New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

exam 3 study guide

by: Allie Newman

exam 3 study guide BSC 215

Marketplace > Biology > BSC 215 > exam 3 study guide
Allie Newman
GPA 4.0
Anatomy and Physiology
Jason Pienaar

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

chapter 23, 24, and part of 25
Anatomy and Physiology
Jason Pienaar
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Anatomy and Physiology

Popular in Biology

This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Newman on Sunday April 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at a university taught by Jason Pienaar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 149 views.

Similar to BSC 215 at University


Reviews for exam 3 study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/05/15
BSC 216 Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 23 Required Reading Section 231 All Section 232 All but skip Rena lnnervation Understand anatomy in terms of blood and uid ow Section 233 All Section 234 All Section 225 All Section 236 Skip All Section 23 7 All but you do not need to worry with table 233 Urinary system disorders 0 Name and locate the 6 organs of the urinary system 0 2 kidneys 2 ureters bladder urethra 0 List functions of the kidneys in addition to urine formation 0 Filter blood plasma amp excrete toxic metabolic wastes o Regulate blood volume pressure and osmolarity by regulating water output Secrete erythropoietin Synthesize calcitrol Detoxify free radicals 0 Clear hormones and drug from body 0 Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sources 0 Protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as urea 0 There is also uric acid and creatinin Uric acid derives from nucleic acid catabolism Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism o 4 major nitrogenous wastes Ammonia Urea Uric Acid and Creatinine De ne excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastes 0 Excretion is the separation of wastes from body uids and eliminating them 0 By four systems 0 respiratory integumentary digestive urinary Describe the location and general appearance of the kidney 0 The kidneys are a pair of organs that are found on either side of the spine just below the rib cage in the back 0 Below the diaphragm at the back of the abdominal cavity 0 Bean shaped including renal cortex renal medulla and renal pelvis Understand the external and internal features of the kidney as it relates to blood and uid ow Save detailed identi cation of structures for Lab Trace the ow of blood through the kidney Figure 235 o Aorta Renal artery Segmental arteries lnterlobar arteries Arcuate arteries lnterlobular arteries Cortical radiate arteries Afferent arterioles Glomerulus OOO Efferent arterioles Peritubular capillaries andor vesa recta lnterlobular veins Cortical radiate veins Arcuate veins lnterlobar veins Segmental veins Renal vein 0 Inferior vena cava Trace the ow of uid through the renal tubules First paragraph of page 904 quot Glomerular ltrate gt Urine Renal corpuscle o The glomerulus produces ltrate Proximal convoluted tubule Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts Ascending limb of nephron loop Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct receives ltrate from many DCTs o Papillary duct merges collecting duct together Describe the process by which the kidney lters the blood plasma including the relevant cellular structure of the glomerulus o 1glomerular ltration driven by ltration pressure 0 2Tubular reabsorption and secretion movement of solutes and water in and out for the tubules 0 3water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine Explain the forces that promote and oppose ltration and calculate the ltration pressure if given the magnitude of these forces 0 Filtration pressure 0 Glomerular ltration is governed by the same pressures that determine ltration in the other blood capillaries Glomerular hydrostatic pressure blood pressure 60mmhg Glomerular osmotic pressure 32mmhg opposing ltration Capsular hydrostatic pressure 18mmhg exerted by uids in capsule Capsule colloidal osmotic pressure 0mmhg Describe how the nervous system hormones and the nephron itself regulate ltration o Glomerular ltration rate is controlled by adjustors glomerular blood pressure 0 Autoregulation l mycogenic mechanism keeps ow constant 0 Macula densa on DCT monitors ow increase of arterioles blood pressure causes vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole signals juxtamedullary cells to constrict