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Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - HNFE 3824 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - HNFE 3824 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: HNFE
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: HNFE 3824 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Covers all material that will be on Exam 3
Uploaded: 10/31/2016
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background image Spine Joint Systems- Order Vertebral column Hip and pelvis Knee Foot and ankle Discussion Muscles Location and Function Axial Skeletal System Falls along longitudinal axis Cranium Vertebrae Ribs Sternum Vertebral Column Cervical (7) Atlas- first vertebrae Axis- second vertebrae Convex curvature Thoracic (12) Concave curvature Lumbar (5) Convex curvature Sacral 5 fused vertebrae Coccyx 4-5 very small vertebrae Curvature is important It protects the spinal cord Gives the vertebral column flexibility Good at absorbing forces Alignment Scoliosis Mediolateral curvature Causes One limb shorter than the other (un-alignment of pelvis) § Lordosis Excessive anterior curvature Causes Overweight § Pregnancy § Kyphosis Excessive posterior curvature (humpback) Seen in elderly women Causes Osteoporosis § Vertebrae Structure All have body, vertebral foramen (spinal cord passes through), and processes Wolff's Law Bones adapt to the way they are used Reason why lumbar vertebrae are bigger than the cervical because they carry more weight Vertebral Column Motions Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension Axial rotation, left-right Lateral flexion, left-right Degrees of Movement Very small, but when added all together you get a larger amount of movement Atlanto-Occipital Joint No body Superior articular facet Inferior articular facet • Condyloid joint Flexion-extension Lateral flexion-extension No rotation Atlanto - Axial Joint Dens Superior articular facet • Pivot joint Left-right rotation Some flexion-extension No lateral flexion/extension Vertebral Structure • Vertebral foramen Spinal canal • 2 superior and inferior facets • 3 processes These are the bumps you see on you back • Intervertebral foramen Where afferent and efferent nerves exit spinal cord • Ligaments 6 total
○ Anterior Longitudinal
Anterior side of the vertebral body § ○ Posterior longitudinal Poster side of the vertebral body § ○ Ligamentum Flavum Name in Cervical: ligamentum nuche § Intertransverse
○ Interspinous
In between two processes § ○ Supraspinous Goes from base of skull to the sacrum § Intervertebral Disks Protects spinal cord and nerve roots Bear and distribute loads • Retrains excessive movements Maintains integrity of intervertebral foramen • Annulus fibrosis Ban of fibrous structure that sit on the outside of the disk Donut part • Nucleus pulposus Is the jelly part If intervertebral disk can't maintain size of the foramen, then there will be problems with the spinal cord and nerves Neck of Giraffe • Ball and socket joints between vertebrae • 7 cervical joints • Much larger range of motion Injury of intervertebral disk • Bulged disk ○ Protrudes into intervertebral foramen
○ Compresses nerves
§ Causes numbness or referred pain ○ Most damage is causes by load amount Leading with the Helmet • Compression of vertebrae • Can cause damage to the intervertebral disk Could damage spinal cord Aging and intervertebral disk degeneration When loss of height you get disk protrusion, which leads to degeneration and osteophyte  formation • During aging the fluid content  decreases which can cause the intervertebral disk to become weak Lumbar Injuries • Spondylolysis ○ Fracture of arch
○ Caused by hyperextension
• Spondylolisthesis ○ Stress facture with disk slippage
○ The vertebrae slide over one another
Spinal Stenosis • Narrowing of spinal canal • Collision with this disease can cause increased risk for spinal cord injury Spinal Fusion Surgery • Disk fused together • Reposition vertebral column into a normal position • Opens up intervertebral column Other Treatments • Laminectomy ○ Decompression
○ Removes part of vertebrae
○ Sometimes used to alleviate spinal stenosis
• Non-surgical ○ Inflammation § NSAIDS § Epidural Cortisone □ Relieves inflammation and swelling ○ Non surgical decompression Muscles • Anterior Cervical Region ○ Sternocleidomastoid § Cervical flexion § Rotation to opposite  side • Cervical Region ○ Scalene Group § Anterior, Middle, Posterior § Lateral flexion § Right and left scalene groups work together to stabilize cervical vertebrae ○ Splenius Group § Cervical extension § Lateral flexion § Rotation on same side □ Rotate neck to left side= left splenius group • Posterior Region ○ Erector Spinae Groups § Cause extension □ Spinalis (medial) □ Longissiumus (middle) □ Iliocostalis (lateral) ® Attaches to pelvis and ribs • Anterior Lumbar Region ○ Rectus Abdominus § Trunk flexion § Compression of stomach § Can be independently  controlled □ separated by linea alba • Anterior/Lateral Lumbar Region ○ Transverse abdominus § Compression of stomach § Applies tension to linea alba □ Pulls in interiorly to compress the abdominals ○ External oblique § Rotation to opposite  side § Rotation to left □ Right external ○ Internal oblique § Rotation to same side § Rotation to left □ Left interior • Oblique Muscles ○ Synergist action § Contraction of both internal and external oblique muscles § Trunk flexion □ Contraction of all four Hip and Pelvis Hip and Pelvis Structure • Illium • Ischium • Pubis • Sciatic Notch ○ Sciatic nerve passes through
