Created by Eleni McGee
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PSYC 1000
Chapters 6, 7, 8, 11
Chapter 6: Learning
Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience (excludes situational and maturational variables) Learning can be fairly constant but the mind may lose the ability to recall/express it.
Conditioning- process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses (learning). A conditioned response= a learned response
Associations- when 2 things occur together in time and space we tend to associate the two.
∙ Classical conditioning- (Pavlov) learning that something occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired with an
We also discuss several other topics like What is a community corrections sentence?
unconditional stimulus (US) to a elicit a conditioned response (CR) o Pavlov’s dog study: he noticed that dogs would start to salivate when somebody with a lab coat walked in (this is If you want to learn more check out How rauvolfia serpentina went from being a traditional medicine to becoming a valued medicinal resource in western cultures?
the neutral stimulus is the white lab coat because Don't forget about the age old question of How does the market for an illegal good work?
before the dog learns that it usually means food is
coming, the white lab coat means nothing
the unconditioned stimulus is the food elicits the
unlearned response (no previous conditioning)
the unconditioned stimulus produces an
unconditioned response the dogs salivate to the
the conditioned stimulus is the previous neutral
stimulus or in this case, the white lab coat.
The conditioned stimulus causes a conditioned Don't forget about the age old question of Which type of interview observes open and closed-ended questions?
response occurs after repeated pairings of
unconditioned stimulus with neutral stimulus, this is
the dog salivating to the white lab coat.
o A few things to remember for classical conditioning:
The stimulus always comes before the response
The UCS is associated with the UCR (reflex
The CS is associated with the CR/ LEARNED
There is no “cross talk” between the conditioned and
o Acquisition- the phase when the UCS is paired with the CS. These two need to be together in time and space in order to process the learned response
o Acquisition can happen by way of different methods: 1. Delayed conditioning (most effective)
a. The neutral stimulus is presented before the
unconditioned stimulus and remains until
the unconditioned response begins.
b. * Many studies report that ½ a second is the
optimal time between the NS and UCS
2. Simultaneous conditioning
a. The neutral stimulus is presented at the
same time as the unconditioned stimulus.
3. Trace conditioning If you want to learn more check out How are planets formed?
a. The neutral stimulus is presented and then
taken away or ended before the
unconditioned stimulus is presented.
4. Backward Conditioning
a. The unconditioned stimulus is presented
before the neutral stimulus.
Classically Conditioned Emotional Response- (CER), Watson demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus. Watson’s experiment: he made his baby son play with a rat and then he would make a loud, startling noise that made the son start crying. After enough pairings, the son would start crying when he saw the rat alone because he associated it with loud noises.
Conditioning’s Basic Principles:
1. Stimulus Generalization- learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli (CS). The generalized responses become weaker as we decrease similarity from the original stimulus. * this happens in classical conditioning If you want to learn more check out What was the data that ingman et al (2000) used?
2. Stimulus discrimination- takes further training, this is a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli. Ex. Pair
meat with a 500 Hertz tone but NEVER pair meat with any other stimulus (ex. A 550 Hertz tone) so that the response is only associated with that particular stimulus.
Extinction- learning “not to respond”; gradual weakening or suppression of a previously learned conditioned response. This can occur when the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS (ex. White lab coat presented without meat)
Spontaneous recovery- the reappearance of a previously extinguished condition response with conditional training. The strength of the spontaneous recovery becomes weaker over time.
Higher order conditioning- neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus. So… different from classical conditioning because you are pairing a now conditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus rather than a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Operant conditioning- learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences; “good consequences increase behavior” This is not necessarily linked to reflexes. There is an interplay of genetics and the
environment. So, “good” consequences increase behavior while “bad” consequences decrease behavior.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect- behaviors followed by pleasurable consequences tend to be repeated behaviors while behaviors followed by unpleasing consequences tend to decrease behavior. This law explains the mechanism behind operant conditioning. Thorndike’s cat in a box experiment demonstrated this.
Skinner’s contribution- reinforcement and punishment defined based on occurrence of behavior. Reinforcement (even negative) always increases behavior while punishment always decreases behavior.
∙ He extended the work of Thorndike.