decrease of arteriole blood pressure causes vasoconstriction of arteriole o Sympathetic control strenuous exercise or acute condition cause afferent arterioles to constrict lower GFR and urine production redirecting blood ow to visceral areas 0 Hormonal mechanisms l rennin release entering chain of angiotensinogen II to vasoconstrictor vessels elevating blood pressure Promotes water and NA reabsorption I Stimulates sensation of thirst Describe how the renal tubules reabsorb useful solutes from the glomerular ltrate and return them to the blood OOOOO NaCl electrical gradient Glucose l cotransported by sodium glucose transport proteins diffusion Nitrogenous wastes l diffusion Other electrolytes l solvent drag 0 Water aqua porins Describe how the tubules secrete solute from the blood into the tubular uid 0 The secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules o This moves urea uric acid bile salts ammonia catecholamines many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule Describe how the nephron regulates water excretion o The generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine also helped by electrolyte reabsorption Explain how the collecting duct and antidiuretic hormone regulate the volume and concentration of urine ADH increases water reabsorption39s thereby decreasing urine volume 0 The collecting duct concentrates urine water is reabsorbed in the medulla 4x deep in the medulla Explain how the kidney maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to function 0 The counter current multiplier o This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla What are the main organs associated with the urinary system Can you identify the ow of blood from the heart through the kidney and back to the heart 0 Six Organs 2 kidneys multiple functions 2 Ureters transport urine 1 bladderstore urine 1 Urethra transports excretes urine 0 O O O 0 Can you trace the ow of uid from the glomerulus to the urethra If given a place in the nephron could you tell me if the uid is glomerular ltrate tubular uid or urine Fluid Flow Summary 0 Glomerular ltrate PCT Nephron loop DCT Collecting duct Papillary duct Minor calyx Major calyx Renal pelvis 10 Ureter 11 Urinary bladder 12 Urethra omummthH What is the main function of the kidney what are other functions of the kidney Kidney Functions 0 Urinary system rids the body of metabolic waste products 0 Kidneys are the primary functional organ 0 Filter blood plasma separate waste from useful chemicals 1 Return useful chemicals to blood 2 Eliminate waste 0 Kidneys also have a multitude of other functions 1 1 Regulate blood volume amp pressure by eliminating or conserving water 2 2 Regulate body uid osmolarity by controlling watersolute elimination ratio 3 3 Secrete renin an enzyme that activates hormonal control of blood pressure 4 4 Secrete erythropoietin that stimulates red blood cell synthesis 5 5 Collaborate with lungs to regulate Ph of body uids 6 6 Add hydroxyl group to calcitrioll calcium homeostasis 7 7 Initiate gluconeogenesis from amino acids during extreme starvation What gives the medullary renal pyramids their characteristic stringy appearance 0 The collecting ducts which run down the medullary pyramids including nephrons What are the minor calyx and the major calyx 0 Renal calyxes are parts of the kidney that collect urine before it passes further into the urinary tract 0 The calyxes are part of the renal pelvis What is the structural and functional unit of the kidney 0 The Nephron Do you know the nephron structure glomerulus Bowman s capsule renal corpuscle proximal convoluted tubule loop of Henle ascending and descending distal convoluted tubule collecting duct The Nephron 0 Each kidney 12 million nephrons 0 Each is an identical functional unit 0 Comprised of 2 parts 0 Renal corpuscle lters blood plasma Golumerular Capsule o Parietal layer simple squamous o Capsule space ltrate collecting o Visceral layer podocytes 0 Renal tubule coiled tube that converts ltrate into urine l simple cuboidal 4 Regions 0 Proximal convoluted tubule PCT 0 Long tubule 0 Simple cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli brush border 0 Lots of absorption 0 Nephron loon Loob of Henle 0 Simple cuboidal thick segments 0 Lots of mitochondria o Involved in active transport of salts 0 Simple squamous thin segments 0 Permeable to water 0 Distal convoluted tubule DCT o Shorter less coiled than PCT o Cuboidal epithelium devoid of microvilli 0 End of the Nephron 0 Collecting duct 0 Receives uid from the