○ Acetabulum
§ Makes ball and socket joint of hip Pubic Motion • Coxal bones move together ○ Sacroilliac joint • Sacral flexion Sacral nutation- sacrum moves forward while the coccyx moves backwards (AKA posterior pelvic tilt) Anterior rotation • Sacral Extension ○ Counternutation- the sacrum moves backwards (AKA anterior pelvic tilt)
○ Posterior rotation
Pelvic Motion • Lumbopelvic rhythm ○ Trunk extension § Posterior pelvic tilt § Sacral flexion ○ Trunk Flexion § Lumbosacral junction flexion § Anterior pelvic tilt § Sacral extension • Asymmetrical torsion ○ Coxal bones are twisting in opposite directions
○ Left counternutation
○ Pubic symphysis
○ Right nutation
Hip joint structure Biaxial; ball and socket joint • Acetabular labrum Connective tissue Extends from outer rim and surrounds  the head of the femur, but doesn't attach • Round ligament Attaches to phobia and acetabulum • Ligaments ○ Iliofemoral Attaches in the ilium and splits into two parts § Shaped like a y § Pubofemoral
○ Ischiofemoral
Wraps around the neck of the femur § These ligaments are very dense and sort of twist around the head of the femur which helps give it more stability and strength • Angle of inclination ○ About 125 degrees Varies from on individual to another § ○ If angle is less than 125 Condition called coxa varum (knock-kneed) § ○ If angle is greater than 125 Bow legged § • Q-angle If you have a small angle of inclination then it is coxa varum and the q angle gets larger If you have a large angle of inclination that is bow legged and you get a small q-angle • Angle of Anterversion ○ Looking from above the condyles are lined about along the medial axis The angle trochanter should be slightly behind the head of the femur and the shaft of the femur is twisted inward § ○ Anter0version Toeing in meaning there is an increased twist § ○ Retroversion Toeing out meaning there is a reduced twist § • Hip Pathologies ○ Hip fractures Falls in elderly § Force of falling pushing hip in and fractures the neck of the femur § ○ Avascular necrosis Vascular supply gets compromised and disrupts the production of new bone cells, which causes bone death § Tends to occur in the neck of the femur § ○ Arthritis Caused by overuse § Some caused no known cause § 10-15% prevalence in people over age of 55 § • Total Hip Replacement Replace head and neck Rebuild and replace the acetabulum • Femoral on Pelvic Movements ○ Pelvis is stationary and the femur is moving § Flexion/extension Larger angle/smaller angle § Abduction/adduction Angle increases/angle decreases Internal and external rotation § ○ Femur is stationary and pelvis is moving Flexion- anterior pelvic tilt and angle gets smaller § Extension- posterior pelvic tilt and angle gets larger § When the femur is stationary and pelvis moves it's just opposite of when pelvis is stationary and femur moves • Lateral tilt When you hike your left hip your right one abducts and vice versa When you drop your left hip your right one adducts and vice versa • Rotation Stepping forward with left foot the left hip goes outward and the right foot stays back and you get inward rotation Hip Muscles • Flexion ○ Sartorius
○ Tensor Fascia Latae
○ Rectus femoris
• Extension ○ Semitendinosus (knee flexion)
○ Semimembranosus (knee flexion)
○ Biceps femoris (knee flexion)
○ Gluteus Maximus
• External Rotation ○ Pirifomis
○ Gemellus
○ Obturator
• Adduction/ Internal Rotation ○ Adductor group
○ Gracilis
• Abduction ○ Gluteus Medias
○ Gluteus Minimus
On exam he will ask you which one does not externally rotate the hip • Piriformis syndrome Compression of sciatic nerve in area of sciatic notch
○ Caused by overuse
Gait ○ Right hip hiking= left hip abduction
○ Stair Climbing
§ Right hip dropping= left hip adduction Deep Gluteal Action • Hip rotation ○ Right foot moves forward left hip undergoes inward rotation
○ Left foot moves forward, the left hip undergoes outward rotation
Why can't my dog walk on two legs? Quadrapeds have very forceful hip extension, but because the trochanter is rotated backwards is can’t do any abduction and isn’t able to fully
extend the hip like we can
Knee Anatomical Structures Medial condyle is slightly bigger than the later condyle Joint Structure The tibial plateau is tilted slightly which gives it a “genu valgus” alignment Concave shape going medial to lateral Convex going anterior to posterior Knee alignment Coxa Varus ○ knock kneed
○ Large q angle
