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UGA / Family and Consumer Science / FACS 2200 / The dynamic systems theory means what?

The dynamic systems theory means what?

The dynamic systems theory means what?

Description

HDFS TEST 3Motor Development


The dynamic systems theory means what?



GOOD LUCK!!  

The dynamic systems theory

A theory proposed by Esther Thelen that seeks to explain how infants assemble motor 

skillsfor perceiving and acting. 

Universal milestones are learned through this process of adaptation   •

ADAPTATION: Infants modulate their movement patterns to fit a new task  

by exploring and selecting possible configurations

Dynamic Systems View& Motor skills

○ increasingly complex systems of action with each skill


What is the meaning of adaptation in science?



each new skill is joint product of  

1) Child’s motivations/goals

2) CNS--Central Nervous System development 3) Body’s movement capacity We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of battery in law?

4) Environmental supports

Reflexes---built-in reaction to stimuli

• Have survival value since brain not adopted to environment • Cover many of newborn’s movements


What is the meaning of moro in newborns?



Involuntary, but infants may have some control—become incorporated into intentional  

movements as baby ages

Some disappear (e.g. Babinski reflex), come last throughout life (e.g. coughing and  

blinking)

Newborn reflexes

Disappear several months following birth

○ Rooting

when the infant's cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched. In  response, the infant turns its head toward the side that was touched in an  apparent effort to find something to suck. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of literary digest fiasco?

○ Sucking

Example--- individual differences in reflexive  behavior appear soon after birth when newborns suck an object placed in their mouth. The sucking reflex   enable the infant to get nourishment before it has begun to associate a nipple  with food; it also serves as a self-soothing or self-regulating mechanism.

○ Moro(startle)  

enable the infant to get nourishment before it has begun to associate a nipple  with food; it also serves as a self-soothing or self-regulating mechanism.

○ Moro(startle)  

a startle response that occurs in reaction to a sudden, intense noise or  movement. When startled, the newborn arches its back, throws its head  back, and flings out its arms and legs. Then the newborn rapidly closes its  arms and legs to the center of the body. We also discuss several other topics like Axial skeletal system means what?

○ Grasping

Example of reflexes eventually become incorporated into more complex  voluntary actions 

A reflex that occurs when something touches an infant's palms. The infant  responds by grasping tightly.

Persist through out whole life

○ Babinkski (foot)

We also discuss several other topics like What is the income test?

○ Tonic Neck

○ Crawling

○ Stepping

○ Coughing  

○ Sneezing  

○ Motor eye blink

○ Shivering

○ Yawning

○ Gag

○ Swallowing

○ Breathing

Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood

• Critical/Prime Time of Development

• Correlated with Cognitive Skills—e.g.  Motor music  skills & Suzuki study Explanations: Piaget • Two types of motor skills: Gross & Fine Motor Skills

◊ Gross Motor Skills

Involve large-muscle activity

      Don't forget about the age old question of Product life cycle means what?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the deviance?

• Critical/Prime Time of Development

• Correlated with Cognitive Skills—e.g.  Motor music  skills & Suzuki study Explanations: Piaget • Two types of motor skills: Gross & Fine Motor Skills

◊ Gross Motor Skills

Involve large-muscle activity 

Infancy

Importantmilestones of development

- posture

- locomotion and crawling

- walking

Caregivers important

- providing safe environments during efforts

Cultural variations in Guiding infant's motor development -

Physical guidance by physically handling them in special ways  

or by giving them opportunities for exercise, the infants often  reach motor milestones earlierthan infants whose caregivers  have not provided these activities

Many forms of restricted movementhave been found to  

produce substantial delays in motor development

Individual Timing Varies

- Motor Skill Milestones Birth-2 years---PPT p.4 Control emerges from top to bottom& center outward Early childhood

▪ Involve large muscle groups 

▪ Balance improves

▪ Infant’s gait disjointed but smooth rhythmic by age 2

upper- and lower- body skills combine into more refined actions as  

children age

▪ Greater speed and endurance

Middle Childhood

▪ Improved smoothness/mastery of movements        —boys usually outperform girls 

▪ More confidence

▪ Longer period of paying attention/sitting still

       —need physical activity for development/attention

Organized sports participation  

□ Growing & more intense

□ Recommended 3+ hours/week

Organized sports—Pros & Cons

Possible Benefits

Possible Consequences

•Distraction from academic  •

     

□ Recommended 3+ hours/week

Organized sports—Pros & Cons

Possible Benefits

Possible Consequences

Better physical /motor  

development

• Better cognitive development                     Provide opportunities to learn  