DCT39s of several nephrons 0 Numerous collecting ducts converge near the tip of the medullary pyramids to from papillary ducts o Papillary ducts end in pores where urine passes into the minor calyx What is a podocyte 0 Any one of the many cells with branching tentacleshaped extensions that make up the barrier through which blood is ltered in the globular end Bowman39s capsule of the kidneys Can you describe at least 2 differences between cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons Hint hint know peritubular capillaries and vasa recta Cortical amp juxtmedullary Nephrons 0 Cortical Nephrons o 85 of all nephrons 0 Short nephron loops 0 Efferent arterioles branch into peritubular capillaries surrounding distal and proximal convoluted tubules o Juxtmedullary Nephrons o 15 of nephrons 0 Long nephron loops maintain salinity gradients o Efferent arterioles branch into vase recta around each nephron loop Why is blood pressure very high in the glomerulus compared to other capillaries Blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high compared to other capillaries because the diameter of the afferent arteriole is greater than that of the efferent arteriole 0 Larger afferent arteriole giving glomerulus a large inlet and a small outlet Where is the juxtaglomerular apparatus located and what are the 3 special kinds of cells that it is made of o uxtaglomerular apparatus complex structure found at the very end of the nephron loop where it has just reentered the renal cortex 0 Three special kinds of cells occur in the juxtaglomerular apparatus 0 1 Macula densa o 2 Juxtaglomerular JG cells 0 3 Mesangial cells 0 What are the functions of the 3 cell types of the juxtaglomerular apparatus 1 Macula densa Senses variations in ow or uid composition and secretes a paracrine that stimulates JG cells 2 Juxtaglomerular JG cells When stimulated by the macula they dilate or constrict the arterioles 3 Mesangial cells Connected to macula densa and JG cells by gap junctions and communicate by means of paracrines 1 Constrict or relax capillaries to regulate ow What 3 structures is the ltration membrane composed of o Filtration membrane l three barriers through which uid passes o 1 Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries 70 to 90 nm ltration pores exclude blood cells Highly permeable o 2 Basement membrane Proteoglycan gel negative charge excludes molecules greater than 8 nm Albumin repelled by negative charge I Blood plasma is 7 protein the ltrate is only 003 protein 0 3 Filtration slits Podocyte cell extensions pedicels wrap around the capillaries to form a barrier layer with 30 nm ltration slits Negatively charged which is an additional obstacle for large anions o All three of these have negatively charged but strongest is basement membrane How does the ltration membrane facilitate the transfer of uidssolutes from the glomerulus to Bowman s capsule and the kidney tubules o Filtration membrane l allows passage of water and solutes small into glomerular capsule o 1 Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries o 2 Basement membrane l quotgluingquot endothelium and capsule together 0 3 Filtration slits l Podocytes of visceral membrane of glomerular capsule o The anatomy is what allows pressure gradient example largewide diameter What substances will easily pass through the ltration membrane What substances will NOT 0 Almost any molecule smaller than 3 nm can pass freely through the ltration membrane 0 Water electrolytes glucose fatty acids amino acids nitrogenous wastes and vitamins 0 Some substances of low molecular weight are bound to the plasma proteins and cannot get through the membrane such as 0 Most calcium iron and thyroid hormones Unbound fraction passes freely into the ltrate 0 Passed through lter 0 Water Electrolytes Glucose Amino acids Fatty acids Vitamins Urea Uric acid 0 Creatinine 0 Turned back 0 Blood cells 0 Plasma proteins 0 Large anions o Proteinbound minerals and hormones 0 Most molecules are greater than 8 nm in diameter What s the difference between ltrate and urine 0 Glomerular ltrate l the uid in the capsular space 0 Similar to blood plasma except that it has almost no protein 0 Urine l uid that enters the collecting duct OOOOOOO o Undergoes little alteration beyond this point except for changes in water content 0 Mostly waste product with mainly water absorption 0 Send off to ureter for excretion of waste products How does glomerular ltration occur and why is the glomerulus more ef cient at ltration than other