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soc 1004

soc 1004

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introductory Sociology
Professor: David brunsma
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: soc, 1004, sociology, dr, and King
Cost: 50
Name: Soc 1004: Exam 3: Family
Description: These notes go over the readings that were assigned to us for this unit!
Uploaded: 10/31/2016
4 Pages 252 Views 1 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study Guide: Family: How  Groups Handle Nature Detours on the road to equality:


o Why did women surpass men in attaining a higher education?




 “Why has the gender integration of occupations slowed to a crawl?




∙ Gender Expectations: Why do male and females end up in different occupations?



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We also discuss several other topics like an unintentional attack in which the perpetrator uses social skills to trick or manipulate a legitimate employee into providing confidential company information is known as:
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ot entirely true. Women were once increasingly entering male dominated fields but this growth has come to a stop. o “The slow but steady movement of women into formerly male-dominated  occupations has tapered off, if not completely stopped, during the 1990s”  (32). ∙ Most occupations remain skewed either towards men or women. Sociologists refer to  this concentration of men and women in different jobs as the gender segregation  of work. o “…a woman more often works next to other women than to men. Women  remain crowded in certain jobs such as secretaries administrative assistants  (99 percent female), child care workers (98 percent females) or registered  nurses (93 percent)” (32). o “…male bastions are construction trades, such as carpenters, plumbers and  electricians (3 percent female), mechanics and repairers (5 percent) and  engineers (10 percent)”  ∙ It’s true that some of the highest-status professions (law, medicine, and  management) have experienced a large influx of women. But even so, there are still  clear gender disparities. o “Few female managers have reached the highest echelons [ranks] of large  corporations, and women middle-managers are less likely than their male  counterparts to have authority over staff and budgets. Female lawyers are  more likely to be found in family law or working for the government than  practicing in the more lucrative [profitable] specializations at major firms. And female physicians are more likely to specialize in pediatrics or family practice  than surgery or anesthesiology…”  Although there are more women in high status occupations, there is  still evident gender disparity. Women are less likely to be promoted,  have less power than their male counterparts, and are found in the  “lesser” specializations that don’t make as much money.  ∙ In Summary: “Men and women are segregated by occupation, by firms within  occupation, and by jobs and specializations within firms. There are ‘men’s jobs’ and  ‘women’s jobs’ at all levels of education skills, and experience, and at each level, the  women’s jobs tend to be paid less” (33).  ∙ Furthermore, female dominated fields pay less even when experience, qualifications,  and education are taken into account. This wealth disparity is shown by comparing  jobs with similar qualifications…o “Women are 50 percent of bus drivers but only 3 percent of railroad  conductors. Women are 71 percent of accountants and auditors but only 29  percent of securities and financial services sale representatives. Women are  88 percent of dressmakers but only 22 percent of upholsters. In each of these  cases, the male occupation pays more than the female one…despite good  intentions, many jobs are not truly open to everyone” (33). ∙ Gender Expectations: Why do male and females end up in different occupations? Sociologists tend to view gender roles as social conventions rather than a  natural phenomenon  o People are taught to distinguish male and female work like they are taught to  distinguish from right and wrong.  o “Young girls may no longer be encouraged to stay home, but now many are  encouraged to work in ‘suitable’ jobs that emphasize helping others. Ideals  pressed on boys include abstract reasoning, competitive prowess in sports  and business, tinkering with things and financial success” (34).  o Females working in a masculine field raises questions about a women’s  femininity. For example, female marines may feel the need to show how tough they are on the job, but also how feminine they are off the job.  o Males working as nurses respond to their masculinity being questioned by  highlighting the heroic aspects of nursing.  o Women also have fewer connections and networks that would allow them to  enter male dominated fields.  “They often lack the co-worker support necessary to succeed.  They face job tasks and hours that assume a male breadwinner with a  supportive stay at home wife. And their family and friends are often  dubious [hesitant] or hostile to a new or unconventional occupation”  (35).   “…excessive hours in a number of demanding fields limit the  opportunities of those with parental and other caregiving obligations,  especially mothers…accentuating the strain on women”  ∙ Gender Distinctions can also be flexible: History proves this…in WWII, while  men were away at war, women increasingly took on male occupations by filling up  seats in medical schools and taking on manufacturing jobs. The media even helped  with this by stressing how the required skills for these jobs were similar to the  domestic talents of women.  o 1960: Increase in gender integration. young women switched from education  to medicine, business, and other fields as professionals   “These examples suggest that the gender stereotypes with which  women grow up do not prevent them from seizing new opportunities as they become available” (37). o 1980: was a period of great energy and optimism for research and policy on  gender segregation. There was an idea of comparable work: where pay should be equalized not only for the same work, but for comparable work as well.  Women continued to enter professional fields. Women’s entry into professional fields helped other women who remained in female fields (like nursing and  education since they experienced shortages) by stimulating higher wages  o 1990: progress hit the ground. There was little mixing with occupations.  “Why has the gender integration of occupations slowed to a crawl? A  longer view suggests that this stability is typical and it is the unusual  changes of the 1970’s and 1980’s that need to be explained” (38).   Women have shifted to seeking high education in order to achieve  economic independence.  ∙ Education: o “Women first surpassed men in obtaining bachelor’s degrees in 1982, and the  gap continues to widen” (38).  o Why did women surpass men in attaining a higher education? And how did  they do it so quickly? The rise in education is likely linked to gender  segregation in several ways.  1. Women knew that the low wages they faced in unskilled work did  NOT provide a living wage. ∙ Even when men and women had the same level of education,  MEN still made more money. Even male high-school drop outs  made more than female drop outs! Men made living wages, and women didn’t. Women couldn’t survive with just a high school  diploma so they saw that it was more pressing for them to  pursue a higher education.   2. Women felt that if they pursued a higher education, it would protect  them against hiring discrimination.  ∙ “If a pharmacy occupation requires a master’s degree, women  with such a diploma can expect that they will be given serious  consideration” (39).   3. The educational fields women receive degrees in are themselves  segregated which limits how much money they can make.  ∙ As mentioned above, female dominated fields tend to pay less.  ∙ 2020: job projections will resemble current patterns.  o What needs to change so that gender integration can rise again:   “specific policy measures would include: vigorous enforcement of anti discrimination laws, training programs that target highly gender typed  fields, and a broad reconsideration of the value of women’s work,  especially caregiving work. Restructuring of working time to make all  jobs parent-friendly…so that responsible parents are not trapped in so called ‘mommy track’ positions of part-time jobs with no job security or employment benefits…policies that reduce the length of the work  week…could reduce work-family conflict…reducing artificial gender  barriers at work can improve economic efficiency while promoting  gender equity. Recruiting more women into fields such as computer  science and engineering could help to provide much needed talent in  these area, while recruiting more men to be elementary school  teachers would help solve…shortages” (40).
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