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PENN / Cognitive Science / COGS 140 / What is the problem of qualia for which theory of mind is allegedly a

What is the problem of qualia for which theory of mind is allegedly a

What is the problem of qualia for which theory of mind is allegedly a

Description

School: University of Pennsylvania
Department: Cognitive Science
Course: Intro to Cognitive Science
Professor: Lyle david hoyt brainard
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: emotion and consciousness
Cost: 25
Name: CIS 140 Week 9
Description: Covers emotion, consciousness lectures
Uploaded: 10/30/2016
9 Pages 38 Views 1 Unlocks
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Tuesday, October 25, 2016


What is the problem of qualia for which theory of mind is it allegedly a difficulty?



CIS 140 Week 9

Emotion

- What Marr Levels describe emotion?

- Two different kinds of happiness: pleasure vs. satisfaction with life - Sadness function: empathy, helps you relate to others, prevents you from doing  same action that caused the sadness again

- Anger function: spurs you to change your environment

- Disgust: can function as a survival tool, avoid contagion of diseases - Surprise: could start your flight or fight instinct  

- For a computer: we don't care about the feeling associated with the emotion, just  care about the functionality of said emotion (Ex. want self-driving car to be  functionally upset if it ran over a dog, so it would not make that mistake again)


What role does your physiological physical response play in your emotional experience?



- Emotion involves body and brain:

- a conscious mental reaction

- subjectively experienced as a strong feeling — QUALIA

- usually directed toward specific object

- typically accompanied by: physiological and behavior changes in the body - * we are trying to distinguish between physiological emotion from subjective  conscious emotion (aka feeling)

- Components of Emotion:

- main components are physiological, behavioral, and subjective feeling - Question: Why have qualia and not just information processing? - Core emotions: valence and arousal


What does the james lange theory of emotion suggest about how we experience emotion?



Don't forget about the age old question of What makes energy?

- valiance (positive vs. negative)

- arousal (intensity)

- Ex. low valence, low arousal = depression Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the milgram experiment?

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016 Don't forget about the age old question of What do monochromacy people see?

- Many emotions are universal

- Six basic universal emotions:

- anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness

- What is the function of the physiological effects of emotion?

- of disgust: maybe scrunching nose helps block bad smell

- Measuring emotion: Don't forget about the age old question of What are the categories of health care services?

- direct assessment — but people don't always know how they're feeling or why - observe choice of action

- response facilitation or inhibition

- physiological variables associated with the autonomic nervous system - heart rate, galvanic skin response (GSR) = skin conductance response  (SCR)

- Models of emotion:

- William James-Lange argues we’re sad because we cry, not cry because we’re  sad — very oversimplified (not every time we tear, we get sad)

- The subjective experience of emotion is the awareness of our own bodily  changes in the presence of arousing stimuli

- James-Lange theory of emotion: Don't forget about the age old question of What are the changes caused due to overgrazing?

- Pro: everyday experience suggests info. from our body contributes to emotional  experience, facial feedback hypothesis, emotional intensity appears to be  reduced in patients with spinal chords which have been accidentally severed

- Con: emotional arousal may last longer than physical, emotional “feelings” are  too rapid compared to autonomic responses, epinephrine study (Ex. spiked  lemonade before exam)

- Somatic Marker theory:

- a somatic marker is a physiological emotion (ex. increased heart rate) - somatic markers tell your body how to act — a change in soma (body) acts as a  marker (sign or signal) for how you're feeling

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- extreme hypothesis: brain concocts experience of feelings to explain bodily  reactions

- con: same autonomic responses can accompany different emotions - Subcortical regions are key to emotion

- subcortical regions mediate emotion (cats with hypothalamus removed do not  display emotional responses) We also discuss several other topics like What is the number of wave cycles per second?

- subcortical structures often have a double function

- coordinate motor commands regulate peripheral signs of emotion - control cognitive perception of emotion

- Hypothalamus: controls body temp, hunger, important aspects of parenting, thirst,  fatigue, sleep, etc

- Autonomic Nervous System:

- subcortical structures are critical for controlling smooth muscles, heart, exocrine  glands

- sympathetic division governs “fight or flight”  

- parasympathetic division governs “rest and digest”

- emotions can help maintain homeostasis — change in environment leads to  change in action to balance out/reject the “disturbance to your system” to keep  body stable

- physical and emotional homeostasis controlled by same region of the brain - Ex. of ANS function — provides rapid response to sudden changes in  environment and self

- Orbitofrontal cortex:

- impulse control

- mostly associated with executive function: cognitive processes that regulate,  control, and manage other cognitive processes

- associated with social and emotional decision making

- Site of “Gage” lesion: includes regulation of our ability to inhibit, act on social and  emotional stimuli

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- Decisions Require Emotion:

- perceptually dominated behavior (Ex. patient sees glasses, puts them on even  though he already has a pair on)

- Orbitofrontal cortex processes emotional feedback, associated with  reinforcement properties, failure to encode reinforcement leads to poor decision  making

- Orbitofrontal lesions: absence of autonomic response to disturbing images, but  can give normal description using emotion words

- this affects decision making — verbalizing and actually feeling are different - Amygdala’s role in emotion:

- important for emotional learning and memory

- damage impairs conditioned fear response

- Fear Conditioning and implicit emotional learning: Ex. — meet someone on train,  train crashes, later see the person and feel uneasy around them (this shows fear  conditioning)

- Implicit emotional learning: a patient with bilateral damage to amygdala does not  acquire conditioned fear response, although has explicit knowledge, is aware of  contingencies

- Sociopaths have 18% smaller amygdala on average, greatly reduced fear  conditioning, decreased responsiveness to negative stimuli  

- Implicit and Explicit Learning and Emotion:

- Implicit emotional learning depends on Amygdala

- Two Important Pathways:

- fast — from thalamus — incomplete stimulus analysis

- slow — from cortex — in-depth analysis of stimuli

- Explicit emotional learning Amygdala interacts with hippocampal memory system - most memory is emotionally laden

- Summary:

- Emotions result from interplay between:

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- amygdala and hippocampus

- autonomic nervous system and frontal cortex

- Amygdala triggers autonomic responses, then responses are integrated by the  hypothalamus

- cortex modulates response by way of a second circuit

- Emotion seems to be required for decision-making

- Why have an unconscious physiological response and a subjective/conscious  emotion?