capillaries in the body 0 Glomerular ltration l a special case of the capillary uid exchange process in which water and some solutes in the blood plasma pass from the capillaries of the glomerulus into the capsular space of the nephron o More ef cient because 0 Its ltration membrane is more permeable large surface area 0 Glomerular blood pressure is higher 0 It has a higher net ltration pressure What are the three forces that generate a glomerular net ltration pressure of 10 mmHg Can you describe these 3 forces 0 Blood hydrostatic pressure BHP 0 Much higherin glomerular capillaries 60 mm Hg compared to 10 to 15 in most other capillaries due to the fact that afferent is much wider in diameter than efferent arteriole 0 Because afferent arteriole is larger than efferent arteriole larger inlet and smaller outlet 0 Primary means of pushing solutes and water out of blood across ltration membrane 0 Hydrostatic pressure in capsular space 0 18 mm Hg due to high ltration rate and continual accumulation of uid in the capsule 0 Pressure within capsule tends to push water back in to glomerulus Colloid osmotic pressure COP of blood due to proteins in blood 0 About the same here as elsewhere 32 mm Hg 0 Glomerular ltrate is almost proteinfree and has no signi cant COP 0 Proteins in glomerular blood tend to pull water back into glomerulus Blood hydrostatic pressure BHP 60 mm Hg out minus Colloid osmotic pressure COP 32 mm Hg in minus Capsular pressure CP 18 mm Hg in 0 equals Net ltration pressure NFP 10 mm Hg out Can you describe the 3 mechanisms that can alter glomerular ltration rates 0 Negative feedback control of GFR a High GFR l Rapid ow of ltrate in renal tubules l sensed by macula dense l paracrine secretion l constriction of afferent arteriole l reduced GFR o GFR control is achieved by three homeostatic mechanisms 0 1 Renal autoregulation o 2 Sympathetic control 0 3 Hormonal control 0 Renal autoregulation l the ability of the nephrons to adjust their own blood ow and GFR without external nervous or hormonal control 0 Enables them to maintain a relatively stable GFR in spite of changes in systemic arterial blood pressure 0 Sympathetic Control Sympathetic nerve bers richly innervate the renal blood vessels o Sympathetic nervous system and adrenal epinephrine constrict the afferent arterioles in strenuous exercise or acute conditions like circulatory shock Reduces GFR and urine output Redirects blood from the kidneys to the heart brain and skeletal muscles GFR may be as low as a few milliliters per minute 0 Hormonal Contral ReninAngiotensinAldosterone Mechanisg o Renin secreted by juxtaglomerular cells if BP drops dramatically o Renin converts angiotensinogen a blood protein into angiotensin I o In the lungs and kidneys angiotensinconverting enzyme ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II the active hormone I Works in several ways to restore uid volume and BP 0 Result these 3 mechanisms raise blood pressure 1 Thirst and drinking 2 Vasoconstriction 3 Sodium and water retention 39 Why is tubular reabsorption necessary 0 Tubular reabsorption removes useful solutes from the ltrate returns them to the blood Tubular reabsorption l process of reclaiming water and solutes from the tubular uid and returning them to the blood 0 Two routes of reabsorption o Transcellular route Substances pass through the cytoplasm of the PCT epithelial cells and out their base 0 Paracellular route Substances pass between PCT cells Junctions between epithelial cells are quite leaky and allow signi cant amounts of water to pass through Solvent drag water carries with it a variety of dissolved solutes Ta ken up by peritubular capillaries 0 Two routes of reabsorption o Transcellular route l through cytoplasm of PCT epithelial cells 0 Paracellular route l between PCT epithelium cells 39 How are sodium ions transported from kidney tubule to the peritubular capillary gtllt 39 How does the movement of sodium ion facilitate the movement of anions negative ions and water from lumen to capillaries 39 What is a symporter and how does this relate to how sodium ions assist in moving larger molecules like glucose amino acids and vitamins from lumen of the kidney tubule to the capillaries o Symports l simultaneously bind Na and another solute such as glucose amino acids or lactate o Sodiumglucose transport protein SGLT symport 39 How is Aldosterone Natriuretic peptides ADH and PTH involved in Tubular Secretion Regulate the DCT and collecting duct reabsorption of variable amounts of water salt