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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 1000 / What are the effects of this type of modeling?

What are the effects of this type of modeling?

What are the effects of this type of modeling?

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School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psych
Professor: Thomas hebert
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is a very comprehensive and helpful study guide on all of the material that will be covered on the second exams. It includes details and graphics organized to help you understand the material. Additionally, I have attached my notes from the in class review which include the sample questions and answers.
Uploaded: 10/31/2016
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Created by Eleni McGee


What are the effects of this type of modeling?



Emcgee1@tulane.edu 

EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PSYC 1000

Chapters 6, 7, 8, 11

Chapter 6: Learning 

Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes  resulting from practice or experience (excludes situational and maturational  variables) Learning can be fairly constant but the mind may lose the ability  to recall/express it.  

Conditioning- process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses (learning). A conditioned response= a learned  response

Associations- when 2 things occur together in time and space we tend to  associate the two.  

∙ Classical conditioning- (Pavlov) learning that something occurs  when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired with an  


Can foods affect your memory?



We also discuss several other topics like What is a community corrections sentence?

unconditional stimulus (US) to a elicit a conditioned response (CR) o Pavlov’s dog study: he noticed that dogs would start to  salivate when somebody with a lab coat walked in (this is  If you want to learn more check out How rauvolfia serpentina went from being a traditional medicine to becoming a valued medicinal resource in western cultures?

classical conditioning).

 the neutral stimulus is the white lab coat because  Don't forget about the age old question of How does the market for an illegal good work?

before the dog learns that it usually means food is  

coming, the white lab coat means nothing

 the unconditioned stimulus is the food  elicits the  

unlearned response (no previous conditioning)

 the unconditioned stimulus produces an  

unconditioned response the dogs salivate to the  

food automatically

 the conditioned stimulus is the  previous neutral  


Why are men commonly believed to have greater sexual drive, interest and activity than women?



stimulus or in this case, the white lab coat.  

 The conditioned stimulus causes a conditioned  Don't forget about the age old question of Which type of interview observes open and closed-ended questions?

response  occurs after repeated pairings of  

unconditioned stimulus with neutral stimulus, this is  

the dog salivating to the white lab coat.  

o A few things to remember for classical conditioning:

 The stimulus always comes before the response

 The UCS is associated with the UCR (reflex  

arc)/UNLEARNED

 The CS is associated with the CR/ LEARNED

 There is no “cross talk” between the conditioned and  

unconditioned responses.  

o Acquisition- the phase when the UCS is paired with the CS.  These two need to be together in time and space in order  to process the learned response

o Acquisition can happen by way of different methods: 1. Delayed conditioning (most effective)

a. The neutral stimulus is presented before the

unconditioned stimulus and remains until  

the unconditioned response begins.

b. * Many studies report that ½ a second is the

optimal time between the NS and UCS  

pairings.  

2. Simultaneous conditioning

a. The neutral stimulus is presented at the  

same time as the unconditioned stimulus.  

3. Trace conditioning If you want to learn more check out How are planets formed?

a. The neutral stimulus is presented and then  

taken away or ended before the  

unconditioned stimulus is presented.  

4. Backward Conditioning

a. The unconditioned stimulus is presented  

before the neutral stimulus.

Classically Conditioned Emotional Response- (CER), Watson demonstrated  how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus. Watson’s experiment: he made his baby son play with a rat and then he  would make a loud, startling noise that made the son start crying. After  enough pairings, the son would start crying when he saw the rat alone  because he associated it with loud noises.  

Conditioning’s Basic Principles:

1. Stimulus Generalization- learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli (CS). The generalized responses  become weaker as we decrease similarity from the original stimulus. *  this happens in classical conditioning  If you want to learn more check out What was the data that ingman et al (2000) used?

a.

2. Stimulus discrimination- takes further training, this is a learned  response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli. Ex. Pair

meat with a 500 Hertz tone but NEVER pair meat with any other  stimulus (ex. A 550 Hertz tone) so that the response is only associated  with that particular stimulus.  

a.

Extinction- learning “not to respond”;  gradual weakening or suppression of a previously learned conditioned  response. This can occur when the CS is repeatedly presented without the  UCS (ex. White lab coat presented without meat)

Spontaneous recovery- the reappearance of a previously extinguished  condition response with conditional training. The strength of the spontaneous recovery becomes weaker over time.  

