

o Children should only be the product of long-term commitment o Believe that fetuses can have multiple fathers, every man who  contributes semen during pregnancy has some part of that child

Rites of Passage 

∙ 3 Stages

o Separation (separates the person from existing identity) 

o Liminal State (transition phase)

o Reincorporation (changes incorporated into a new identity)

∙ Stages are generally universal

∙ Beauty is culturally constructed

Mole People 

∙ Wide variety of communities that these people lived in

∙ People expected them to be mentally unstable

o People (the dictionary) defined homelessness as being characterized  by an absence or attenuation of the affiliative bonds that link settled  people to an interconnected system of social structure

∙ Near the surface and entrances there were loners, at the closest edges of the boundaries between the upper world and the lower world

o These loners were solitary, drug addicts, mentally unstable Don't forget about the age old question of debbie coleman miami university

∙ Most communities they live in are formed during adulthood

∙ Many community members go at least a week without seeing daylight or  going to the surface

Sharing as a Form of Kinship 

∙ They share mutual alienation from the people that live above ground o Don’t like them at all, have been disenfranchised in the upper world o A lot of bonding goes on because of this

∙ Share proximity

∙ Shared sense of place and connection to the underground


∙ 95% men that live underground

∙ Women keep their children with them to avoid them going into the foster  system

∙ Men would bring newborns to the surface

o Tunnels are no place to raise children

o Unless you watch and protect the baby 24/7, the rats will eat the  children

∙ You can’t be a society unless you reproduce

o More people from the top come down to the bottom is their form of  reproduction


∙ Social hierarchy

∙ There are mayors, etc. as part of the hierarchy

Modes of Production 

∙ Many members hold part time jobs

∙ About half hold jobs in the informal economy

o Begging

o Collecting bottles and cans

o Scavenging for things like books, old clothes, porn videos, or anything  that people throw out that they think they can sell Don't forget about the age old question of kevin van den bogert

 Can be considered contemporary foragers

 Serving a role in our society

∙ A small percentage are drug dealers

∙ A small percentage have a steady employment at minimum wage jobs How long do they live there? 

∙ People at entrance live usually only a couple weeks or so

∙ Some live up to 12 years

Quality of Life 

∙ Living in complete darkness

∙ Living alongside giant heaps of old furniture, bags of stuff, etc.

∙ Filled with human waste product

∙ Some people have dogs

∙ Odor is absolutely overpowering

∙ Extremely difficult to find clean drinking water and warmth

∙ Terrorized by roving gangs

∙ Ravaged by illness

∙ Hassled by predators

∙ They burn each other’s “houses” down

∙ Some people share food but most people will not

∙ Pick through garbage to find food

∙ Constant concern to keep things clean

o Rats make things dirty

∙ Some people have given up and don’t try to make things presentable ∙ Some people have dignity left

o That’s why people try to build a house, cook real food, etc. to hold onto their dignity


∙ People create art underground

∙ Paint trains

∙ Murals on the tunnel walls

∙ Graffiti

∙ Being able to create that art is what makes them feel human

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