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UO / Journalism Core / JOUR 201 / what is meant by a word, text,conception or action?

what is meant by a word, text,conception or action?

what is meant by a word, text,conception or action?


J 201 Midterm Study Guide

what is meant by a word, text,conception or action?

____________________________________________________________________________ Fold down the column and study using the vocabulary.

Fixed Meaning

what is meant by a word, text, conception, or action

Temporarily Fixed Meaning

we are positioned within discourse

Never Fixed Meaning

discourse is never fixed & is always changing


framework of ideas upon which people make  decisions & act 

(examples = democracy / capitalism)


system of ideas that inform the rules, procedures, & practices of society & its institutions

(examples = newspapers, social media, 

graffiti, classroom lectures, music videos,  media)

Ferdinand de Saussure

linguist; created system for signs

(signifier = image, word, sound

signified = concept / meaning)

who studied encoding / decoding ?

“We are socialized in a prison – house of language”

Louis Althusser

agrees w/ Saussure; goes beyond w/ ideologies  being fixed also

Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)

cultural institutions w/ power (position us w/ fixed  meanings / cultural positions through ideology)

Michael Foucault

meaning is temporarily fixed

discourse is subject to constant struggle

we are post­structuralism

Jacques Derrida

meaning is never fixed


ability to realize your will against the will of othersWe also discuss several other topics like ucla ccle


description or portrayal of something


cultural condition where a particular way of life &  its ideas, identities, & meanings are accepted as  “common sense” by a population 

hegemonic legitimacy is granted when  

    dominated groups     consent to domination by more powerful groups

what society views as sexually normal ?

Antonio Gramsci

studied hegemony

believed professional communicators help  convince public to support interests of the  powerful & accept them as normal

Encoding / Decoding

Encoding = process by which message is  constructed by its producers

(all 3 are reasons why meaning is never  fixed)

Decoding = process by which audience reads,  interprets, & understands message We also discuss several other topics like psy 320 msu

Dominant Process

decode messages way sender intended

Negotiated Process

resist by consenting to claims made

Oppositional Process

reject entirely the claims made


act of having media so prevalent in our lives

Stuart Hall

studied encoding / decoding

Theodore Adorno & Max 


Germans who thought ideology and hegemony was  important

“The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as  Mass Destruction”

argues that Hollywood is a factory 

& industry

Frankfurt School

German school of social theory & philosophy


inquiry into metaphysical contradictions & their  solutions

Culture Industries

like factories that mass produce standardized,  reliable, & predictable 

Capitalism requires that most of us work in  factories

Global Information Economy

economy where we are able to use computers or  other instruments to collect data

Global Network Capitalism

Creative Labor

humanity’s transformation of nature into human  identity in production of labor

Flexible & Network Capitalism

Self­Promotion & Self­Branding

Below­the­line Work


study of knowledge

Agenda Setting

the more coverage a story gets, more people are  interested

Cultivation Effect

more people consume a type of media, more they  perceive the world around them to be like media

Spiral of Silence If you want to learn more check out madison french class

people will stay silent if they believe they are in the minority

Third­Person Effect

everyone else is susceptible to media messages, but not me!

Confirmation Bias

tendency to search for information that confirms  preexisting beliefs

Spin Industries

industry designed to spin off stories & events to  favor one side

Spin Rooms (designated area where 

journalists conduct interviews w/ politicians or representatives after debate)

Distraction Strategies

ways to distract people; used by the media

Strategic Communication

∙ Political parties

groups of people who have the same agenda

∙ Candidates

People representing political parties

∙ Resources

what is used to persuade people

∙ Popular culture

what is trending today

∙ Traditional Press

newspapers & news shows

∙ Permanent Campaigns

people start campaigning right after the presidential election


who someone is 

Collective Identity

what a group identifies as

Cultural Imperialism

cultural aspects of imperialism

Sexuality & Identity

who someone is attracted to and identifies as gay, straight, bi …

male, female …

Sexual Hegemonies

what society views as sexually normal

The New Normal

tv show w/ 2 gay dads that is very stereotypical;  only aired 1 season


∙ Mass Consumption

people consume a high amount of products

∙ Social Processes

pattern of growth / change in society

∙ Culture

company culture in which employees “live” to  brand valuesIf you want to learn more check out research is the basic groundwork of any public relations program. it involves the gathering and interpretation of
We also discuss several other topics like sellar joint example
If you want to learn more check out flourish seligman summary

∙ Value

how much the brand is worth


pertaining or dealing w/ morals or principles of  morality

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