• Coxa valgus ○ Small q angle Genu Varus ○ more inward tibia (bow legged) Knee Structure • 4 ligaments Coronary- anchor meniscus to tibia Transverse- attach the two menisci • 2 menisci Medial - c shaped Lateral Knee Ligaments Fibular (lateral) collateral Tibial (medial) collateral • Anterior Cruciate Anterior medial attachment in respect to the tibia Inserts on the posterior side of the tibia and going through the intercondylar notch Provides rotational, anterior, and valgus restraint Also prevents hyperextension • Posterior cruciate Posterior lateral attachment on the tibia and inserts on the intercondylar notch Valgus Restraint Tibial collateral does this Movements in frontal plane Valgus movement- lower end of the tibia and move it outward Retrains against abduction Varus Restraint Fibular does this Prevents the knee from going inward ACL Bundles • Posterior lateral Rotational restraint • Anterio-Medial Resists anterior displacement Drawer Test and Lachman's test The main idea is trying to pull the tibia forward If you can pull the tibia forward, then the ACL has been damaged Knee Movements • Flexion- > inward rotation • Extension -> outward rotation Knee Muscles • Quadriceps- knee extension ○ Rectus femoris Flexes hip § Vastus lateralis
○ Vastus intermedius
Hidden by rectus femoris § Vastus medialis Hamstring Group- Knee Flexion Semitendinosus  (medial) Semimembranous (medial) Biceps femoris (lateral)
○ Gastrocnemius
§ Provides stabilization Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries 250,000 ACL injuries per year Women more likely than men Patients higher risk of getting arthritis • Passive Restraint Means it doesn't actively contract Prevents movement based on inability to stretch Contact Injuries • ACL Blow to lateral side of the knee Tibial/femoral rotation Can also cause medial collateral and meniscus tear at the same time • PCL Hyperextension Posterior displacement of tibia Blow to front of tibia Non Contact Injuries • Valgus collapse Landing stopping and turning Tibial/femoral roatation while the foot is stationary Valgus movement is abduction • Anterior displacement Stopping or landing from jump Forceful contraction of quadriceps muscle Non-Contact ACL injuries: female specific factors Women are more knock kneed • Hormones affect the ligament structure Not as big of a deal today Intercondylar notch is smaller in females Exam 3 Study Guide Monday, October 31, 2016 12:44 PM
background image Spine Joint Systems- Order Vertebral column Hip and pelvis Knee Foot and ankle Discussion Muscles Location and Function Axial Skeletal System Falls along longitudinal axis Cranium Vertebrae Ribs Sternum Vertebral Column Cervical (7) Atlas- first vertebrae Axis- second vertebrae Convex curvature Thoracic (12) Concave curvature Lumbar (5) Convex curvature Sacral 5 fused vertebrae Coccyx 4-5 very small vertebrae Curvature is important It protects the spinal cord Gives the vertebral column flexibility Good at absorbing forces Alignment Scoliosis Mediolateral curvature Causes One limb shorter than the other (un-alignment of pelvis) § Lordosis Excessive anterior curvature Causes Overweight § Pregnancy § Kyphosis Excessive posterior curvature (humpback) Seen in elderly women Causes Osteoporosis § Vertebrae Structure All have body, vertebral foramen (spinal cord passes through), and processes Wolff's Law Bones adapt to the way they are used Reason why lumbar vertebrae are bigger than the cervical because they carry more weight Vertebral Column Motions Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension Axial rotation, left-right Lateral flexion, left-right Degrees of Movement Very small, but when added all together you get a larger amount of movement Atlanto-Occipital Joint No body Superior articular facet Inferior articular facet • Condyloid joint Flexion-extension Lateral flexion-extension No rotation Atlanto - Axial Joint Dens Superior articular facet • Pivot joint Left-right rotation Some flexion-extension No lateral flexion/extension Vertebral Structure • Vertebral foramen Spinal canal • 2 superior and inferior facets • 3 processes These are the bumps you see on you back • Intervertebral foramen Where afferent and efferent nerves exit spinal cord • Ligaments 6 total
○ Anterior Longitudinal
Anterior side of the vertebral body § ○ Posterior longitudinal Poster side of the vertebral body § ○ Ligamentum Flavum Name in Cervical: ligamentum nuche § Intertransverse
○ Interspinous
In between two processes § ○ Supraspinous Goes from base of skull to the sacrum § Intervertebral Disks Protects spinal cord and nerve roots Bear and distribute loads • Retrains excessive movements Maintains integrity of intervertebral foramen • Annulus fibrosis Ban of fibrous structure that sit on the outside of the disk Donut part • Nucleus pulposus Is the jelly part If intervertebral disk can't maintain size of the foramen, then there will be problems with the spinal cord and nerves Neck of Giraffe • Ball and socket joints between vertebrae • 7 cervical joints • Much larger range of motion Injury of intervertebral disk • Bulged disk ○ Protrudes into intervertebral foramen
○ Compresses nerves