HOW to compete

• Higher self-esteem

• Peer relations/friendships • Lower risk of obesity

Distraction from academic  work

• Risk of physical injuries

• Pressure to win or achieve •

Unrealistic expectations for  success

‘hurried Child’ ---Less free play,  time with family

      -    Guidelines for Parents and Coaches of Children in Sports  PPT p.6

• Adolescence & Adulthood 

Adolescence

○ skills continue to improve •

Early Adulthood

Peak physical performance before age 30

---often between ages 19 and 26 

Biological function decline after age 30

▪ ---Not uniform; organ decline varies ▪ ---individual differences

Late Adulthood

Important factors in functioning •

Natural aging→gradual decline ▪

—lifestyle habits/patterns have impact

◆ Obesity is linked with mobility limitation  

◆ Physical exercise, weight loss, social activities help

▪ Physical activity

▪ —linked to biological/ psychological /cognitive health

Falls are the leading cause of injury deaths among adults who are 65 years  

and older---exercise helps not to fall

□ Reason:1/3 due to environmental hazards in the home

Age & Reaction Time for Gross Motor Skills---Older adults move more slowly  

than young adults, and this change occurs across a range of movement difficulty   PPT p.7

◊ Fine Motor Skills

involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity.    E.g. progression of reaching & grasping  E.g. Writing/Drawing

Infancy & Childhood  

• prereaching

• reaching—with 2 hands, then 1

    

involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity.    E.g. progression of reaching & grasping  E.g. Writing/Drawing

Infancy & Childhood  

• prereaching

• reaching—with 2 hands, then 1

ulnar grasp

→ adjust grip to object

move objects from hand to hand

• pincer grasp  

○ Girls usually outperform boys in fine motor skills 

Adulthood 

skills may decline in middle & late adulthood

◊ in healthy adults, functional skills remain good dexterity decreases

explanations:

1) pathological conditions

2)

neural noise: interferences with incoming stimuli—Compensation by  engaging in other strategies

• Handwriting remains competent

Sensory&  Perceptual Development

Definitions

Sensation—information (stimuli) processed by sensory receptors 

E.g. eyes(retina, optic nerve), ears(cochlea, auditory nerve), tongue, nostrils, skin Perception—what is perceived(interpreted) from stimuli 

The ecological view

Ecological view---Gibsons---directly perceive information in the world around us.  Perception brings people in contact with environment in order to interact with it and  adapt to it.

Affordances---opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our  capabilities to perform activities.  

E.g. pot---offer something to cook with

Intermodal Perception—integration of information from 2+ sensory modalities(e.g. vision &  

hearing) 

• newborns capable

• significant improvement over 1st year with experience

Development of Senses

► Hearing

Prenatal & newborn sense of hearing

• The fetus can hear at 33 to 34 weeks into the prenatal period

Perception of a sound •

Loudness

A stimulus must be louder to be heard by a newborn than by an  ⬥

 

Prenatal & newborn sense of hearing

• The fetus can hear at 33 to 34 weeks into the prenatal period

Perception of a sound •

Loudness

A stimulus must be louder to be heard by a newborn than by an  

adult

⬥ 3 months of age, infants' perception of sounds improves Pitch

⬥ Pitch is the perception of the frequency of sound

⬥ Infants are less sensitive to the pitch of sound than adults are.  

Infants are less sensitive to low-pitched sounds and are more likely  

to hear high-pitched sounds

7 months can; 2 years of age, improve ability to distinguish sounds  

with different pitches

Localization

Newborns can; 6 months more proficient at localizing sounds;  

improves during 2nd year

infant hearing milestones 

◊ 4-7 months---sense of musical phrasing

By 10 months-- “screen out” sounds from non-native languages 【e.g.  can't figure out  the differences of the 4 tones in Chinese Mandarin】

◊ 7-9 months---recognize familiar words, natural phrasing in native language • Infancy---Hearing screening in hospital 

Research Methods  •

High-Amplitude Sucking--attention to sound; nipple is connected to a  

sound-generating system  

◊ The orienting response

Adolescence—most have excellent  hearing

• risks for loss: loud music/high volume on headphones •

Adulthood

decline begins ~age 18(age of 40 in textbook);  other factors impact

⬥ (earliest, most loss in high frequencies)

Presbycusis (‘old hearing’)

gender differences—males have more hearing loss high frequencies;  

woman low frequencies

⬥ hearing aids[&cochlear implants(stem cells as an alternative)]can  help

Hearing loss is associated with a reduction in cognitive functioning in  

older adults

Perceptual difficulties associated with hearing loss affect language  

comprehension and memory for spoken language in older adults

⬥ Key factors: Poor nutrition,  a lifetime of smoking, aging ⬥ Hearing loss in older adults is also linked to increased depression