Higher order conditioning- neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus  through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus. So…  different from classical conditioning because you are pairing a now  conditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus rather than a neutral stimulus  with an unconditioned stimulus.  

Operant conditioning- learning in which voluntary responses are controlled  by their consequences; “good consequences increase behavior” This is not  necessarily linked to reflexes. There is an interplay of genetics and the

environment. So, “good” consequences increase behavior while “bad”  consequences decrease behavior.  

Thorndike’s Law of Effect- behaviors followed by pleasurable consequences  tend to be repeated behaviors while behaviors followed by unpleasing  consequences tend to decrease behavior. This law explains the mechanism  behind operant conditioning. Thorndike’s cat in a box experiment  demonstrated this.  

Skinner’s contribution- reinforcement and punishment defined based on  occurrence of behavior. Reinforcement (even negative) always increases  behavior while punishment always decreases behavior.  

∙ He extended the work of Thorndike.  

∙ He arranged pigeons in a lab to receive grain on a schedule while he was gone from the lab

∙ When he returned he realized that some of the pigeons were  acting strange because they were exhibiting superstitious  behavior; they kept doing the behaviors that they had happened  to be doing when they received the grain.  

Primary reinforces- unlearned; for example food, water, temperature, escape  from pain; these are related to survival. This is mostly associated with  experimental studies with animals.  

Secondary reinforcements- these have learned value ex. Money and praise.  This is associated with most human research.  

Positive reinforcement- adding or presenting a stimulus that makes response  stronger ex. Pressing a lever gets food.  

Negative reinforcement- taking away or removing a stimulus, which  strengthens a response. Ex. Rat presses lever to turn off shock, headache  removed after taking an aspirin. Avoidance of the stimulus is common in  anxiety disorders and reinforced through negative reinforcement.  

Schedules of Reinforcement:  

This determines when we give a reinforcement- we can play around with the  frequency and time that animal does correct behavior.  

1. Fixed Ratio

a. The number of behavioral occurrences is the same throughout  training, the ratio is fixed. Ex. The rat only gets 1 sugar pellet  after every 5th lever press.  

b. Fixed Ratio 1 (FR1) is continuous reinforcement; this is best for  starting behavior.  

i. However, if we run out of reinforcements or decide to  

withhold reinforcement this behavior will stop quickly.  

ii. Has more predictability

2. Variable Ratio

a. Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio varies

3. Fixed Interval

a. Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed  (usually reported in minutes)

b. Ex. During a minute interval, rat cannot get reinforcement but as soon as interval is expired, reinforcement is given and minute  starts over

4. Variable Ratio

a. Reinforcement occurs unpredictably

b. The ratio ovaries

c. Ex. Fishing

d. Any schedule other than FR 1 that has a greater resistance to  extinction (only rewarded some of the time)  

RATIOS produce FASTER rates than intervals.  

Post reinforcement pause- after animal gets reinforcement, animal takes a  break. Fixed ration can have this but variable ratio does not.  

With fixed intervals, animals do not respond much at the beginning, but  towards the end, response rate becomes much quicker scalloping

Shaping- reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the  desired response. Shaping by the Method of Successive Approximations we  can gradually reward behaviors to reach the ultimate reward. incremental  rewards (necessary in real world applications) ex. At a certain time, as  humans we stop reinforcing certain words that sound kid of right but are  wrong ex. Wa-wa vs. water

Operant Conditioning in the Real World: 

∙    Punishment

o Weakening a response, always decreases behavior (even positive and negative punishment decrease behavior)

o Informs us of what NOT to do

o Punishment does not guarantee to bring the desired out come  like reinforcement does.  

 o Positive punishment 

 Adding or presenting a stimulus that weakens a response.  Ex. Shouting

 o Negative punishment 

 Taking away ex jail

o Sometimes with punishment, there is an increase in behavior  before a decrease

Cognitive Social Learning:

∙ Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding  of a solution that implies mastery of the task thereafter)

o Poor performance to the one trial where they master the task  and every performance thereafter is close to perfect.  

o Very different finding when compared to rights; highlights the  difference with working with different species.  

o Monkey curve: insight learning curve

o The well developed cortex allows the social learning theory to  occur

o Animals like rts do not have the brain machinery to implement  this type of learning.  