§ Causes numbness or referred pain ○ Most damage is causes by load amount Leading with the Helmet • Compression of vertebrae • Can cause damage to the intervertebral disk Could damage spinal cord Aging and intervertebral disk degeneration When loss of height you get disk protrusion, which leads to degeneration and osteophyte  formation • During aging the fluid content  decreases which can cause the intervertebral disk to become weak Lumbar Injuries • Spondylolysis ○ Fracture of arch
○ Caused by hyperextension
• Spondylolisthesis ○ Stress facture with disk slippage
○ The vertebrae slide over one another
Spinal Stenosis • Narrowing of spinal canal • Collision with this disease can cause increased risk for spinal cord injury Spinal Fusion Surgery • Disk fused together • Reposition vertebral column into a normal position • Opens up intervertebral column Other Treatments • Laminectomy ○ Decompression
○ Removes part of vertebrae
○ Sometimes used to alleviate spinal stenosis
• Non-surgical ○ Inflammation § NSAIDS § Epidural Cortisone □ Relieves inflammation and swelling ○ Non surgical decompression Muscles • Anterior Cervical Region ○ Sternocleidomastoid § Cervical flexion § Rotation to opposite  side • Cervical Region ○ Scalene Group § Anterior, Middle, Posterior § Lateral flexion § Right and left scalene groups work together to stabilize cervical vertebrae ○ Splenius Group § Cervical extension § Lateral flexion § Rotation on same side □ Rotate neck to left side= left splenius group • Posterior Region ○ Erector Spinae Groups § Cause extension □ Spinalis (medial) □ Longissiumus (middle) □ Iliocostalis (lateral) ® Attaches to pelvis and ribs • Anterior Lumbar Region ○ Rectus Abdominus § Trunk flexion § Compression of stomach § Can be independently  controlled □ separated by linea alba • Anterior/Lateral Lumbar Region ○ Transverse abdominus § Compression of stomach § Applies tension to linea alba □ Pulls in interiorly to compress the abdominals ○ External oblique § Rotation to opposite  side § Rotation to left □ Right external ○ Internal oblique § Rotation to same side § Rotation to left □ Left interior • Oblique Muscles ○ Synergist action § Contraction of both internal and external oblique muscles § Trunk flexion □ Contraction of all four Hip and Pelvis Hip and Pelvis Structure • Illium • Ischium • Pubis • Sciatic Notch ○ Sciatic nerve passes through
○ Acetabulum
§ Makes ball and socket joint of hip Pubic Motion • Coxal bones move together ○ Sacroilliac joint • Sacral flexion Sacral nutation- sacrum moves forward while the coccyx moves backwards (AKA posterior pelvic tilt) Anterior rotation • Sacral Extension ○ Counternutation- the sacrum moves backwards (AKA anterior pelvic tilt)
○ Posterior rotation
Pelvic Motion • Lumbopelvic rhythm ○ Trunk extension § Posterior pelvic tilt § Sacral flexion ○ Trunk Flexion § Lumbosacral junction flexion § Anterior pelvic tilt § Sacral extension • Asymmetrical torsion ○ Coxal bones are twisting in opposite directions
○ Left counternutation
○ Pubic symphysis
○ Right nutation
Hip joint structure Biaxial; ball and socket joint • Acetabular labrum Connective tissue Extends from outer rim and surrounds  the head of the femur, but doesn't attach • Round ligament Attaches to phobia and acetabulum • Ligaments ○ Iliofemoral Attaches in the ilium and splits into two parts § Shaped like a y § Pubofemoral
○ Ischiofemoral
Wraps around the neck of the femur § These ligaments are very dense and sort of twist around the head of the femur which helps give it more stability and strength • Angle of inclination ○ About 125 degrees Varies from on individual to another § ○ If angle is less than 125 Condition called coxa varum (knock-kneed) § ○ If angle is greater than 125 Bow legged § • Q-angle If you have a small angle of inclination then it is coxa varum and the q angle gets larger If you have a large angle of inclination that is bow legged and you get a small q-angle • Angle of Anterversion ○ Looking from above the condyles are lined about along the medial axis The angle trochanter should be slightly behind the head of the femur and the shaft of the femur is twisted inward § ○ Anter0version Toeing in meaning there is an increased twist § ○ Retroversion Toeing out meaning there is a reduced twist § • Hip Pathologies ○ Hip fractures Falls in elderly § Force of falling pushing hip in and fractures the neck of the femur § ○ Avascular necrosis Vascular supply gets compromised and disrupts the production of new bone cells, which causes bone death § Tends to occur in the neck of the femur § ○ Arthritis Caused by overuse § Some caused no known cause § 10-15% prevalence in people over age of 55 § • Total Hip Replacement Replace head and neck Rebuild and replace the acetabulum • Femoral on Pelvic Movements ○ Pelvis is stationary and the femur is moving § Flexion/extension Larger angle/smaller angle § Abduction/adduction Angle increases/angle decreases Internal and external rotation § ○ Femur is stationary and pelvis is moving Flexion- anterior pelvic tilt and angle gets smaller § Extension- posterior pelvic tilt and angle gets larger § When the femur is stationary and pelvis moves it's just opposite of when pelvis is stationary and femur moves • Lateral tilt When you hike your left hip your right one abducts and vice versa When you drop your left hip your right one adducts and vice versa • Rotation Stepping forward with left foot the left hip goes outward and the right foot stays back and you get inward rotation Hip Muscles • Flexion ○ Sartorius