             

older adults

Perceptual difficulties associated with hearing loss affect language  

comprehension and memory for spoken language in older adults

⬥ Key factors: Poor nutrition,  a lifetime of smoking, aging

⬥ Hearing loss in older adults is also linked to increased depression ► Vision

Visual preferences of infant

○ infants’ visual perception

visual preference method ○

Developed by Fantz to determine whether infants can distinguish one  

stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to  different stimuli.  

visual acuity

20/600(20/240 in textbook) at birth, near 20/20 by 1  year

colors

see some colors by 2 months; preferences by 4  months

perceiving patterns

prefer bold patterns/colors/reddish tones & human  faces shortly after birth

*Perceptual  

Constancy

Size constancy---object remains  the same  even  though the retinal image  of the object  changes  as the  viewer  move toward or away  from the object ○ 3 months→10 or 11 years of age

Shape constancy--object remains  the same  even  though its orientation to the viewer changes 3 months; but without shape constancy for  

irregularly shaped objects

*Perception of  

occluded objects

• 2 months--occluded objects are whole •

Learning,  experience,  and self-directed  exploration via eye  movements  play key roles in the development  of perceptual  completion  in young infants

3 to 5 months--ability to track briefly occluded  moving objects  

E.g. infant's predictive tracking of a briefly 

occluded moving ball---gradual occlusion better  than abrupt occlusion or implosion 

depth perception

developed by 7-8 months

visual expectations

begins by 4 months; all know visual cliff by 6-to-12  months

○ brain and eye maturation

○ improvements in visual activity ○ Research method: The orienting response

visual expectations

○ brain and eye maturation

begins by 4 months; all know visual cliff by 6-to-12  months

○ improvements in visual activity

○ Research method: The orienting response Vision changes in Middle& late adulthood

Persbyopia---"old eyes"

▪ changes in Eye

Difficulty in Accommodation--the eye's ability to focus and maintain an  

image on the retina--esp. in seeing nearby( become farsighted) □ slower dark adaptation: difficulties in dimness

□ reduced color discrimination

□ declining depth perception

□ difficulty with glare

→ glare vision & aging PPT p.5  

▪ Age 65-70, vision in glare starts to decline~

▪ Age 70-75, vision in glare & glare recovery time is 2 times worse than young adults ▪ Age 80-85, vision in glare & glare recovery time is 4 times worse than young adults ▪ Age 85-90, vision in glare & glare recovery time is 6 times worse than young adults

Specific visual impairments & aging

▪ glaucoma

▪ cataracts

▪ macular degeneration

Aging & Gender: vision & hearing impairments PPT p. 6 

• Men/ hearing impaired is worse than women/hearing impaired since 45 years old • Women/visually impaired is worse than men/visually impaired since 45 years old

Older adults with only vision loss showed even more impairment in health and  functioning than those with only hearing loss

• Those with both vision and hearing loss had the greatest declines in health and  • functioning

Touch

touch and pain

○ newborns: sensitivity to pain, touch 【anesthesia historically not used】 •

Adulthood

○ touch sensitivity: Decreases in old age

Taste & smell

Infants

○ Preferences---sweet & salty

breastfeeding studies

○ breast oil

○oenness to different tastes

Infants

○ Preferences---sweet & salty

breastfeeding studies

○ breast oil

○ openness to different tastes •

Late Adulthood

decline can start in 20s; declines with age/health

▪ affects satisfaction with life, food

Theories  of Cognitive Development I. Piaget's four stages of cognitive development

Stage

Description

Age

Sensorimotor

"making sense"

Birth to 2 years

Preoperational

"words and images"

2 to 7 years

Concrete operational

conservation& classification

7 to 11 years

Formal operational

Abstract, idealistic, logic

11 to 15 years

Piaget's Theory: Schemes

• Organized ways of making sense of experiences

Change with age

Action-based sensorimotor patterns

Later move to "thinking before acting" pattern--creative & deliberate

• Building schemes

○ Adaptation

Building schemes through direct interaction with environment 

○ Assimilation

Using current schemes to  

interpret external world 

○ Accommodation

Adjusting old schemes and  creating new ones to better fit  environment

Using Assimilation and Accommodation

-

Equilibrium & Desequilibrium

use assimilation during  

-

equilibrium

disequilibrium prompts  

-

accommodation

Organization

Internal rearranging & linking  

-

schemes

sensorimotor stage

○ birth to 2 years

○ building schemes through sensory & motor exploration

○ circular reactions

○ sensorimotor substages PPT p.3

1. Reflexive Schemes

Birth to 1 mo.