∙ Debate: Tolman vs. Hull; do rats think?

o Tolman’s rats built a cognitive map (a mental image of a 3D  space)

o Tolman: rats are intelligent (this viewpoint has proven to be more true)

o Hull: meaningless associations with environment

o Tolman: latent learning- hidden learning that exists without  behavioral signs.  

 We can only measure performance, we can’t measure the  internal processes

 Tolman trained rats to run down a maze; one group with  food reward, one group without food reward at the end

∙ He measured the running speed; group with food at  

end seemed to learn maze better as evidence with  

faster time of completing maze

∙ Tolman then switched the groups; we should see the  

no-food group (now the food group) increase learning

over time.

∙ Results: group that got the sugar pellet THIS time ran just as fast or faster than previous rats with sugar  

pellet

∙ Shows that motivation is a big factor in performance! ∙ Contrast effects seen in graph of latent learning

∙ Observational learning: learning new behaviors or information by  watching others

o More associated with humans and higher level animals o Reflects the cognitive aspects of learning

o Bandura’s famous Bobo Doll Study: mimicry or imitation  Children were allowed to watch a video of adults beating at a Bobo doll; children then were let loose on Bobo dolls

 Children were not more aggressive with each other but  beat up more on the Bobo doll

o Evolution of GI Joe action figures- increasing bicep circumference. What are the effects of this type of modeling?

o Four processes in observational learning:

 Attention

 Retention

 Motor reproduction

 Reinforcement (ex. Adults reinforcing behavior of children) ∙ Neuroscience and Learning

o When we learn something, we experience the  

creation/strengthening of synapses and alterations in many brain structures (receptors)

o Long term potentiation: (LTP) change in neurotransmitter release  at the synapse that is correlated with learning. Ex. It becomes  easier the second time, increasingly as you keep going

 Considered fairly permanent over time

o Conditioned taste aversion- classically conditioned associations  of food to illness (works with novel foods or foods that you do not regularly eat) After you eat the food, you get sick and this is a  one trial conditioning (we won’t want to eat it ever again) ex.  Injecting sheep with chemicals that wolves do not like and make  them sick in order to have them stop eating the sheep

∙ Biological prepredness: there is a built in readiness to associate certain responses to certain stimuli

∙ Instinctive drift: conditioned responses shift back towards innate  response pattern

∙ Conditioning and Society

o Classical conditioning

 Marketing

 Prejudice

∙ Racial prejudice can be started and maintained  

through operant conditioning (someone does  

something racist and is rewarded for it) but classical  

conditioning is a more subtle form of learning. When  

we get nervous we have sympathetic arousal; these  

signals. If these measures of sympathetic arousal are

paired with one race only, then nervousness can be  

associated with one race

o Ex. Mom shifts the baby to one side when she  

walks by members of a certain race on the  

sidewalk

o Operant conditioning  

 Prejudice

 Biofeedback

 Superstitions

o Cognitive Social Theory

 Prejudice  

 Media influences

 Medical treatments

 Phobia

Chapter 7: Memory 

Memory- an internal record of some prior experience. This is a  constructive process that is active; we organize and shape info. as it is  processed, stored and retrieved.  

Diagram of the Three-Stage Memory Model: (KNOW THIS)

stimulus from environmentsensory memoryshort term memorylong term memory

Now in more detail:

∙ Stimulus from environment- anything that is perceived by all 5  senses

∙ Sensory memory- holds sensory information, has a large  capacity, information not transferred to short-term memory is  lost. Lasts up to ½ a second for visual and 2-4 seconds for  auditory

SELECTIVE ATTENTION

∙ short term memory- holds perceptions for analysis, lasts up to 30 seconds without rehearsal, limited capacity of 5-9 items.  

Information not transferred is lost. This is maintained by  

maintenance rehearsal.  

ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL

∙ Long term memory- relatively permanent storage; relatively  unlimited capacity. You can retrieve things from short term  memory to bring them into long term memory

Maintenance rehearsal- shallow processing that is best for short term  memory, subject to interference

Elaborative rehearsal- deep processing that is more likely to make a long  term memory. Involves linking material to previously learned material. Gives  you better recall than maintenance rehearsal.  