○ Tensor Fascia Latae
○ Rectus femoris
• Extension ○ Semitendinosus (knee flexion)
○ Semimembranosus (knee flexion)
○ Biceps femoris (knee flexion)
○ Gluteus Maximus
• External Rotation ○ Pirifomis
○ Gemellus
○ Obturator
• Adduction/ Internal Rotation ○ Adductor group
○ Gracilis
• Abduction ○ Gluteus Medias
○ Gluteus Minimus
On exam he will ask you which one does not externally rotate the hip • Piriformis syndrome Compression of sciatic nerve in area of sciatic notch
○ Caused by overuse
Gait ○ Right hip hiking= left hip abduction
○ Stair Climbing
§ Right hip dropping= left hip adduction Deep Gluteal Action • Hip rotation ○ Right foot moves forward left hip undergoes inward rotation
○ Left foot moves forward, the left hip undergoes outward rotation
Why can't my dog walk on two legs? Quadrapeds have very forceful hip extension, but because the trochanter is rotated backwards is can’t do any abduction and isn’t able to fully
extend the hip like we can
Knee Anatomical Structures Medial condyle is slightly bigger than the later condyle Joint Structure The tibial plateau is tilted slightly which gives it a “genu valgus” alignment Concave shape going medial to lateral Convex going anterior to posterior Knee alignment Coxa Varus ○ knock kneed
○ Large q angle
• Coxa valgus ○ Small q angle Genu Varus ○ more inward tibia (bow legged) Knee Structure • 4 ligaments Coronary- anchor meniscus to tibia Transverse- attach the two menisci • 2 menisci Medial - c shaped Lateral Knee Ligaments Fibular (lateral) collateral Tibial (medial) collateral • Anterior Cruciate Anterior medial attachment in respect to the tibia Inserts on the posterior side of the tibia and going through the intercondylar notch Provides rotational, anterior, and valgus restraint Also prevents hyperextension • Posterior cruciate Posterior lateral attachment on the tibia and inserts on the intercondylar notch Valgus Restraint Tibial collateral does this Movements in frontal plane Valgus movement- lower end of the tibia and move it outward Retrains against abduction Varus Restraint Fibular does this Prevents the knee from going inward ACL Bundles • Posterior lateral Rotational restraint • Anterio-Medial Resists anterior displacement Drawer Test and Lachman's test The main idea is trying to pull the tibia forward If you can pull the tibia forward, then the ACL has been damaged Knee Movements • Flexion- > inward rotation • Extension -> outward rotation Knee Muscles • Quadriceps- knee extension ○ Rectus femoris Flexes hip § Vastus lateralis
○ Vastus intermedius
Hidden by rectus femoris § Vastus medialis Hamstring Group- Knee Flexion Semitendinosus  (medial) Semimembranous (medial) Biceps femoris (lateral)
○ Gastrocnemius
§ Provides stabilization Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries 250,000 ACL injuries per year Women more likely than men Patients higher risk of getting arthritis • Passive Restraint Means it doesn't actively contract Prevents movement based on inability to stretch Contact Injuries • ACL Blow to lateral side of the knee Tibial/femoral rotation Can also cause medial collateral and meniscus tear at the same time • PCL Hyperextension Posterior displacement of tibia Blow to front of tibia Non Contact Injuries • Valgus collapse Landing stopping and turning Tibial/femoral roatation while the foot is stationary Valgus movement is abduction • Anterior displacement Stopping or landing from jump Forceful contraction of quadriceps muscle Non-Contact ACL injuries: female specific factors Women are more knock kneed • Hormones affect the ligament structure Not as big of a deal today Intercondylar notch is smaller in females Exam 3 Study Guide Monday, October 31, 2016 12:44 PM
background image Spine Joint Systems- Order Vertebral column Hip and pelvis Knee Foot and ankle Discussion Muscles Location and Function Axial Skeletal System Falls along longitudinal axis Cranium Vertebrae Ribs Sternum Vertebral Column Cervical (7) Atlas- first vertebrae Axis- second vertebrae Convex curvature Thoracic (12) Concave curvature Lumbar (5) Convex curvature Sacral 5 fused vertebrae Coccyx 4-5 very small vertebrae Curvature is important It protects the spinal cord Gives the vertebral column flexibility Good at absorbing forces Alignment Scoliosis Mediolateral curvature Causes One limb shorter than the other (un-alignment of pelvis) § Lordosis Excessive anterior curvature Causes Overweight § Pregnancy § Kyphosis Excessive posterior curvature (humpback) Seen in elderly women Causes Osteoporosis § Vertebrae Structure All have body, vertebral foramen (spinal cord passes through), and processes Wolff's Law Bones adapt to the way they are used Reason