∙ He arranged pigeons in a lab to receive grain on a schedule while he was gone from the lab
∙ When he returned he realized that some of the pigeons were acting strange because they were exhibiting superstitious behavior; they kept doing the behaviors that they had happened to be doing when they received the grain.
Primary reinforces- unlearned; for example food, water, temperature, escape from pain; these are related to survival. This is mostly associated with experimental studies with animals.
Secondary reinforcements- these have learned value ex. Money and praise. This is associated with most human research.
Positive reinforcement- adding or presenting a stimulus that makes response stronger ex. Pressing a lever gets food.
Negative reinforcement- taking away or removing a stimulus, which strengthens a response. Ex. Rat presses lever to turn off shock, headache removed after taking an aspirin. Avoidance of the stimulus is common in anxiety disorders and reinforced through negative reinforcement.
Schedules of Reinforcement:
This determines when we give a reinforcement- we can play around with the frequency and time that animal does correct behavior.
1. Fixed Ratio
a. The number of behavioral occurrences is the same throughout training, the ratio is fixed. Ex. The rat only gets 1 sugar pellet after every 5th lever press.
b. Fixed Ratio 1 (FR1) is continuous reinforcement; this is best for starting behavior.
i. However, if we run out of reinforcements or decide to
withhold reinforcement this behavior will stop quickly.
ii. Has more predictability
2. Variable Ratio
a. Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio varies
3. Fixed Interval
a. Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed (usually reported in minutes)
b. Ex. During a minute interval, rat cannot get reinforcement but as soon as interval is expired, reinforcement is given and minute starts over
4. Variable Ratio
a. Reinforcement occurs unpredictably
b. The ratio ovaries
c. Ex. Fishing
d. Any schedule other than FR 1 that has a greater resistance to extinction (only rewarded some of the time)
RATIOS produce FASTER rates than intervals.
Post reinforcement pause- after animal gets reinforcement, animal takes a break. Fixed ration can have this but variable ratio does not.
With fixed intervals, animals do not respond much at the beginning, but towards the end, response rate becomes much quicker scalloping
Shaping- reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response. Shaping by the Method of Successive Approximations we can gradually reward behaviors to reach the ultimate reward. incremental rewards (necessary in real world applications) ex. At a certain time, as humans we stop reinforcing certain words that sound kid of right but are wrong ex. Wa-wa vs. water
Operant Conditioning in the Real World:
o Weakening a response, always decreases behavior (even positive and negative punishment decrease behavior)
o Informs us of what NOT to do
o Punishment does not guarantee to bring the desired out come like reinforcement does.
o Positive punishment
Adding or presenting a stimulus that weakens a response. Ex. Shouting
o Negative punishment
Taking away ex jail
o Sometimes with punishment, there is an increase in behavior before a decrease
Cognitive Social Learning:
∙ Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding of a solution that implies mastery of the task thereafter)
o Poor performance to the one trial where they master the task and every performance thereafter is close to perfect.
o Very different finding when compared to rights; highlights the difference with working with different species.
o Monkey curve: insight learning curve
o The well developed cortex allows the social learning theory to occur
o Animals like rts do not have the brain machinery to implement this type of learning.
∙ Debate: Tolman vs. Hull; do rats think?
o Tolman’s rats built a cognitive map (a mental image of a 3D space)
o Tolman: rats are intelligent (this viewpoint has proven to be more true)
o Hull: meaningless associations with environment
o Tolman: latent learning- hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs.
We can only measure performance, we can’t measure the internal processes
Tolman trained rats to run down a maze; one group with food reward, one group without food reward at the end
∙ He measured the running speed; group with food at
end seemed to learn maze better as evidence with
faster time of completing maze
∙ Tolman then switched the groups; we should see the
no-food group (now the food group) increase learning
∙ Results: group that got the sugar pellet THIS time ran just as fast or faster than previous rats with sugar
∙ Shows that motivation is a big factor in performance! ∙ Contrast effects seen in graph of latent learning
∙ Observational learning: learning new behaviors or information by watching others
o More associated with humans and higher level animals o Reflects the cognitive aspects of learning
o Bandura’s famous Bobo Doll Study: mimicry or imitation Children were allowed to watch a video of adults beating at a Bobo doll; children then were let loose on Bobo dolls
Children were not more aggressive with each other but beat up more on the Bobo doll
o Evolution of GI Joe action figures- increasing bicep circumference. What are the effects of this type of modeling?