Aldosterone l saltretaining hormone o Secreted when the blood Na levels fall or K rises o Secrete renin leads to productions of Angiotensin II which stimulates aldosterone secretion this then reabsorbs Na and secretes K Natriuretic Peptides l the heart secretes them in response to high blood pressure 0 Result in excretion of more salt and water in urine thus reducing blood volume and pressure 0 H l dehydration loss of blood volume rising blood osmolarity 0 Makes collecting duct more permeable to water rather than lost to urine 0 E l calcium de ciency hypocalcemia o lnhibit phosphate reabsorption and increase calcium reabsorption How does the countercurrent Multiplier work in Water Conservation The Coun tercurrent Multiplier The ability of the CD to concentrate urine depends on salinity gradient in renal medulla Four times as salty in the renal medulla than the cortex 0 Nephron loop acts as countercurrent multiplier Multiplier continually recaptures salt and returns it to extracellular uid of medulla which multiplies the salinity in adrenal medulla Countercurrent because of uid owing in opposite directions in adjacent tubules of nephron loop 0 Fluid owing downward in descending limb Passes through environment of increasing osmolarity Most of descending limb very permeable to water but not to NaCl Water passes from tubule into the ECF leaving salt behind Concentrates tubular uid to 1200 mOsmL at lower end of loop Fluid owing upward in ascending limb lmpermeable to water Reabsorbs Na K and Clquot by active transport pumps into ECF Maintains high osmolarity of renal medulla Tubular uid becomes hypotonic 100 mOsmL at top of loop 0 Recycling of urea lower end of CD permeable to urea Urea contributes to the osmolarity of deep medullary tissue Continually cycled from collecting duct to the nephron loop and back Urea remains concentrated in the collecting duct and some of it always diffuses out into the medulla adding to osmolarity What is the countercurrent exchange system and how does this work to keep salts and urea in the medulla The Countercurrent Exchange System Large volume of water reabsorbed by CD must be returned to blood stream completed by vasa recta Vasa recta l capillary branching off efferent arteriole in medulla Provides blood supply to medulla and does not remove NaCl and urea from medullary ECF o Countercurrent system formed by blood owing in opposite directions in adjacent parallel capillaries Descending capillaries Exchanges water for salt Water diffuses out of capillaries and salt diffuses in 0 As blood ows back up to the cortex the opposite occurs Ascending capillaries Exchanges salt for water Water diffuses into and NaCl diffuses out of blood Vasa recta gives the salt back and does not subtract from the osmolarity of the medulla o Absorb more water on way out than the way in and thus they carry away water reabsorbed from the urine by collecting duct and nephron loop Can you describe the neural control of urination both involuntary and voluntary see Fig 2324 Neural Control of Micturition o Involuntary micturition re ex o 1 Stretch receptors detect lling of bladder transmit afferent signals to spinal cord 0 2 Signals return to bladder from spinal cord segments 52 and 53 via parasympathetic bers in pelvic nerve o 3 Efferent signals excite detrusor muscle 0 4 Efferent signals relax internal urethral sphincter Urine is involuntarily voided if not inhibited by brain 0 Voluntary control 0 5 For voluntary control micturition center in pons receives signals from stretch receptors 0 6 If it is timely to urinate pons returns signals to spinal interneurons that excite detrusor and relax internal urethral sphincter Urine is voided o 7 If it is untimely to urinate signals from pons excite spinal interneurons that keep external urethral sphincter contracted Urine is retained in bladder o 8 If it is timely to urinate signals from pons cease and external urethral sphincter relaxes Urine is voided Chapter 24 Required Reading Section 24 3 Acids Bases and Buffers Respiratory control of pH Renal control of pH SKIP ALL OTHER SECTIONS IN CHAPTER 24 De ne buffer and write chemical equations for the bicarbonate buffer systems Buffer any mechanism that resists changes in pH Convert strong acids or bases to weak ones Bicarbonate buffer system a solution of carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions Carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions C02 H20 H2CO3 HCO3 H o Reversible reaction important in ECF 02 H20 H2CO3 HCO3 H Lowers pH by