why lumbar vertebrae are bigger than the cervical because they carry more weight Vertebral Column Motions Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension Axial rotation, left-right Lateral flexion, left-right Degrees of Movement Very small, but when added all together you get a larger amount of movement Atlanto-Occipital Joint No body Superior articular facet Inferior articular facet • Condyloid joint Flexion-extension Lateral flexion-extension No rotation Atlanto - Axial Joint Dens Superior articular facet • Pivot joint Left-right rotation Some flexion-extension No lateral flexion/extension Vertebral Structure • Vertebral foramen Spinal canal • 2 superior and inferior facets • 3 processes These are the bumps you see on you back • Intervertebral foramen Where afferent and efferent nerves exit spinal cord • Ligaments 6 total
○ Anterior Longitudinal
Anterior side of the vertebral body § ○ Posterior longitudinal Poster side of the vertebral body § ○ Ligamentum Flavum Name in Cervical: ligamentum nuche § Intertransverse
○ Interspinous
In between two processes § ○ Supraspinous Goes from base of skull to the sacrum § Intervertebral Disks Protects spinal cord and nerve roots Bear and distribute loads • Retrains excessive movements Maintains integrity of intervertebral foramen • Annulus fibrosis Ban of fibrous structure that sit on the outside of the disk Donut part • Nucleus pulposus Is the jelly part If intervertebral disk can't maintain size of the foramen, then there will be problems with the spinal cord and nerves Neck of Giraffe • Ball and socket joints between vertebrae • 7 cervical joints • Much larger range of motion Injury of intervertebral disk • Bulged disk ○ Protrudes into intervertebral foramen
○ Compresses nerves
§ Causes numbness or referred pain ○ Most damage is causes by load amount Leading with the Helmet • Compression of vertebrae • Can cause damage to the intervertebral disk Could damage spinal cord Aging and intervertebral disk degeneration When loss of height you get disk protrusion, which leads to degeneration and osteophyte  formation • During aging the fluid content  decreases which can cause the intervertebral disk to become weak Lumbar Injuries • Spondylolysis ○ Fracture of arch
○ Caused by hyperextension
• Spondylolisthesis ○ Stress facture with disk slippage
○ The vertebrae slide over one another
Spinal Stenosis • Narrowing of spinal canal • Collision with this disease can cause increased risk for spinal cord injury Spinal Fusion Surgery • Disk fused together • Reposition vertebral column into a normal position • Opens up intervertebral column Other Treatments • Laminectomy ○ Decompression
○ Removes part of vertebrae
○ Sometimes used to alleviate spinal stenosis
• Non-surgical ○ Inflammation § NSAIDS § Epidural Cortisone □ Relieves inflammation and swelling ○ Non surgical decompression Muscles • Anterior Cervical Region ○ Sternocleidomastoid § Cervical flexion § Rotation to opposite  side • Cervical Region ○ Scalene Group § Anterior, Middle, Posterior § Lateral flexion § Right and left scalene groups work together to stabilize cervical vertebrae ○ Splenius Group § Cervical extension § Lateral flexion § Rotation on same side □ Rotate neck to left side= left splenius group • Posterior Region ○ Erector Spinae Groups § Cause extension □ Spinalis (medial) □ Longissiumus (middle) □ Iliocostalis (lateral) ® Attaches to pelvis and ribs • Anterior Lumbar Region ○ Rectus Abdominus § Trunk flexion § Compression of stomach § Can be independently  controlled □ separated by linea alba • Anterior/Lateral Lumbar Region ○ Transverse abdominus § Compression of stomach § Applies tension to linea alba □ Pulls in interiorly to compress the abdominals ○ External oblique § Rotation to opposite  side § Rotation to left □ Right external ○ Internal oblique § Rotation to same side § Rotation to left □ Left interior • Oblique Muscles ○ Synergist action § Contraction of both internal and external oblique muscles § Trunk flexion □ Contraction of all four Hip and Pelvis Hip and Pelvis Structure • Illium • Ischium • Pubis • Sciatic Notch ○ Sciatic nerve passes through
○ Acetabulum
§ Makes ball and socket joint of hip Pubic Motion • Coxal bones move together ○ Sacroilliac joint • Sacral flexion Sacral nutation- sacrum moves forward while the coccyx moves backwards (AKA posterior pelvic tilt) Anterior rotation • Sacral Extension ○ Counternutation- the sacrum moves backwards (AKA anterior pelvic tilt)
○ Posterior rotation
Pelvic Motion • Lumbopelvic rhythm ○ Trunk extension § Posterior pelvic tilt § Sacral flexion ○ Trunk Flexion § Lumbosacral junction flexion § Anterior pelvic tilt § Sacral extension • Asymmetrical torsion ○ Coxal bones are twisting in opposite directions
○ Left counternutation
○ Pubic symphysis
○ Right nutation
Hip joint structure Biaxial; ball and socket joint • Acetabular labrum Connective tissue Extends from outer rim and surrounds  the head of the femur, but doesn't attach • Round ligament Attaches to phobia and acetabulum • Ligaments ○ Iliofemoral Attaches in the ilium and splits into two parts § Shaped like a y § Pubofemoral
