Psychology 101: Exam 2 Study Guide • Terms and Definitions (focus not just on memorizing a definition, but on how these things fit into the larger contexts we've been discussing): o Glial cells- help form blood-brain barrierWe also discuss several other topics like sociology 1101 midterm
We also discuss several other topics like aeb uf
We also discuss several other topics like usc geography
Don't forget about the age old question of the school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying:
If you want to learn more check out chs 200 unr
We also discuss several other topics like which term refers to the biological distinction between females and males?
; FORMS myelin (responsible for forming myelin sheath that speed along axon electrical transmissions) o Neurotransmitter- chemical messengers that cross the synapse to communicate with other neurons ▪ Acetylcholine- instructs muscles to contract ▪ Norepinephrine- leads to arousal and vigilance; use for fight or flight; abnormalities: PTSD ▪ Serotonin-regulates sleep cycles, mood, memory, & learning ▪ Dopamine- supports anticipation of rewards (food,sex); responsible for fine motor control, controlled cognition; abnormalities: Parkinson’s, ADHD, Schizophrenia o Hormone- human growth hormone is responsible for healing the body during Stages 3 & 4 of N-REM sleep o Circadian rhythms- built in cycle of physical processes in living beings; body temp, alertness, hormone production, sleep cycles; controlled by SCN in hypothalamus o Lark- morning people o Owl- late night people o Insomnia- inability to get to sleep or stay asleep o Narcolepsy- a disorder when people fall asleep during alert times of the day o Sleep apnea- cessation of breathing during sleep o Night terrors- NOT a dream; unrecallable terror during sleep o Persistent vegetative state- often follows a come; wakefulness without consciousness o Coma- can’t be awakened; no voluntary movement; no response to stimuli o Brain death- complete & irreversible lack of brain activity; either 2 flat EEG recordings 24hr apart or no blood circulation to the brain o Depressant- slows down activity of nervous system, produces GABA; alcohol, barbiturates (sedatives), benzodiazepines (Xanex, Valuum) o Stimulant- increases alertness and mobility BUT decreases reaction time o Hallucinogen- produces false perceptions; Marijuana, Mushrooms, LSD, Mescaline, Phencyclidine (PCP) o Opiate- used to treat pain by mimicking pain-inhibiting neurotransmitters in the body (endorphins) o Tolerance- effects of drug can lessen when a consistent amount is taken; person must take higher quantities for satisfaction o Withdrawal- negative feeling when a drug is discontinued o Reflexes- inevitable, involuntary responses to stimuli; born with; EX Goosebumpso Instincts- inborn pattern of behavior elicited by environmental stimuli; EX contagious yawn (related to empathy) o Habituation- type of non associative learning where a repeated response to stimuli lessens the response over time; EX you get used to your roommate snoring over time o Sensitization- type of non associative learning where after receiving 1 stimulus, you are more responsive to a wider range of stimuli; EX you hear a bang outside as you’re trying to fall asleep, so you start hearing a bunch of other minor sounds that you didn’t notice before o Classical Conditioning- type of associative learning where you form connections between stimuli, but not as a function of what you do; EX you get stung by a bee once as a child, then the next time you see a bee, you cry o Extinction- a new form of learning where an association is broken (the sound no longer means food is coming) o Spontaneous Recovery- where an appearance of unconditioned response occurs after extinction training (after extinction, sound is heard, food is expected to come) o Generalization- the tendency to respond to stimuli that have characteristics similar to the primary stimulus; EX kid got stung by bee, now the kid also cries when she sees asps, yellow jackets, etc. o Discrimination- allows us to make find distinctions between the implications of stimuli; EX PTSD patient learns the the difference between the sounds of a car backfire and war sounds o Operant Conditioning- type of associative learning where connections between stimuli as a function of what you do; EX a kid swings at a bee and gets stung. next time, the kid won't swing at the bee so she will not get stung. o Shaping- a method of successive approximations of the target behavior; ex in class was the teaching table etiquette to young children o Instinctive Drift- animals’ instinct can disrupt efforts to train them o Observational Learning- occurs when an organism learns by modeling the actions of another o Premack Principle- high priority behaviors can be used to reward low priority behaviors; EX rewarding a child with M&Ms for eating their carrots • Be able to label the parts of the neuron and describe their function, including o Cell body o Dendrites- receives transmission from other neurons o Axon- transmits impulse to axon terminals o Myelin sheath- insulates to speed up speed of transmission o Nodes of Ranvier- segments of the axon lacking a myelin sheath where action potentials form to send impulse to next portion of the axon o Axon terminal- houses neurotransmitters, disperses and recollects them o Synapse- space between neurons that neurotransmitters cross• Be familiar with the function and location of the lobes of the brain (e.g., frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital). o Frontal Lobe- home of sophisticated cognitive functions & reasoning o Temporal Lobe- primary auditory complex; pathway for what is visually processed to go into memory o Parietal Lobe- primary somatosensory cortex; puts sight and sound together for awareness o Occipital Lobe- home of primary visual cortex which allows you to ONLY BEGIN interpreting what you see • Explain how neurons communicate, both within cells (electrically) and between cells (chemically). o Electrically- An electrical impulse travels from the dendrites through the neuron down the axon. Myelin (a fatty substance) surrounds the axon and speeds up the electrical transmission. The axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons. o Chemically- Terminal buttons house neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters act as message carrier across the synapse between neurons, allowing the neurons to communicate. • Know the 6 steps of the action potential 