releasing H CO2 H2O l H2CO3 l HCO3 H Raises pH by binding H 0 Functions best in the lungs and kidneys to constantly remove C02 0 To lower pH kidneys excrete HC03 0 To raise pH kidneys excrete H and lungs excrete C02 Discuss the relationship between pulmonary ventilation pH of the extracellular uids and the bicarbonate buffer system Respiratory Control of pH Basis for the strong buffering capacity of the respiratory system The addition of C02 to the body uids raises the H concentration and lowers pH The removal of C02 has the opposite effects 0 Respiratory system neutralizes two or three times as much acid as chemical buffers 0 C02 is constantly produced by aerobic metabolism 0 Normally eliminated by the lungs at an equivalent rate 0 CO2 H2O H2CO3 HCO3 H I Lowers pH by releasing Hi 0 C02 expired H20 H2CO3 HCO339 H Raises pH by binding Hi 0 Increased C02 and decreased pH stimulate pulmonary ventilation while an increased pH inhibits pulmonary ventilation 39 Explain how the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions and how these ions are buffered in the tubular uid 39 What is the normal pH range of human blood and tissue uid 735 to 745 is the normal pH range of blood and tissue uid 39 What determines the pH of a solution pH of a solution is determined solely by its hydrogen ions H 39 How does a chemical buffer work Chemical buffer a substance that binds H and removes it from solution as its concentration begins to rise or releases H into solution as its concentration falls Restore normal pH in fractions of a second Function as mixtures called buffer systems composed of weak acids and weak bases Three major chemical buffers bicarbonate phosphate and protein systems Amount of acid or base neutralized depends on the concentration of the buffers and the pH of the working environment 39 How does the bicarbonate buffer system act to lower pH And increase pH CO2 H2O H2CO3 HCO3 H Lowers pH by releasingili C02 H20 H2CO3 HCO339 H Raises pH by bindingili 39 In general how do the kidneys lower pH Renal Control of pH The kidneys can neutralize more acid or base than either the respiratory system or chemical buffers Renal tubules secrete H into the tubular uid Most binds to bicarbonate ammonia and phosphate buffers Bound and free H are excreted in the urine actually expelling H from the body Other buffer systems only reduce its concentration by binding it to other chemicals 39 In general how do the kidneys and lungs work together to raise pH 0 The lungs and kidneys constantly remove C02 1 DTo lower pH kidneys excrete HC03 2 3T0 raise pH kidneys excrete H and lungs excrete C02 39 If we remove C02 from a solution does it become more acidic or alkaline 0 Acidic compounds have a low pH and alkaline compounds have a high pH 0 More C02 low Ph 0 Less C02 high Ph 0 More C02 more acidic 0 Less C02 more alkaline 39 Why can the kidneys neutralize more acids and bases than other buffer systems 0 Because the kidneys remove hydrogen from the body whereas the other buffer systems just reduce it39s concentration by binding it to another molecule Chapter 25 blue color means we do not need to know for the test Required Reading 39 Section 251 All but only need to understand anatomy in terms of describing digestive physiology 39 Section 252 Mastcation Saliva and the Salivary Glands the PharynX the Esophagus and Swallowing Section 253 All BUT Gross anatomy and innervation and circulation Section 254 Circulation Galbladder and bile Pancreas Regulation of secretion Section 255 All Section 256 Use power point notes instead Flow charts in power point notes can give you a the info you need to know for this section 39 Section 25 7 Bacterial Flora Absorption and motility defecation Learning outcomes 39 Describe the enteric nervous system 0 Enteric nervous system a nervous network in the esophagus stomach and intestines that regulate digestive tract motility secretion and blood ow 0 Thought to have over 100 million neurons 0 More than the spinal cord 0 Functions completely independently of the central nervous system I CNS exerts a signi cant in uence on its action 0 Enteric nervous system contains sensory neurons that monitor tension in gut wall and conditions in lumen o Composed of two networks of neurons 0 Submucosal Meissner plexus in submucosa Controls glandular secretion of mucosa Controls movements of muscularis mucosae o Myenteric Auerbach plexus parasympathetic ganglia and nerve bers between the two layers of the muscularis interna Controls peristalsis and other contractions