o Four processes in observational learning:
Reinforcement (ex. Adults reinforcing behavior of children) ∙ Neuroscience and Learning
o When we learn something, we experience the
creation/strengthening of synapses and alterations in many brain structures (receptors)
o Long term potentiation: (LTP) change in neurotransmitter release at the synapse that is correlated with learning. Ex. It becomes easier the second time, increasingly as you keep going
Considered fairly permanent over time
o Conditioned taste aversion- classically conditioned associations of food to illness (works with novel foods or foods that you do not regularly eat) After you eat the food, you get sick and this is a one trial conditioning (we won’t want to eat it ever again) ex. Injecting sheep with chemicals that wolves do not like and make them sick in order to have them stop eating the sheep
∙ Biological prepredness: there is a built in readiness to associate certain responses to certain stimuli
∙ Instinctive drift: conditioned responses shift back towards innate response pattern
∙ Conditioning and Society
o Classical conditioning
∙ Racial prejudice can be started and maintained
through operant conditioning (someone does
something racist and is rewarded for it) but classical
conditioning is a more subtle form of learning. When
we get nervous we have sympathetic arousal; these
signals. If these measures of sympathetic arousal are
paired with one race only, then nervousness can be
associated with one race
o Ex. Mom shifts the baby to one side when she
walks by members of a certain race on the
o Operant conditioning
o Cognitive Social Theory
Chapter 7: Memory
Memory- an internal record of some prior experience. This is a constructive process that is active; we organize and shape info. as it is processed, stored and retrieved.
Diagram of the Three-Stage Memory Model: (KNOW THIS)
stimulus from environmentsensory memoryshort term memorylong term memory
Now in more detail:
∙ Stimulus from environment- anything that is perceived by all 5 senses
∙ Sensory memory- holds sensory information, has a large capacity, information not transferred to short-term memory is lost. Lasts up to ½ a second for visual and 2-4 seconds for auditory
∙ short term memory- holds perceptions for analysis, lasts up to 30 seconds without rehearsal, limited capacity of 5-9 items.
Information not transferred is lost. This is maintained by
∙ Long term memory- relatively permanent storage; relatively unlimited capacity. You can retrieve things from short term memory to bring them into long term memory
Maintenance rehearsal- shallow processing that is best for short term memory, subject to interference
Elaborative rehearsal- deep processing that is more likely to make a long term memory. Involves linking material to previously learned material. Gives you better recall than maintenance rehearsal.
Can drugs/ certain foods affect your memory?
The choline fad in which you eat foods rich in choline to increase your memory is a farce
Caffeine can increase scores on a memory test because it increases your alertness
More on Sensory memory:
∙ Briefly stores an exact replica of info (icon and echo)
∙ Can only last a few seconds
∙ Selected information is sent to short term memory
∙ George Sperling extensively studied sensory memory
o Sperling’s experiment
He flashed an arrangement of 12 letters very briefly
Most subjects could report 4 or 5 letters
Next time, he flashed all 12 letters but buzzed a
certain tone to indicate a certain row
Subjects could now report the entire row
Sensory information comes in and fades so fast it is
hard to remember a lot of it, but 4 or 5 is much
More on short term memory:
∙ Short term memory temporarily stores sensory information and then decides whether to send it to long term memory
∙ Can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds
∙ Chunking or grouping items together can increase short term memory o Works best when things are grouped together in a meaningful way
o Chess example: experienced chess players could memorize formations that were common in chess better than beginners, but as soon as the formations were arranged in a random way, the experienced players had no advantage on the beginners when memorizing
∙ Short term memory has a limited capacity
∙ Capacity limit: 7 items +/- 2 is known as Miller’s Magical Number ∙ Rehearsal is how we get around time limits, chunking is how we get around capacity limits
∙ Short term memory is probably stored in the hippocampus More on long-term memory
∙ Unlimited capacity
∙ “forgetting” is a retrieval failure
∙ LTM is probably stored in the cerebral cortex
∙ Ways to improve LTM:
o Elaborative rehearsal
o Retrieval cues
∙ Divided into 2 categories: Explicit and Implicit
o Explicit (memory with conscious recall)
∙ General facts/ ids
∙ Ex. Bananas are yellow
∙ Personal experiences
∙ Ex. Your graduation
o Implicit (memory without conscious recall)
∙ Motor skills and habits (this is one of the last
memories to go with age)
∙ Ex. How to brush teeth
∙ Conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli
∙ Ex. Phobias
∙ Earlier exposure facilitates retrieval
∙ Studies on this report hierarchical retrievals of
∙ Ex. You get scared more easily after reading a scary
Collins and Quillian example: semantics networks and priming: In this example, Collins and Q asked people yes or no questions and measure their reaction times. Here are 2 example questions:
1. Does a bird have wings?
2. Does a bird breathe?
People had a faster reaction time to question 1 because of hierarchical memory. On the hierarchy around birds, wings are more closely associated with them.
Recognition vs. Recall
Recognition lasts longer than recall. People recognize photos faster than words. Recognition for pictures is initially better than smell recognition. When trying to recall, generate as many retrieval cues as possible. “Prime” by thinking of anything related to the item.
∙ Occurs most rapidly immediately after learning
∙ It is an active process
∙ Relearning takes less time than initial learning
∙ Overlearning flattens the forgetting curve (Ebbinghaus forgetting curve)
There are five key theories as to why we forget:
a. Memory naturally decays with time
b. This is more of a laboratory phenomenon
a. Memory competes with another when new information comes in i. Retroactive interference: new information interferes with old
ii. Proactive interference: old information interferes with new 3. Motivated Forgetting
a. We want to forget certain unpleasant things (Freud)
4. Encoding Failure
a. Information in short term memory never reaches long term memory
5. Retrieval Failure
a. “tip of the tongue phenomenon”
b. you have encoded the information but you can’t recall it; momentarily inaccessible
serial position effect- the beginning and ends of lists are remembered better than the material in the middle (primary and recency effects)
∙ space practice (distributed is better than massed)
∙ deeper processing
∙ make connections with something you already know (integrate)
Memories are localized and distributed throughout the brain (mainly hippocampus and cortex) Karl Lashley discovered that there was NOT one place in cortex where all memories resided thus LTM is distributed throughout the cerebral cortex (STM more associated with hippocampus)
Amnesia- memory loss from a brain injury or trauma
Retrograde amnesia- old memories are lost
Anterograde amnesia- new memories are lost
Case Study: Henry Molaison
∙ removed part of his hippocampus to treat seizures
∙ he experienced anterograde amnesia
∙ important because this research (Corkin was main researcher) redirected experimentation to localization of memory function
Alzheimer’s- progressive mental deterioration, characterized by loss of cholingeric neurons and severe memory impairment. Early detection is very important.
Memory and Criminal Justice:
Eyewitness testimonies are persuasive but can be flawed due to the often high level of arousal surrounding the event.
Repressed memories involve debate as to whether recovered memories are accurate or repressed.
Memories are constructed to be consistent with the subject’s expectations. Loftus: leading questions experiment. Eyewitness answers were influenced by how the question was asked/what exact words were used. Bartlett: also advanced the field proving that we need consistency and order.
Chapter 8: Thinking, Language and Intelligence
Cognition can be divided into thinking, language and intelligence. Our research on brain activity has progressed with technology to more directly measure it. Discoveries have shown that thinking is spread throughout the entire brain, but decision-making is more prevalent in the frontal lobe.
1. Mental Images
∙ Mental representations of a previous experience; conjured up much like a picture
∙ Object permanence (begins around the ages of 3-6) is when we start to realize that something exists even if it is not directly in front of us. ∙ Congruity effect- people respond faster to stimuli that agree with each other
∙ Distance effect- reaction times are faster when comparing more distinctly different items.
∙ Picture superiority effect- subjects have better recall for pictures rather than words in experiments
∙ Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics
∙ We learn concepts by:
o Artificial concepts- formed by logic and specific rules
o Natural concepts/prototypes- formed by our experiences in everyday life
o Hierarchies- help us group concepts into subcategories within broader categories
o Note that members of a concept do not equally represent the concept; some members are better representations than others. Prototype is the term for this.
∙ Shaping is very important in language (when you reinforce things that are closer and closer to the word)
∙ If you are not exposed to language before puberty it is hard to learn language after puberty
∙ Chimps make specific warning calls; rats make specific ultrasonic vocalizations after ejaculation (this is considered language) ∙ Bees communicate through movement.