- Need speed in decision making

- Don’t necessarily need conscious emotion to make good decision (cant hold  many things in the working memory at the same time, so a lot of decisions need  to be made subjectively)

- But need conscious decisions because gut reactions aren’t always the right  ones, need to be able to override

Consciousness  

- What is consciousness?

- awareness of one’s self and one’s surroundings

- Two levels of consciousness:

- Phenomenal consciousness (P-consciousness)

- describes as attention, qualia, feeling, core or primary consciousness - missing in: persistent vegetative state (PVS), etc.

- Access consciousness (A-consciousness)

- self-awareness, introspection, memory, extended or higher order  consciousness

- Humans cannot be P without A

- P-consciousness “hard problem”:

- it is private (subjective)

- can’t feel your pain; can just imagine feeling it

- watching neurons fire is not experiencing them fire

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- aka — not measurable

- qualia — sensory experience is different from knowledge

- What use is consciousness?

- “as far as anybody knows, anything that our conscious minds can do they could  do just as well if they weren't conscious”  

- a lot of what we do and our decision-making is unconscious

- Perception need not be conscious

- Blindsight (unilateral neglect)

- Someone who lost his smell suddenly realized he was smelling all the time - We do many things unconsciously:

- regulate body (breathe, digest food, etc.)

- physical actions (throw ball, ride a bike, drive car, etc.)

- implicit memory, decision making (judge people as good/bad, etc.) - Why not be a (philosophical) zombie?

- zombie — a being that lacks consciousness

- Why have P-consciousness:

- attention, unite different brain modules, differentiate actual experience from  memory and dreams

- Consciousness unites perception:

- sensory input from the world is sporadic and distributed, but we perceive the  world as continuous and integrated

- unites memory and perception: allows for scene construction and interpretation  (integration of present scene with previous conscious experience)

- relation of decision and action — decisions often precede consciousness - Auditory continuity illusion — tone sounded like a continuous sound with the noise  overlaid on top, not broken up or interrupted by the noise

- tone followed by noise followed by tone perceive tone as continuing through the  noise

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- tone followed by noise perceive tone as stopping when noise starts - creates paradox, as if your basing your decision on something happening in the  future

- Delays in conscious awareness

- if you electrically stimulate the cerebral cortex of conscious patients, stimulus  must be continued for ~0.5s for subjects to report conscious experience of the  stimulation

- Decisions precede consciousness

- experiment: ask subjects to move their fingers when they feel like doing so,  showed that with EEG, could predict when subjects were going to move several  seconds before they did it; people are conscious of deciding to move 200ms  before moving

- Have dual thought mechanisms (unconscious [heuristic, emotional, fast], conscious  [rational, reasoned, slow])

- Have dual visual perception — for perception and for action  

- Origins of consciousness:

- physiological emotion —> awareness (P-consciousness) —> self awareness (A consciousness)

- Why have A-consciousness?

- movie-inside-the-brain contains the observed self as well as the observed  environment

- Modeling of self vs. others — I form models of how others think, so I form models  of how I think

- Consciousness is serial:

- much of mental processing is in parallel (ex. early visual or auditory processing) - a small amount of perception rises to be conscious (nearly serial processing) - limited working memory and limited attention

- Neurons follow attention:

- Necker Cube Ex. — when Necker cube perception switches, neurons switch 7

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- Flash suppression experiment Ex. — Flash a new image onto one eye, while  maintaining image on the other eye, will only perceive the flashed image

- Neural correlates of consciousness

- not primarily cortex

- recurrent thalami-cortical resonance key — reduced in PVS patients - binding of multi-model perception (and consciousness) may be accomplished by  synchronized gamma oscillations

- Different regions of the brain synchronize oscillations when they are unifying  parts of the perceptual field or other percepts into a single gestalt

- Human awareness seems to derive from “winner-take-all” competition amongst  subconscious neural assemblies

- Neuronal Oscillations:

- neuronal groups tend to oscillate (3-8 Hz = theta oscillations, 30-80 Hz = gamma  oscillations)

- The oscillations affect timing and likelihood of spike output, sensitivity to synaptic  input

- oscillations propagate through brain

- Thalamus (ILN) needed for awareness

- ILN (Intralaminar nuclei) in thalamus is part of system that connects brains tim to  cortex

- “Aha” Experience:

- solving problems is mostly done unconsciously

- when one becomes aware of solution to the problem: this instant is characterized  by long distance synchronized oscillations

- activates prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula

- The Insula: unites body representation and subjective emotional experience - receives information from "homeostatic afferent" sensory pathways via thalamus  - sends output to the amygdala, the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex

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Tuesday, October 25, 2016

- implicated in conscious desires, such as drug and food addictions - damage to insula can break cigarette addiction

- The Chinese Room — can argue the room is conscious; not all the components are,  but the system altogether is

- can pass the Turing Test but not be conscious; counterargument: the neurons of  your brain are not conscious (rather, the whole system together is conscious)

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