1) Resting 2) Threshold reached due to stimulus 3) Depolarization 4) Repolarization 5) Refractory Period 6) Resting State • Be able to diagram the divisions of the nervous system and know, broadly speaking, what each section is responsible for. o Central Nervous System- brain and spinal cord o Peripheral Nervous System ▪ Somatic- transmits commands for VOLUNTARY muscle movement ▪ Autonomic- maintains homeostasis; responsible for 4 Fs: Fight, Fly, Feeding, Fornication • Sympathetic- fight or flight part; suppress BP, Temp, HR so we can use everything we can for survival • Parasympathetic- rest & digest; restarts digestion; resting so we can fight or fly again • Be familiar with the 3 aspects of human consciousness (Alertness; Content; Self Awareness). o Alertness- Am I drowsy & daydreaming, or ALERT? o Content- Am I continuously aware of my sensory receptions? o Self-Awareness- most rare among living things; How do I appear to others? • What role does light play in causing us to feel sleepy or alert? Melatonin is hormone that makes you sleepy. When there is no light, there is a larger amount of melatonin in the blood stream causing you to be more sleepy. However, if you’re on the computer for hours before going to bed, the light from your computer will break down the melatonin prohibiting you to fall asleep for a while. • What type of brain activity (type of waves) occurs during each stage of the sleep-wake cycle? o Alert Wakefulness- Beta waves o Relaxed Wakefulness- Alpha Waves o Stage 1 Sleep- Theta Waves o Stage 2 Sleep- Sleep Spindles and K-Complexes o Stage 3 Sleep- Delta and Theta Waves o Stage 4 Sleep- Delta waves o REM Sleep- BETA waves Decrease in frequency & amplitude the deeper sleep gets• If given an example of classical conditioning, be able to identify the unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response (UR), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR). • How can classical conditioning techniques be applied to alleviate fears? Lil Pete hated rabbits. To help him over come this fear, he was given a cookie along with a rabbit. This associated the rabbit with something he liked, ultimately causing him to overcome his fear of the rabbit. • Know the difference between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. If given a scenario, be able to tell which type of operant conditioning is being utilized. • Similarly, know the 4 types of reinforcement schedules--Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio, Fixed Interval, and Variable Interval--and be able to identify which is being used. o Fixed Ratio- receive reinforcement when something is completed a set amount of times; we KNOW the # of times o Variable Ratio- receive reinforcement, but DON”T KNOW how many times something has to be completed; MOST EFFECTIVE o Fixed Interval- reinforcement comes after a set passage of time o Variable Interval- reinforcement comes after an unknown amount of time; more effective • Know the historical significance of the Little Albert and Bobo doll studies for psychology o Little Albert- psychologists played a loud sound while Little Albert looked at a bunny, making him cry at the sight of any thing small and furry; it was unethical research, but it showed how fears can result from classical conditioning o Bobo Doll- kids that watched a video of an adult beating up a Bobo doll were more likely to attack the doll in a similar way than those who did not see the video; this shows that aggression can often times be a function of observation learning • Be able to articulate how each learning perspective--classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning--would explain learned behaviors. o classical conditioning- how we link things together affects our behavior toward those things; EX if a loud sound comes with a bunny and it makes me cry, I am going to avoid furry little creatures o operant conditioning- linking outcomes to things we do affects the things we do; EX if I jump off of a 12 ledge onto the ground and break my ankles, I will not do it again because I learned that that particular action of mine lead to sever pain o observational learning- things we see other people do affect our behavior toward similar things; EX if I watched my mom clean as a child, I am likely to clean using the same methods as her based off of what I have seen • Mental images vs. mental concepts A mental image is a sensory experience that is stored in memory that can be called upon for later use (I can visualize my dog), whereas a mental concept is the explanation of an object without the visual cue (I’m explaining to someone who doesn’t know what a dog is how to identify one). • Stages of problem solving 1) Understand the Problem 2) Make a Plan 3) Carry out Plan 4) Look back. Is problem solved? If not, restart at step 1. • Types of heuristics—representativeness, availability, affect, and recognition o Representativeness- people assume that individuals that fit a prototype will have characteristics of that group o Availability- things that you care about it YOU THINK will more likely happen, but usually it isn’t any more likely to occuro Affect- based on past experiences, we use gut feelings to make decisions that will lead us to least regret o Recognition- if you recognize something you’re more likely to go along with it • Phoneme vs. Morpheme Phonemes are the distinct sounds in a language that differentiates words while morphemes are the smallest, meaningful units of a language • Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use learned knowledge and experience to solve problems, and fluid intelligence is the ability to solve new problems using logic and identifying patterns (more creative method). • Other theories of intelligence (Slides # 29-31 in Chapter 10) Single Factor, Collection of Abilities, Multiple Intelligences, Triarchic Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence • Reaction range model of intelligence (Slide # 34 in Chapter 10) The environment in which we live in either foster, have minimal effect, or inhibit our ability to maximize our intellectual potential. Based on heredity, people have a range of IQ scores that they could fall under. Depending on the person’s environment, a person will wither be at the high end of that range (enriched environment), middle of that range (average environment), or low end of that range (deprived environment). • **Make sure to watch the Backwards Bike video on Canvas if you missed it in class**