of muscularis externa 39 Describe the process of mastication and swallowing Mastication chewing breaks food into smaller pieces to be swallowed and exposes more surface to the action of digestive enzymes First step in mechanical digestion Food stimulates oral receptors that trigger an involuntary chewing re ex Describe the composition and functions of saliva Functions of Saliva Moisten mouth Begin starch and fat digestion Cleanse teeth Inhibit bacterial growth Dissolve molecules so they can stimulate the taste buds Moisten food and bind it together into bolus to aid in swallowing Hypotonic solution of 970 to 995 water and the followingsolutes Salivary amylase enzyme that begins starch digestion in the mouth Lingual lipase enzyme that is activated by stomach acid and digests fat after the food is swallowed Mucus binds and lubricates the mass of food and aids in swallowing Lysozyme enzyme that kills bacteria lmmunoglobulin A lgA an antibody that inhibits bacterial growth Electrolytes Na K Clquot phosphate and bicarbonate pH 68 to 70 Describe the neural control of salivation and swallowing Neural control Short myenteric re exes stretch or chemical stimulation acts through myenteric plexus Stimulates parastaltic contractions of swallowing Long vagovagal re exes parasympathetic stimulation of digestive motility and secretion Identify the secretions of the stomach and state their functions Explain how the stomach produces hydrochloric acid and pepsin Describe the contractile responses of the stomach to food Describe the three phases of gastric function and how gastric activity is activated and inhibited Describe the digestive secretions and functions of the liver gallbladder and pancreas o Paracrine secretions 0 Chemical messengers that diffuse through the tissue uids to stimulate nearby target cells Explain how hormones regulate secretion by the liver and pancreas o Hormones 0 Chemical messengers secreted into bloodstream and stimulate distant parts of the digestive tract 0 Gastrin and secretin State how the mucosa of the small intestine differs from that of the stomach and explain the functional signi cance of the differences De ne contact digestion and describe where it occurs Describe the types of movement that occur in the small intestine Describe the locations of carbohydrate protein fat and nucleic acid digestion Name the enzymes involved in the digestion process see powerpoint ow chart Describe how each of the above is absorbed by the small intestine see powerpoint ow chart State the physiological signi cance of intestinal bacteria Discuss the types of contractions that occur in the colon Explain the neurological control of defecation What is the primary function of the alimentary canal gastrointestinal tractwhich organs are associated with this canal o Digestive Tract alimentary canal o 30 feet long muscular tube extending from mouth to anus o Mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine and large intestine o Gastrointestinal GI tract is the stomach and intestines 0 It transports partlydigested food from the mouth down to the stomach o The food moves down by 39 peristalsis39 contractions What types of accessory organs participate in the digestive process 0 Accessory Organs Teeth tongue salivary glands liver gallbladder and pancreas Can you walk me through the 5 stages of the digestive process 0 Five stages of digestion o Ingestion selective intake of food 0 Digestion mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body 0 Absorption uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood and lymph o Compaction absorbing water and consolidating the indigestible residue into feces o Defecation elimination of feces De ne peristalsis How does it work De ne segmentation How does it work What s the difference between a short and a long re ex 0 Short myenteric re exes stretch or chemical stimulation acts through myenteric plexus o Stimulates parastaltic contractions of swallowing 0 Long vagovagal re exes parasympathetic stimulation of digestive motility and secretion Which body cavity do all of the digestive organs sit in 0 Abdominal Cavity What is a serous membrane and which kind of serous membrane is associated with digestive organs 0 Serous Membrane o Mesentery of small intestines holds many blood vessels 0 Mesocolon anchors colon to posterior body wall What is the difference between the visceral and parietal peritoneums What is mesentery Can you name at least 3 functions of the mesentery Mesenteries connective tissue sheets that loosely suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall Allow stomach and intestines to undergo strenuous contractions Allow freedom of movement in the abdominal cavity Hold abdominal viscera in proper relationship to each other Prevent the intestines from becoming twisted and tangled by changes in body position and by its own contractions Provide passage of blood vessels and nerves that supply digestive tract Contain many lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels What are the 4 layers that you will nd in organs of the alimentary canal o Mucosa Epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosae o Submucosa o Muscularis externa Inner circular layer I Outer longitudinal layer 0 Serosa Areolar tissue Mesothelium What is the function of the myenteric nerve plexus The submucosal nerve plexus o Submucosal Meissner plexus in submucosa Controls glandular secretion of mucosa Controls movements of muscularis mucosae o Myenteric Auerbach plexus parasympathetic ganglia and nerve bers between the two layers of the muscularis interna Controls peristalsis and other contractions of muscularis externa What does the epiglottis do 0 Prevents food from going in Larynx so we can breathe talk and swallow What is the tongue s main function in the digestive process Which of the salivary glands is most susceptible to myxovirus mumps o Parotid Can you distinguish the salivary glands based on their method of excretion duct no duct Intrinsic salivary glands small glands dispersed amid other oral tissues Extrinsic salivary glands three pairs connected to oral cavity by ducts Where do the parotid submandibular and sublingual glands empty their products 0 Parotid located beneath the skin anterior to the earlobe 1 l Mumps is an in ammation and swelling of the parotid gland caused by a Virus 0 Submandibular gland located halfway along the body of the mandible 1 l Its duct empties at the side of the lingual frenulum near the lower central incim o Sublingual glands located in the oor of the mouth 2 Has multiple ducts that empty posterior to the papilla of the submandibular duct What is saliva composed of What are the functions of its components Hypotonic solution of 970 to 995 water and the followingsolutes Salivary amylase enzyme that begins starch digestion in the mouth Lingual lipase enzyme that is activated by stomach acid and digests fat after the food is swallowed Mucus binds and lubricates the mass of food and aids in swallowing Lysozyme enzyme that kills bacteria lmmunoglobulin A lgA an antibody that inhibits bacterial growth Electrolytes Na K Clquot phosphate and bicarbonate pH 68 to 70 What are the functions of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters Can you describe the 5 steps of swallowing Describe the buccal and pharyngealesophageal phases of deglutition swallowing What is the importance of oblique smooth muscle located only in the stomach What are the 5 main secretions of the stomach Within the gastric glands what is the function of the mucous neck cells parietal cells chief cells and enteroendocrine G cells How is HCI made what are its functions How is pepsin made Functions What is a zymogen Understand the general function of gastric lipase intrinsic factor and chemical messengers What are 3 mechanisms that the stomach uses to prevent corrosion of itself due to the very acidic environment Which nerve stimulates stomach activity Where in the brain does this nerve originate Does the sympathetic nervous system inhibit or stimulate gastric secretion Which hormone produced by enteroendocrine cells stimulates enzyme and HCI secretion Can you distinguish between the cephalic gastric and intestinal phases of the digestive process What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine Which sphincter controls the ow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum What are adaptations of the small intestine for purposes of enhancing absorption of nutrients Based on the ow charts in the power point notes Chapter 25 section 256 can you describe which digestive enzymes breaking down carbs proteins fats and nucleic acids where the breakdown happens in the digestive system and where nutrients are absorbed What is the primary function of the large intestine How can you identify the large intestine 3 characteristics that distinguish it from other organs in your digestive system What is the role of commensal bacteria in our large intestine How does the defecation re ex work


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.