Thinking/ Problem Solving
There are 5 barriers to problem solving:
1. Mental sets (thinking patterns)
a. Tendency to use strategies that have worked in the past- creates a narrow mental set when the person often cannot think of new strategies.
2. Functional fixedness (objects’ use)
a. Thinking of an object as only functioning in its traditional way 3. Confirmation bias (we tend to focus on evidence that supports our hypothesis)
4. Availability Heuristic (judging the likelihood of an event based on how readily available other instances are in memory)
a. Ex. Unsafe flights rather than safe flights are the ones that are reported.
5. Representative Heuristic (estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstances match a previous prototype)
Creativity- Originality; seeing unique solutions to a problem. Fluency is generating a lot of possible solutions while flexibility is floating easily from one type of problem solving to another
Intelligence- global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment. Intelligence is a hypothetical, abstract construct.
Historical views of intelligence:
∙ Single ability or general factor “g”
∙ Multiple abilities (Thurstone and Guilford)
o We now know that there are multiple types
∙ Crystallized intelligence (Catell)
o The ability to memorize facts and figures
∙ Multiple abilities (Gardner and Sternberg)
IQ tests: Stanford-Binet (for children) and Wechsler (for adults) are the most widely used individual intelligence tests. Both tests compute an intelligence quotient, which compares the deviation of a person’s test score to norms for that person’s age group. The typical IQ is 1000 because the ratio is (mental age/ chronological age) x (100). The normal standard deviation is within 15 points.
There are 3 scientific standards for measuring intelligence: 1. Standardization- establishes norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
2. Reliability- measure of consistency and stability of test scores over time
3. Validity- ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
** We know that IQ tests are very reliable but we are not sure about the validity.
Mental disability/ intellectually disabled= IQ of 70 and below Mental giftedness= IQ of 135 and above
Is intellect genetic or environmental?
In order to find out, we examine the concordance rate of IQs of identical twins raised together and separately. If twins are raised apart concordance rate is not as high as together but still fairly high (75)
If siblings are raised apart, however, the concordance rate is very low (21) The IQ tests should not be culturally bias (stereotype threat) Chapter 11: Gender and Human Sexuality
Sex- biologically male or female (this is dependent upon sex organs)
Gender- psychological and sociocultural meanings that are added to biological sex
Gender identity- self-identification as either man or woman. This is SELF DEFINED
Gender role- societal expectations for male and female behavior. This is SOCIETALLY DEFINED
There is less variance and sex and more variance in gender. Math and science are more traditionally considered masculine roles and male-female difference is greater in industrialized countries emphasizing the role of society. (there is a bigger difference in the more industrialized societies)
Sexual orientation- primary erotic attraction towards others
Transsexual- when one’s gender identity does not match their gonads, genitals or internal accessory organs.
Transvestite- individuals who cross dress for emotional reasons.
Androgyny- having characteristics of both male and female. The US is an increasingly androgynous society.
Hermaphrodite- when both systems (male and female) are developed. Most of the time, one is fully developed while the other is partially developed.
Dimensions of Sex and Gender: Male Female
4. External Genitalia
Labia, clitoris, vaginal opening
5. Internal accessory organs
fallopian tubes, cervix
6. Secondary Sex
Beard, low voice,
7. Sexual Orientation
Heterosexual, gay, bisexual
Male and female sex organs start out undifferentiated early in development (primordial gonads), but as we develop (usually) only one develops.
Undeveloped male internal system= Wolfian
Undeveloped female internal system= Mullerian
The testis secretes testosterone and MIS (Mullerian inhibiting substance). Testosterone causes growth of Wolfian system while MIS causes the Mullerian system to whither. The male system is developed while the female system goes away in every typical male.
First, genetics then gonads, then organs. Thus, women become females by default. (without the testosterone and MIS from the testicles, development is female)
Case Study: Hyenas
Hyenas all have high levels of testosterone. The female clitoris extends out of the female (almost as long as the penis) because of this. Hyenas are extremely aggressive so that when the mother gives birth to more than one pup, the pups will start trying to kill each other in order to survive.