Can drugs/ certain foods affect your memory?

 The choline fad in which you eat foods rich in choline to increase your  memory is a farce

 Caffeine can increase scores on a memory test because it increases your  alertness

More on Sensory memory: 

∙ Briefly stores an exact replica of info (icon and echo)

∙ Can only last a few seconds

∙ Selected information is sent to short term memory

∙ George Sperling extensively studied sensory memory

o Sperling’s experiment

 He flashed an arrangement of 12 letters very briefly

 Most subjects could report 4 or 5 letters  

 Next time, he flashed all 12 letters but buzzed a  

certain tone to indicate a certain row

 Subjects could now report the entire row

 Sensory information comes in and fades so fast it is  

hard to remember a lot of it, but 4 or 5 is much  

easier.  

More on short term memory: 

∙    Short term memory temporarily stores sensory information and then  decides whether to send it to long term memory

∙    Can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds

∙    Chunking or grouping items together can increase short term memory o Works best when things are grouped together in a meaningful  way

o Chess example: experienced chess players could memorize  formations that were common in chess better than beginners,  but as soon as the formations were arranged in a random way,  the experienced players had no advantage on the beginners  when memorizing

∙    Short term memory has a limited capacity

∙    Capacity limit: 7 items +/- 2 is known as Miller’s Magical Number ∙    Rehearsal is how we get around time limits, chunking is how we get  around capacity limits

∙    Short term memory is probably stored in the hippocampus More on long-term memory 

∙ Unlimited capacity

∙ “forgetting” is a retrieval failure

∙ LTM is probably stored in the cerebral cortex

∙ Ways to improve LTM:

o Organization

o Elaborative rehearsal

o Retrieval cues

∙ Divided into 2 categories: Explicit and Implicit

o Explicit (memory with conscious recall)

 Semantic

∙ General facts/ ids

∙ Ex. Bananas are yellow

 Episodic

∙ Personal experiences

∙ Ex. Your graduation

o Implicit (memory without conscious recall)

 Procedural

∙ Motor skills and habits (this is one of the last  

memories to go with age)

∙ Ex. How to brush teeth

 Classically Conditioned

∙ Conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli

∙ Ex. Phobias

 Priming

∙ Earlier exposure facilitates retrieval

∙ Studies on this report hierarchical retrievals of  

memory

∙ Ex. You get scared more easily after reading a scary  

novel

Collins and Quillian example: semantics networks and priming: In this example, Collins and Q asked people yes or no questions and measure their reaction times. Here are 2 example questions:

1. Does a bird have wings?

2. Does a bird breathe?

People had a faster reaction time to question 1 because of hierarchical  memory. On the hierarchy around birds, wings are more closely associated  with them.

Recognition vs. Recall 

Recognition lasts longer than recall. People recognize photos faster than  words. Recognition for pictures is initially better than smell recognition.  When trying to recall, generate as many retrieval cues as possible. “Prime”  by thinking of anything related to the item.  

Forgetting 

∙    Occurs most rapidly immediately after learning

∙    It is an active process

∙    Relearning takes less time than initial learning

∙    Overlearning flattens the forgetting curve (Ebbinghaus forgetting  curve)

There are five key theories as to why we forget: 

1. Decay

a. Memory naturally decays with time  

b. This is more of a laboratory phenomenon

2. Interference

a. Memory competes with another when new information comes in i. Retroactive interference: new information interferes with  old

ii. Proactive interference: old information interferes with new 3. Motivated Forgetting

a. We want to forget certain unpleasant things (Freud)

4. Encoding Failure

a. Information in short term memory never reaches long term  memory

5. Retrieval Failure

a. “tip of the tongue phenomenon”  

b. you have encoded the information but you can’t recall it;  momentarily inaccessible

serial position effect- the beginning and ends of lists are remembered better  than the material in the middle (primary and recency effects)

Counteracting forgetting:

∙ space practice (distributed is better than massed)

∙ deeper processing

∙ make connections with something you already know (integrate)