○ Ischiofemoral
Wraps around the neck of the femur § These ligaments are very dense and sort of twist around the head of the femur which helps give it more stability and strength • Angle of inclination ○ About 125 degrees Varies from on individual to another § ○ If angle is less than 125 Condition called coxa varum (knock-kneed) § ○ If angle is greater than 125 Bow legged § • Q-angle If you have a small angle of inclination then it is coxa varum and the q angle gets larger If you have a large angle of inclination that is bow legged and you get a small q-angle • Angle of Anterversion ○ Looking from above the condyles are lined about along the medial axis The angle trochanter should be slightly behind the head of the femur and the shaft of the femur is twisted inward § ○ Anter0version Toeing in meaning there is an increased twist § ○ Retroversion Toeing out meaning there is a reduced twist § • Hip Pathologies ○ Hip fractures Falls in elderly § Force of falling pushing hip in and fractures the neck of the femur § ○ Avascular necrosis Vascular supply gets compromised and disrupts the production of new bone cells, which causes bone death § Tends to occur in the neck of the femur § ○ Arthritis Caused by overuse § Some caused no known cause § 10-15% prevalence in people over age of 55 § • Total Hip Replacement Replace head and neck Rebuild and replace the acetabulum • Femoral on Pelvic Movements ○ Pelvis is stationary and the femur is moving § Flexion/extension Larger angle/smaller angle § Abduction/adduction Angle increases/angle decreases Internal and external rotation § ○ Femur is stationary and pelvis is moving Flexion- anterior pelvic tilt and angle gets smaller § Extension- posterior pelvic tilt and angle gets larger § When the femur is stationary and pelvis moves it's just opposite of when pelvis is stationary and femur moves • Lateral tilt When you hike your left hip your right one abducts and vice versa When you drop your left hip your right one adducts and vice versa • Rotation Stepping forward with left foot the left hip goes outward and the right foot stays back and you get inward rotation Hip Muscles • Flexion ○ Sartorius
○ Tensor Fascia Latae
○ Rectus femoris
• Extension ○ Semitendinosus (knee flexion)
○ Semimembranosus (knee flexion)
○ Biceps femoris (knee flexion)
○ Gluteus Maximus
• External Rotation ○ Pirifomis
○ Gemellus
○ Obturator
• Adduction/ Internal Rotation ○ Adductor group
○ Gracilis
• Abduction ○ Gluteus Medias
○ Gluteus Minimus
On exam he will ask you which one does not externally rotate the hip • Piriformis syndrome Compression of sciatic nerve in area of sciatic notch
○ Caused by overuse
Gait ○ Right hip hiking= left hip abduction
○ Stair Climbing
§ Right hip dropping= left hip adduction Deep Gluteal Action • Hip rotation ○ Right foot moves forward left hip undergoes inward rotation
○ Left foot moves forward, the left hip undergoes outward rotation
Why can't my dog walk on two legs? Quadrapeds have very forceful hip extension, but because the trochanter is rotated backwards is can’t do any abduction and isn’t able to fully
extend the hip like we can
Knee Anatomical Structures Medial condyle is slightly bigger than the later condyle Joint Structure The tibial plateau is tilted slightly which gives it a “genu valgus” alignment Concave shape going medial to lateral Convex going anterior to posterior Knee alignment Coxa Varus ○ knock kneed
○ Large q angle
• Coxa valgus ○ Small q angle Genu Varus ○ more inward tibia (bow legged) Knee Structure • 4 ligaments Coronary- anchor meniscus to tibia Transverse- attach the two menisci • 2 menisci Medial - c shaped Lateral Knee Ligaments Fibular (lateral) collateral Tibial (medial) collateral • Anterior Cruciate Anterior medial attachment in respect to the tibia Inserts on the posterior side of the tibia and going through the intercondylar notch Provides rotational, anterior, and valgus restraint Also prevents hyperextension • Posterior cruciate Posterior lateral attachment on the tibia and inserts on the intercondylar notch Valgus Restraint Tibial collateral does this Movements in frontal plane Valgus movement- lower end of the tibia and move it outward Retrains against abduction Varus Restraint Fibular does this Prevents the knee from going inward ACL Bundles • Posterior lateral Rotational restraint • Anterio-Medial Resists anterior displacement Drawer Test and Lachman's test The main idea is trying to pull the tibia forward If you can pull the tibia forward, then the ACL has been damaged Knee Movements • Flexion- > inward rotation • Extension -> outward rotation Knee Muscles • Quadriceps- knee extension ○ Rectus femoris Flexes hip § Vastus lateralis
○ Vastus intermedius
Hidden by rectus femoris § Vastus medialis Hamstring Group- Knee Flexion Semitendinosus  (medial) Semimembranous (medial) Biceps femoris (lateral)
○ Gastrocnemius