Male and Female Sexual Behavior:
∙ Early exposure to testosterone can cause adult female rats to act like male rats (mounting) *Gerall studied this phenomenon in rats ∙ Early castration of males results in adult males behaving more like female rats (lordosis behavior)
∙ The results depend on the critical period.
∙ While rodent sexual behavior is tightly connected to and controlled by hormones, human sex behavior is influenced by hormones but social factors and greater cortex thinking play a greater role in humans than rats.
Social learning theory- suggests gender roles develop as children Children receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors and attitudes, and they imitate the behaviors and attitudes of others.
Cognitive developmental theory- children form gender schemas (mental images or behaviors) that are correct for boys versus girls.
∙ Physical anatomy
(height, weight, body
∙ Functional and structural
o Corpus callosum
o Levay and
hypothalamus- the dimorphic nucleus of humans. Levay
discovered that no woman or man has all of the
characteristically male or female characteristics in this
o Women score higher on verbal skills
o Women also tend to perform better than men on tests of perceptual speed in which subjects must rapidly identify
o Women do better with precision in manual tests involving coordination
o Women also outperform men on math calculation test while men outperform women on tests of math reasoning
o Men score higher on some visuospatial skills
o Men are better in target directed motor skills and disembedding tests
o Possible answer to cognitive difference: Cognitive differences between men and women reflect the evolutionary hypothesis of hunters and gatherers. Women better at matching like
collecting and organizing small items while remaining at base camp. Men better at spatial tasks like identifying prey and killing it.
o Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness
o Women are supposedly higher on relational aggression, but still unclear.
Early Misconceptions of Human Sexuality:
∙ Havelock Ellis was among the first to study human sexuality o Discovered that nocturnal ejaculations were not harmful o Masturbation not harmful
o “Jugum penis”-old tool used to stop erections from occurring o spermatic truss was designed to make erections impossible by binding penis down
Studying Human Sexuality
∙ Alfred Kinsley- used surveys and interviews to study sexual practices and beliefs
∙ Masters and Johnson- used lab experiments to study the sexual response cycle
o Excitement- increasing levels of arousal and encouragement o Plateau- leveling off of high arousal
o Orgasm- pleasurable release of tension
o Resolution- return to non-aroused state
o The sexual response cycle can have considerable variance for females while there is less variance for males
∙ Note that human sexuality and
gender norms differ from culture
∙ Most males will have their first
orgasm by age 20 while most
females do not have an orgasm
until after the age of 20.
Why are men commonly believed to have greater sexual drive, interest and activity than women?
1. Evolutionary Perspective
a. Adaptive value
b. Men with multiple partners maximize their genes’ chances for survival and a woman’s genes’ chances for survival increase with a good protector and provider.
2. Social Role Approach
a. Reflect cultural roles and division of labor. (Men= protectors, providers, women=child-bearers and homemakers)
b. Fits better in cultures where women have less reproductive freedom and educational equality
Myths of Homosexuality:
∙ Seduction theory: gays and lesbians were seduced as children by adults of the same sex
∙ “by default theory”: gays and lesbians are unable to attract partners of the opposite sex
∙ poor parenting: gay men have domineering mothers and weak fathers. Lesbians have weak or absent mothers
∙ modeling theory: children imitate gay or lesbian parents ∙ NOTE: you can research these concepts with adoption and twin studies and they have been disproven
Current Research on Homosexuality:
o Twin studies suggest genetic influence on sexual orientation ∙ Prenatal hormones
o Affect fetal brain development and sexual orientation
∙ The ultimate causes are unknown but genetics and biology play a big role
Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions:
∙ Sexual behavior
o Arousal or peripheral sex organs and nervous system, spinal, cord, brain.
∙ Sexual arousal
o Activation within the parasympathetic that allows blood to flow to sex organs
∙ Sexual orgasm
o Activation within the sympathetic nervous system
Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions:
∙ Negative gender role training
o Men aggressive and independent, women passive and dependent ∙ Double standard
o Male sexuality encouraged and female’s discouraged
∙ Unrealistic sexual scripts
o Society standards, ex. Porn
∙ Performance anxiety
o Fear of not meeting expectations
∙ Male Sexual Problems
o Erectile dysfunction
Impotence- inability to maintain an erection firm enough for intercourse
∙ Smoking and alcohol can cause impotence
∙ Rapid ejaculation beyond the man’s control
∙ Female Sexual Problems
o Orgasmic dysfunction (inability to get an orgasm)
Painful contraction of vaginal muscles
∙ Male and Female Problems
o Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
o Inhibited sexual desire (apathetic or disinterested in sex) o Sexual aversion (avoids sex due to overwhelming fear or anxiety)
Sex Therapy: must find out whether it is cognitive or biological? (Masters and Johnson’s sex therapy program)
Females are at greater risk for STI’s.