Memories are localized and distributed throughout the brain (mainly  hippocampus and cortex) Karl Lashley discovered that there was NOT one  place in cortex where all memories resided thus LTM is distributed  throughout the cerebral cortex (STM more associated with hippocampus)

Amnesia- memory loss from a brain injury or trauma

Retrograde amnesia- old memories are lost

Anterograde amnesia- new memories are lost

Case Study: Henry Molaison

∙ removed part of his hippocampus to treat seizures

∙ he experienced anterograde amnesia

∙ important because this research (Corkin was main researcher)  redirected experimentation to localization of memory function

Alzheimer’s- progressive mental deterioration, characterized by loss of  cholingeric neurons and severe memory impairment. Early detection is very  important.  

Memory and Criminal Justice:

Eyewitness testimonies are persuasive but can be flawed due to the often  high level of arousal surrounding the event.  

Repressed memories involve debate as to whether recovered memories are  accurate or repressed.

Memories are constructed to be consistent with the subject’s expectations.  Loftus: leading questions experiment. Eyewitness answers were influenced  by how the question was asked/what exact words were used.  Bartlett: also advanced the field proving that we need consistency and order.

Chapter 8: Thinking, Language and Intelligence 

Cognition can be divided into thinking, language and intelligence. Our  research on brain activity has progressed with technology to more directly  measure it. Discoveries have shown that thinking is spread throughout the  entire brain, but decision-making is more prevalent in the frontal lobe.  

1. Mental Images

∙ Mental representations of a previous experience; conjured up much like a picture

∙ Object permanence (begins around the ages of 3-6) is when we start to realize that something exists even if it is not directly in front of us.  ∙ Congruity effect- people respond faster to stimuli that agree with each  other

∙ Distance effect- reaction times are faster when comparing more  distinctly different items.  

∙ Picture superiority effect- subjects have better recall for pictures rather than words in experiments

2. Concepts  

∙ Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar  characteristics

∙ We learn concepts by:

o Artificial concepts- formed by logic and specific rules

o Natural concepts/prototypes- formed by our experiences in  everyday life

o Hierarchies- help us group concepts into subcategories within  broader categories

o Note that members of a concept do not equally represent the  concept; some members are better representations than others.  Prototype is the term for this.  

3. Language

∙ Shaping is very important in language (when you reinforce things that  are closer and closer to the word)

∙ If you are not exposed to language before puberty it is hard to learn  language after puberty

∙ Chimps make specific warning calls; rats make specific ultrasonic  vocalizations after ejaculation (this is considered language) ∙ Bees communicate through movement.

Thinking/ Problem Solving

There are 5 barriers to problem solving:

1. Mental sets (thinking patterns)

a. Tendency to use strategies that have worked in the past- creates  a narrow mental set when the person often cannot think of new  strategies.  

2. Functional fixedness (objects’ use)

a. Thinking of an object as only functioning in its traditional way 3. Confirmation bias (we tend to focus on evidence that supports our  hypothesis)

4. Availability Heuristic (judging the likelihood of an event based on how  readily available other instances are in memory)

a. Ex. Unsafe flights rather than safe flights are the ones that are  reported.  

5. Representative Heuristic (estimating the probability of something  based on how well the circumstances match a previous prototype)

Creativity- Originality; seeing unique solutions to a problem. Fluency is  generating a lot of possible solutions while flexibility is floating easily from  one type of problem solving to another

Intelligence- global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully and deal  effectively with the environment. Intelligence is a hypothetical, abstract  construct.  

Historical views of intelligence:

∙ Single ability or general factor “g”

∙ Multiple abilities (Thurstone and Guilford)  

o We now know that there are multiple types

∙ Crystallized intelligence (Catell)

o The ability to memorize facts and figures

∙ Multiple abilities (Gardner and Sternberg)

IQ tests: Stanford-Binet (for children) and Wechsler (for adults) are the most  widely used individual intelligence tests. Both tests compute an intelligence  quotient, which compares the deviation of a person’s test score to norms for  that person’s age group. The typical IQ is 1000 because the ratio is (mental  age/ chronological age) x (100). The normal standard deviation is within 15  points.  

There are 3 scientific standards for measuring intelligence: 1. Standardization- establishes norms and uniform procedures for giving  and scoring a test

2. Reliability- measure of consistency and stability of test scores over  time

3. Validity- ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure

** We know that IQ tests are very reliable but we are not sure about the  validity.  

Mental disability/ intellectually disabled= IQ of 70 and below Mental giftedness= IQ of 135 and above

Is intellect genetic or environmental?

In order to find out, we examine the concordance rate of IQs of identical  twins raised together and separately. If twins are raised apart concordance  rate is not as high as together but still fairly high (75)

If siblings are raised apart, however, the concordance rate is very low (21) The IQ tests should not be culturally bias (stereotype threat) Chapter 11: Gender and Human Sexuality  

Sex- biologically male or female (this is dependent upon sex organs)

Gender- psychological and sociocultural meanings that are added to  biological sex

Gender identity- self-identification as either man or woman. This is SELF  DEFINED

Gender role- societal expectations for male and female behavior. This is  SOCIETALLY DEFINED

There is less variance and sex and more variance in gender. Math and  science are more traditionally considered masculine roles and male-female  difference is greater in industrialized countries emphasizing the role of  society. (there is a bigger difference in the more industrialized societies)

Sexual orientation- primary erotic attraction towards others

Transsexual- when one’s gender identity does not match their gonads,  genitals or internal accessory organs.  

Transvestite- individuals who cross dress for emotional reasons.  

Androgyny- having characteristics of both male and female. The US is an  increasingly androgynous society.

Hermaphrodite- when both systems (male and female) are developed. Most  of the time, one is fully developed while the other is partially developed.  

 Dimensions of Sex and Gender: Male   Female 

1. Chromosomes

XY

XX

2. Gonads

Testes

Ovaries

3. Hormones

Androgens  

(testosterone)

estrogen

4. External Genitalia

Penis, scrotum

Labia, clitoris, vaginal opening

5. Internal accessory organs

Prostate, seminal  

vesicles, vans  

deferens

Vagina, uterus,  

fallopian tubes, cervix

6. Secondary Sex  

Characteristics

Beard, low voice,  

sperm emission

Breasts, menstruation

7. Sexual Orientation

Heterosexual, gay,  bisexual

Heterosexual,  

lesbian, bisexual

Male and female sex organs start out undifferentiated early in development  (primordial gonads), but as we develop (usually) only one develops.  

Undeveloped male internal system= Wolfian 

Undeveloped female internal system= Mullerian 

The testis secretes testosterone and MIS (Mullerian inhibiting substance).  Testosterone causes growth of Wolfian system while MIS causes the Mullerian system to whither. The male system is developed while the female system  goes away in every typical male.  

First, genetics then gonads, then organs. Thus, women become females by  default. (without the testosterone and MIS from the testicles, development is  female)

Case Study: Hyenas

Hyenas all have high levels of testosterone. The female clitoris extends out  of the female (almost as long as the penis) because of this. Hyenas are  extremely aggressive so that when the mother gives birth to more than one  pup, the pups will start trying to kill each other in order to survive.  

Male and Female Sexual Behavior: 

∙ Early exposure to testosterone can cause adult female rats to act like  male rats (mounting) *Gerall studied this phenomenon in rats ∙ Early castration of males results in adult males behaving more like  female rats (lordosis behavior)

∙ The results depend on the critical period.

∙ While rodent sexual behavior is tightly connected to and controlled by  hormones, human sex behavior is influenced by hormones but social  factors and greater cortex thinking play a greater role in humans than  rats.  

Social learning theory- suggests gender roles develop as children Children  receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors and attitudes, and  they imitate the behaviors and attitudes of others.  

Cognitive developmental theory- children form gender schemas (mental  images or behaviors) that are correct for boys versus girls.  

Sex Differences: 

∙ Physical anatomy

(height, weight, body

build, reproductive

organs)

∙ Functional and structural

brain differences:

o Hypothalamus  

o Corpus callosum

o Cerebral

hemispheres

o Levay and

homosexuality

  Interstitial 

nucleus of 

the anterior 

hypothalamus- the dimorphic nucleus of humans. Levay  

discovered that no woman or man has all of the  

characteristically male or female characteristics in this  

nucleus.  

Gender Differences: 

∙ Cognitive

o Women score higher on verbal skills

o Women also tend to perform better than men on tests of  perceptual speed in which subjects must rapidly identify  

matching items

o Women do better with precision in manual tests involving  coordination

o Women also outperform men on math calculation test while men  outperform women on tests of math reasoning

o Men score higher on some visuospatial skills

o Men are better in target directed motor skills and disembedding  tests

o Possible answer to cognitive difference: Cognitive differences  between men and women reflect the evolutionary hypothesis of  hunters and gatherers. Women better at matching like  

collecting and organizing small items while remaining at base  camp. Men better at spatial tasks like identifying prey and  killing it.  

∙ Agression

o Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness

o Women are supposedly higher on relational aggression, but still  unclear.  

Early Misconceptions of Human Sexuality: 

∙ Havelock Ellis was among the first to study human sexuality o Discovered that nocturnal ejaculations were not harmful o Masturbation not harmful

o “Jugum penis”-old tool used to stop erections from occurring o spermatic truss was designed to make erections impossible by  binding penis down

Studying Human Sexuality 

∙ Alfred Kinsley- used surveys and interviews to study sexual practices  and beliefs

∙ Masters and Johnson- used lab experiments to study the sexual  response cycle

o Excitement- increasing levels of arousal and encouragement o Plateau- leveling off of high arousal

o Orgasm- pleasurable release of tension

o Resolution- return to non-aroused state

o The sexual response cycle can have considerable variance for  females while there is less variance for males

∙ Note that human sexuality and

gender norms differ from culture

to culture

∙ Most males will have their first

orgasm by age 20 while most

females do not have an orgasm

until after the age of 20.  

Why are men commonly believed to have greater sexual drive,  interest and activity than women?

1. Evolutionary Perspective

a. Adaptive value

b. Men with multiple partners maximize their genes’ chances for  survival and a woman’s genes’ chances for survival increase with a good protector and provider.  

2. Social Role Approach

a. Reflect cultural roles and division of labor. (Men= protectors,  providers, women=child-bearers and homemakers)

b. Fits better in cultures where women have less reproductive  freedom and educational equality

Myths of Homosexuality: 

∙    Seduction theory: gays and lesbians were seduced as children by  adults of the same sex

∙    “by default theory”: gays and lesbians are unable to attract partners of the opposite sex

∙    poor parenting: gay men have domineering mothers and weak fathers.  Lesbians have weak or absent mothers

∙    modeling theory: children imitate gay or lesbian parents ∙    NOTE: you can research these concepts with adoption and twin studies  and they have been disproven

Current Research on Homosexuality: 

∙    Genetics

o Twin studies suggest genetic influence on sexual orientation ∙    Prenatal hormones

o Affect fetal brain development and sexual orientation

∙    The ultimate causes are unknown but genetics and biology play a big  role

Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions: 

∙ Sexual behavior

o Arousal or peripheral sex organs and nervous system, spinal,  cord, brain.  

∙ Sexual arousal

o Activation within the parasympathetic that allows blood to flow to sex organs

∙ Sexual orgasm

o Activation within the sympathetic nervous system

Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions: 

∙    Negative gender role training

o Men aggressive and independent, women passive and dependent ∙    Double standard

o Male sexuality encouraged and female’s discouraged

∙    Unrealistic sexual scripts

o Society standards, ex. Porn

∙    Performance anxiety

o Fear of not meeting expectations

∙    Male Sexual Problems

o Erectile dysfunction

 Impotence- inability to maintain an erection firm enough  for intercourse

∙    Smoking and alcohol can cause impotence

 Premature ejaculation

∙    Rapid ejaculation beyond the man’s control

∙    Female Sexual Problems

o Orgasmic dysfunction (inability to get an orgasm)

o Vaginismus  

 Painful contraction of vaginal muscles

∙    Male and Female Problems

o Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

o Inhibited sexual desire (apathetic or disinterested in sex) o Sexual aversion (avoids sex due to overwhelming fear or anxiety)

Sex Therapy: must find out whether it is cognitive or biological? (Masters and Johnson’s sex therapy program)

Females are at greater risk for STI’s.  

AIDS is transmitted only through sexual contact or exposure to bodily fluids  but people have an irrational fear of cognition.

EXAM 2

50 Multiple choice questions

Chapter 6: 15 questions

Chapter 7: 14 questions

Chapter 8: questions

Chapter 11: 12 questions

Chapter 6: learning/ Cognition

∙ Operant conditioning

o Skinner, John Watson, Thorndike (law of effect)

o Rewards/punishments

∙ Classical conditioning

o Linking reflex to something in the environment

o Associations happen and then only the thing in the  environment occurs by itself and causes reaction

∙ Insight learning

o Occurs in monkeys, not rats because of well developed  cortex

∙ Modeling

o Imitation

∙ Names of researchers!

∙ Definitions

o Law of effect

o Define CS, UCS, CR, UCR

o Generalization: Discrimination (generalization comes first) o Extinction: spontaneous recovery

o Law of effect/reinforcement/punishment

o Schedules of reinforcement (pattern in which we give the  rewards, ex. Continuous reinforcement, partial  

reinforcement, interval schedule): scalloping (occurs with  fixed interval schedule), PRP (post reinforcement pause  that happens after the fixed ratio)

o Shaping: important for operant conditioning because we  want to reward and punish behavior, rewarding behaviors  that will lead to that final complex behavior

o Modeling

o Delayed/Simultaneous/Backward CS-UCS pairings- manner  in which we can pair the condition stimulus and the  

unconditioned stimulus together)  

 Delayed conditioning is the best option (the thing to  be learned is presented first)

 Backward conditioning is the least effective

 Simultaneous is pairing together in time and space  but it is not as effective as delayed

o LTP- long term potentiation, when an animal learns  something there are real changes at the neurons

Chapter 7: Memory

∙ Memory Models

∙ Forgetting

∙ Three Stage Model of Memory:

o Sensory term (unlimited capacity)

o Short term (limited capacity, 7 things can be held on  average which is Miller’s magical number, we get around  this by chunking)

o Long term (unlimited capacity)

∙ Rehearsal strategies  

o Maintenance rehearsal can allow us to keep things in short  term memory (mindless, repeating over and over)

o Elaborative rehearsal integrates meaning and is a deeper  processing

∙ Forgetting

o Once you have made the memory, the memory trace is  there but there is retrieval failure

o Amnesia

o Alzheimer’s

∙ Spaced vs. massed practice

∙ Serial position effect

Chapter 8: Thinking/Intelligence

∙ Cognition:

∙ Reliability vs. validity of IQ tests

o We are more certain about the reliability of IQ tests o The validity is not a statistical question and is a much  harder measurement to have

∙ Types of intelligence

o Fluid

 Problem solving in the present

o Crystallized

 Memories for facts and figures (long term memory) ∙ One question in exam not on Power Points: creativity and  thinking, see book and notes

Chapter 11: Gender Studies

∙ Gender vs. sex

∙ Early misconceptions

o Masturbation and nocturnal emissions

o Patented inventions to stop erections

∙ Sex research

o Sexual behavior varies considerably around the world o Alfred Kinsley

o Johnson and Masters

∙ Anatomy and physiology

∙ Sexual dysfunctions

∙ Development of undifferentiated structures

o Internal: we have both the male and female undeveloped;  the hormal conditions determine which one of those  

develops  

o External

o Moody’s experiment; females exposed to more  

testosterone were more likely to go into “rough and  

tumble” play and went into sports, but otherwise there was no difference

∙ Analogous structures in male/female

∙ Hormones and sexual orientation in rats. Dr. Arney Gerall was a  leader in this

∙ Sex vs. gender and the associated roles

∙ STIs

Sample questions:

Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their  consequences is called:

a. operant conditioning (rewards and punishments!)

Page 1 number 4:

Extinction __________:

a. is a gradual decrease in the incidence of a learned behavior b. will occur when a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS c. is a weakening of association between the CS and UCS d. all of the above

D, all of the above!

Page 7, number 3:

Reinforcement and punishment are defined in terms of _______: the  behaviors

a. Intrinsic and extrinsic motives

b. Whether they cause pleasure or pain

c. Adaptive significance to individual

d. Whether they increase or decrease the number of responses D: whether they increase or decrease number of behaviors

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