§ Provides stabilization Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries 250,000 ACL injuries per year Women more likely than men Patients higher risk of getting arthritis • Passive Restraint Means it doesn't actively contract Prevents movement based on inability to stretch Contact Injuries • ACL Blow to lateral side of the knee Tibial/femoral rotation Can also cause medial collateral and meniscus tear at the same time • PCL Hyperextension Posterior displacement of tibia Blow to front of tibia Non Contact Injuries • Valgus collapse Landing stopping and turning Tibial/femoral roatation while the foot is stationary Valgus movement is abduction • Anterior displacement Stopping or landing from jump Forceful contraction of quadriceps muscle Non-Contact ACL injuries: female specific factors Women are more knock kneed • Hormones affect the ligament structure Not as big of a deal today Intercondylar notch is smaller in females Exam 3 Study Guide Monday, October 31, 2016 12:44 PM
background image Spine Joint Systems- Order Vertebral column Hip and pelvis Knee Foot and ankle Discussion Muscles Location and Function Axial Skeletal System Falls along longitudinal axis Cranium Vertebrae Ribs Sternum Vertebral Column Cervical (7) Atlas- first vertebrae Axis- second vertebrae Convex curvature Thoracic (12) Concave curvature Lumbar (5) Convex curvature Sacral 5 fused vertebrae Coccyx 4-5 very small vertebrae Curvature is important It protects the spinal cord Gives the vertebral column flexibility Good at absorbing forces Alignment Scoliosis Mediolateral curvature Causes One limb shorter than the other (un-alignment of pelvis) § Lordosis Excessive anterior curvature Causes Overweight § Pregnancy § Kyphosis Excessive posterior curvature (humpback) Seen in elderly women Causes Osteoporosis § Vertebrae Structure All have body, vertebral foramen (spinal cord passes through), and processes Wolff's Law Bones adapt to the way they are used Reason why lumbar vertebrae are bigger than the cervical because they carry more weight Vertebral Column Motions Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension Axial rotation, left-right Lateral flexion, left-right Degrees of Movement Very small, but when added all together you get a larger amount of movement Atlanto-Occipital Joint No body Superior articular facet Inferior articular facet • Condyloid joint Flexion-extension Lateral flexion-extension No rotation Atlanto - Axial Joint Dens Superior articular facet • Pivot joint Left-right rotation Some flexion-extension No lateral flexion/extension Vertebral Structure • Vertebral foramen Spinal canal • 2 superior and inferior facets • 3 processes These are the bumps you see on you back • Intervertebral foramen Where afferent and efferent nerves exit spinal cord • Ligaments 6 total
○ Anterior Longitudinal
Anterior side of the vertebral body § ○ Posterior longitudinal Poster side of the vertebral body § ○ Ligamentum Flavum Name in Cervical: ligamentum nuche § Intertransverse
○ Interspinous
In between two processes § ○ Supraspinous Goes from base of skull to the sacrum § Intervertebral Disks Protects spinal cord and nerve roots Bear and distribute loads • Retrains excessive movements Maintains integrity of intervertebral foramen • Annulus fibrosis Ban of fibrous structure that sit on the outside of the disk Donut part • Nucleus pulposus Is the jelly part If intervertebral disk can't maintain size of the foramen, then there will be problems with the spinal cord and nerves Neck of Giraffe • Ball and socket joints between vertebrae • 7 cervical joints • Much larger range of motion Injury of intervertebral disk • Bulged disk ○ Protrudes into intervertebral foramen
○ Compresses nerves
§ Causes numbness or referred pain ○ Most damage is causes by load amount Leading with the Helmet • Compression of vertebrae • Can cause damage to the intervertebral disk Could damage spinal cord Aging and intervertebral disk degeneration When loss of height you get disk protrusion, which leads to degeneration and osteophyte  formation • During aging the fluid content  decreases which can cause the intervertebral disk to become weak Lumbar Injuries • Spondylolysis ○ Fracture of arch
○ Caused by hyperextension
• Spondylolisthesis ○ Stress facture with disk slippage
○ The vertebrae slide over one another
Spinal Stenosis • Narrowing of spinal canal • Collision with this disease can cause increased risk for spinal cord injury Spinal Fusion Surgery • Disk fused together • Reposition vertebral column into a normal position • Opens up intervertebral column Other Treatments • Laminectomy ○ Decompression
○ Removes part of vertebrae
○ Sometimes used to alleviate spinal stenosis
• Non-surgical ○ Inflammation § NSAIDS § Epidural Cortisone □ Relieves inflammation and swelling ○ Non surgical decompression Muscles • Anterior Cervical Region ○ Sternocleidomastoid § Cervical flexion § Rotation to opposite  side • Cervical Region ○ Scalene Group § Anterior, Middle, Posterior § Lateral flexion § Right and left scalene groups work together to stabilize cervical vertebrae ○ Splenius Group § Cervical extension § Lateral flexion § Rotation on same side □ Rotate neck to left side= left splenius group • