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UF - AFS 3302 - Studyguide - Exam 2 - Sex Roles - Study Guide

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UF - AFS 3302 - Studyguide - Exam 2 - Sex Roles - Study Guide

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background image  People ● Claude Levi-Strauss Structuralism & Understanding Inequality Claude Levi-Strauss: 1908-2009 Sough to understand commonalities among a wide  range of societies Structuralism: theoretical paradigm that explores  elements of culture by understanding them in terms of their 
relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure
Understanding structuralism Social structure: the matrix, or enclosing form, of  society Uses the metaphor of language to understand social  structure o Words have no inherent “value” or  “meaning” o Each word is made up of smaller  components that, when combines in a specific order, 
takes on a particular meaning to its user and audience
o Words are defined through the use of  other words-language defines itself in terms of itself o Like words, social structures have no  inherent nature or truth o Social structures are defined, carried out, acted upon through the use of other social structure or 
o Structuralism tries to understand  societies by examining the phonemes and morphemes 
of social relationships, structures and myths
Structuralism & the Sees: Levi Strauss The incest taboo: Prohibition or discouragement of  sexual relations between two people of close genetic 
o Imposed differently from one society to  the next, incest taboo is considered universal o Levi-Strauss explains this through social  reason, rather than biology
background image o Exchange of women as solution: prevents taboo, formalizes system of generalized reciprocity ● Sherri Ortner Structuralism & The Sexes: Ortner → men cant be men on their 
own; if you are man, you are “not a women”
Sherri Ortner (1941-) Feminist Anthropology Primarily known for use of Practice Theory Applied Structuralism to problem of gender inequality Influenced by Pierre Bourdieu, Simone de Beauvoir Structuralism & The Sexes the Influence of Beauvoir Ortner explains gender inequality through: ▪ Men & women as culture & nature  (building on Levi-Strauss) ▪ Transcendent vs. immanent creativity
▪ Ortner explains gender inequality 
through: ● The Self-Other dichotomy ● Simone de Beauvoir  The Influence of Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) French existentialist, novelist Author, The Second Sex (1949) o She is relative to him o Men occupy both the positive and the  neutral (the standard) of the binary o While women only the negative ● Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci & Hegemony Hegemony: o Domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class, who manipulate the culture of that 
background image society so that the ruling class worldview becomes 
accepted as the cultural form
o Justifies the social, political, and  economic status quo as natural & inevitable, rather than
as artificial social construct that only benefits the ruling 
o white males ● Friedrich Engels→ women shop for others, men shop for  themselves Engels & the Gender of Economy Wealth production→Private Property Ownership→Men  gain clout w/in family→Patrilineality & patriarchy  Problems with Engels o Matrilineal descent: A unilineal system  that traces kinship through the mother’s side rather 
than the father’s (better because values the lives of 
their kids).
But he wasn’t entirely wrong///benefits of  matrilineality o Great control over property o Greater domestic authority o Higher value placed on lives ● Karl Marx Marxism & the Gendered of Economy Basics of Marxist Theory Evolutionist underpinnings o Primitive communism o Ancient (slave) move o Feudalism o Capitalism o Socialism o Communism Means of Production: o Facilities and resources used for making  goods (e.g. tool factories, raw materials, labor) Relations of Production:
background image o Social relationships people must enter  into to survive and produce/reproduce their means of 
The people that have this  means is called bourgeoisie Mode of Production: o A society’s combined level of  technological development combined with the overall 
organization of its economy, including division of labor  
o Means + Relations “Capitalism is a set of social relations- forms of  property, and so forth-in which production takes the form of 
turning money, things and people into capital”
Superstructure: Dominant ideology of a society.  Includes all that “men say, imagine, conceive…” including 
“politics, laws, morality, religion, etc”
● Michel Foucault Foucault & Governmentality Governmentality: o Refers to the way that the state exercise  control over the body of its populace o The way in which people are taught to  govern themselves o No truth independent of power o Indirect ● People of Bahia, Brazil ● Dobe Ju/’hoansi Foraging & Egalitarianism Dobe Ju/’hoansi, Kalahari Desert Most food provided by (women’s) foraging o Not a lot of division of labor, or property  o Women spend more time in housework  (but men do too) o Sexual abuse is really rare Cultures are dynamic ● Yanomamo
background image Pastoralism & Horticulture Yanomamo o Men tend to have more status than  women o Women are only concerned with  domestic chores o A lot of warfare (not women’s) ● Incas (esp. distinct social strata, degrees of gender  inequality within each) Agricultural societies Inca o More stratification o Degrees of inequalities o Peasant Inca Women: Farming Herding Weaving Food prep Child care o Peasant Inca men: Farming Herding o Inca Elites Polygyny possible Women’s chastity important Young girls confiscated form  villages No divorce between husband  & 1 st  wife Widows could only remarry  husband’s brother Warrior-like image of  manhood o Inca Peasants Premarital sex okay Divorce allowed Trial marriages Terms

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School: University of Florida
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective
Professor: Amber Grafft-Weiss
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: sex, roles, Anthro, and Anthropology
Name: Studyguide - Exam 2 - Sex Roles
Description: This notes cover what is going to be in the exam.
Uploaded: 10/30/2016
28 Pages 126 Views 100 Unlocks
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