-

Newborn reflexes

    

○ building schemes through sensory & motor exploration

○ circular reactions

○ sensorimotor substages PPT p.3

1. Reflexive Schemes

Birth to 1 mo.

Newborn reflexes

2. Primary Circular Reactions

1-4 mos.

Simple motor habits centered around own  body

3. Secondary Circular Reactions

4-8 mos.

Repeat interesting effects in surroundings

4.

Coordination of Secondary  Circular Reactions

8-12 mos.

• Intentional, goal-directed behavior •

Object Permanence

Understanding that objects  

continue to exist when out of sight According to Piaget, develops at  

8-12 months

Not yet complete: A-not-B search  

error 

5. Tertiary Circular Reactions

12-18 mos.

Explore properties of objects through  novel actions

6. Mental representations

12 mos.-2 yrs

Internal, mental depictions of objects,  

people, events, information 

Can manipulate with mind to  

come up with ideas/solutions

Allow deferred imitationand  

make-believe play

Deferred imitation

○ Piaget: Develops about 18 mos. Precursors:

- 6 weeks--facial imitation

6-9 months--copy actions  

-

with objects

12-14 months--imitate  

-

rationally

18 months--imitate  

-

intended, but not  

completed, actions

Piaget's Preoperational Stage

○ Ages 2 to 7

○ Gains in mental representation

▪ Symbolic Representation of Real World

▪ Make-Believe Play

Limitations(deficiencies) in thinking ○

○ Ages 2 to 7

○ Gains in mental representation

▪ Symbolic Representation of Real World ▪ Make-Believe Play

Limitations(deficiencies) in thinking

▪ Conservation---"juice experiment" can't think height & weight at the same time ▪ Egocentrism(perspective taking)

▪ Hierarchical  Classification [e.g. leprechaun trap]

▪ Animistic Thinking

Piaget's Theory: Achievements of the Concrete Operational Stage

Conservation--"juice experiment"

▪ Decentration,

▪ Reversibility

○ Classification

Seriation

▪ Transitive inference Spatial Reasoning

▪ Directions

▪ Maps

Piaget's Theory: Formal Operational Stage

Propositional  Thought

▪ Evaluating the logic of verbal propositions

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning----"feather can break a glass bottle"

▪ Deducing hypotheses from a general theory

▪ Pendulum problem

II. Vygotsky's Sociocultural  Theory

Social contexts(other people---esp. older caregivers) contribute to cognitive  

development

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)--tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do  

with help of more skilled partners

▪ Scaffolding: Changing level  of child guidance to reach ZPD

III. Model of Information Processing  PPT.  P4

Information-Processing Approach

▪ Views cognitive change as continuous

▪ Focus is on the thinking processes(computer analogy)

In humans, this all happens simultaneously

Long-term memory

 

▪ Views cognitive change as continuous

▪ Focus is on the thinking processes(computer analogy)

In humans, this all happens simultaneously

Long-term memory

stimulus information        sensory memory   attention          working or                                                                                                                   short-term memory

Response

▪ Processing Gains in Adolescence

○ Capacity Changes with brain development

Cognition

Information Processing/thinking

Infants

- How do we know what infants are thinking& what they know?

- Infant Cognitive Testing

Research Techniques

I. Brain Scans

II.

Habituation Experiments(infant perception---present a stimulus a number of times)

Definition of Habituation: Decreased response to stimuli (when no longer  

new/unfamiliar/unexpected)

Definition of Dishabituation: Recovery of habituated response after new  

stimulus  

Longer gaze& nipple sucking rate(sucking stops when the young infant  attends to a novel object) indicates preferences/ discriminatory abilities

Core Knowledge Theory 

→ Humans are born with innate, special purpose knowledge systems

Core domains allow quick grasp of related information 

Infants' Numerical Knowledge ▪

Infants may be able to:

- Discriminate quantities up to 3

- Do simple arithmetic--hard-wired for math

Infants' Physical Knowledge

□ Carrots experiment---look longer; parts of brain light up Psychological/ Emotional Knowledge

□ Mirror neurons

Linguistic Knowledge

Babies hardwired as 'geniuses' in language development → The linguistic genius of babies | Patricia Kuhl 

□ Infants respond to 'motherese', which is spoken globally Infant-toddler Information-Processing Improvements

Attention • Efficiency, ability to shift focus improves

 

 

Babies hardwired as 'geniuses' in language development → The linguistic genius of babies | Patricia Kuhl 

□ Infants respond to 'motherese', which is spoken globally

Infant-toddler Information-Processing Improvements

Attention

• Efficiency, ability to shift focus improves

Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after 1st  year

Memory

• Retention intervals longer

• Recall appears by 1 year; excellent  by age 2

Categorization

Impressive perceptual categorization in 1st year; continues in  2nd year

→ Information-Processing Improvements in Adolescence

How does the adolescent brain change to allow for these improvements?--pruning ▪ Processing speed, capacity & automaticity

▪ Knowledge

▪ Attention

▪ Inhibition

▪ Memory strategies

▪ Metacognition

Changes in Thinking in Early Adulthood

"The more I learn, the more I learn how little I know."---Scorates →

THEME=cognitive flexibility! ▪

Epistemic Cognition(Perry)

→ Justifiability of conclusions

→ Dualistic v. Relativistic thinking(more tolerance & flexibility)

□ Pragmatic Thought (LaBouvie-Vief)

Cognitive-affective complexity

→ Cognitive-affective Complexity across adulthood

Higher Education

Opportunities for exploration & Cognitive Growth

□ Increased levels of relativistic thinking, worldview

Importance of involvementin campus life → Living on campus

→ Class/campus participation

→ Interdisciplinary connections

Vocational Life and Cognitive Development

Reciprocal effects ▪

Cognitive flexibility

Positive link to SES

◆ Higher SES, more likely to seek intellectually  stimulating leisure

Crystallized v. Fluid Intelligence

Definitions & Example ▪

 

 

Cognitive flexibility

Positive link to SES

◆ Higher SES, more likely to seek intellectually  stimulating leisure

Crystallized v. Fluid Intelligence

Definitions & Example ▪

Crystallized Intelligence e.g. inductive reasoning; vocabulary; verbal  memory

→ Ability to remember and use information acquired over a lifetime □

Fluid Intelligence e.g. spatial orientation; perceptual speed; numericial  ability

Ability to solve novel problems that require little or no previous  

knowledge 

Developmental Changes

□ Fluid intelligence: more obvious decrease

Age-related slowing of information Processing

▪ Neural Network View v. Information-Loss View ▪ Relevance of this decline to everyday functioning Expertise and Creativity

Expertise: acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field

□ Takes many years: 10-year rule

□ Most often seen in middle and late adulthood □ Affects information processing--becomes automatic Creativity

Memory

Early Adulthood

→ Creativity rises(esp. novel insights) Middle Adulthood

→ More deliberate, thoughtful → Sum up/integrate ideas

→ Goals more altruistic

• Improvements from birth through early adulthood

Memory Improvements in Infancy

Infantile Amnesia: Possible explanations

⬥ Bain maturation

⬥ Nonverbal sensory v. verbal memory systems ⬥ No metacognition

⬥ No capacity to tell narrative story

⬥ Can't take perspective of others

⬥ Lack of understanding

• First Memory ave. age 3 years old in class survey

Memory in Middle Adulthood

More difficulties in Working Memory

◊ Linked to slower processing?

         

 

▪ Difficulty Acquiring

Theory of mind & Contextual Factors

1. General Language Ability

2. Having an Older Sibling

3. Culture         e.g. China v. U.S. Ave.age. of ToM 4. Parenting Style

5. Engagement in Pretend Play, esp. Imaginary Friend

Intelligence & Master-Motivation

Intelligence  

Definition: Ability to solve problems; adapt  to and learn from everyday experience

○ Individual differences fairly stable, consistent across development ○ Can't be directly measured

Definition=Controversial

▪ Sternberg

▪ Multiple Intelligence Theories

○ Flynn Effect

• Multiple Intelligence Theorists

Gardner

Sternberg

Salovey&Mayer

Verbal Mathematical

Analytical

Spatial Movement Musical

Creative

Interpersonal Intrapersonal

Practical "Common sense is not so common!" Emotional

Naturalistic

Flynn Effect

IQ scores:  

▪ TOP: 1932--100→1970--120 ;

▪ 50-70: intellectually deficient; 130-160: intellectually very superior Explanations

▪ Better prenatal/childhood nutrition

▪ Higher education---parents, children

▪ More intervention programs

▪ Lower poverty levels

Nature & Nurture •

Nature/Genes---substantial effect (heritability=0.75[late teens and adults])  

[heritability is a mathematical estimate that indicates how much of a trait’s variation  can be attributed to genes]

▪ Genetic effect increased with age

Nurture---substantial effect; modifies gene expression

▪ SES(opportunities, education, parenting style, nutrition, etc.)

▪ Years of Education

              can be attributed to genes]

▪ Genetic effect increased with age

Nurture---substantial effect; modifies gene expression

▪ SES(opportunities, education, parenting style, nutrition, etc.)

▪ Years of Education

▪ Occupation Type

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