AIDS is transmitted only through sexual contact or exposure to bodily fluids but people have an irrational fear of cognition.
50 Multiple choice questions
Chapter 6: 15 questions
Chapter 7: 14 questions
Chapter 8: questions
Chapter 11: 12 questions
Chapter 6: learning/ Cognition
∙ Operant conditioning
o Skinner, John Watson, Thorndike (law of effect)
∙ Classical conditioning
o Linking reflex to something in the environment
o Associations happen and then only the thing in the environment occurs by itself and causes reaction
∙ Insight learning
o Occurs in monkeys, not rats because of well developed cortex
∙ Names of researchers!
o Law of effect
o Define CS, UCS, CR, UCR
o Generalization: Discrimination (generalization comes first) o Extinction: spontaneous recovery
o Law of effect/reinforcement/punishment
o Schedules of reinforcement (pattern in which we give the rewards, ex. Continuous reinforcement, partial
reinforcement, interval schedule): scalloping (occurs with fixed interval schedule), PRP (post reinforcement pause that happens after the fixed ratio)
o Shaping: important for operant conditioning because we want to reward and punish behavior, rewarding behaviors that will lead to that final complex behavior
o Delayed/Simultaneous/Backward CS-UCS pairings- manner in which we can pair the condition stimulus and the
unconditioned stimulus together)
Delayed conditioning is the best option (the thing to be learned is presented first)
Backward conditioning is the least effective
Simultaneous is pairing together in time and space but it is not as effective as delayed
o LTP- long term potentiation, when an animal learns something there are real changes at the neurons
Chapter 7: Memory
∙ Memory Models
∙ Three Stage Model of Memory:
o Sensory term (unlimited capacity)
o Short term (limited capacity, 7 things can be held on average which is Miller’s magical number, we get around this by chunking)
o Long term (unlimited capacity)
∙ Rehearsal strategies
o Maintenance rehearsal can allow us to keep things in short term memory (mindless, repeating over and over)
o Elaborative rehearsal integrates meaning and is a deeper processing
o Once you have made the memory, the memory trace is there but there is retrieval failure
∙ Spaced vs. massed practice
∙ Serial position effect
Chapter 8: Thinking/Intelligence
∙ Reliability vs. validity of IQ tests
o We are more certain about the reliability of IQ tests o The validity is not a statistical question and is a much harder measurement to have
∙ Types of intelligence
Problem solving in the present
Memories for facts and figures (long term memory) ∙ One question in exam not on Power Points: creativity and thinking, see book and notes
Chapter 11: Gender Studies
∙ Gender vs. sex
∙ Early misconceptions
o Masturbation and nocturnal emissions
o Patented inventions to stop erections
∙ Sex research
o Sexual behavior varies considerably around the world o Alfred Kinsley
o Johnson and Masters
∙ Anatomy and physiology
∙ Sexual dysfunctions
∙ Development of undifferentiated structures
o Internal: we have both the male and female undeveloped; the hormal conditions determine which one of those
o Moody’s experiment; females exposed to more
testosterone were more likely to go into “rough and
tumble” play and went into sports, but otherwise there was no difference
∙ Analogous structures in male/female
∙ Hormones and sexual orientation in rats. Dr. Arney Gerall was a leader in this
∙ Sex vs. gender and the associated roles
Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences is called:
a. operant conditioning (rewards and punishments!)
Page 1 number 4:
a. is a gradual decrease in the incidence of a learned behavior b. will occur when a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS c. is a weakening of association between the CS and UCS d. all of the above
D, all of the above!
Page 7, number 3:
Reinforcement and punishment are defined in terms of _______: the behaviors
a. Intrinsic and extrinsic motives
b. Whether they cause pleasure or pain
c. Adaptive significance to individual
d. Whether they increase or decrease the number of responses D: whether they increase or decrease number of behaviors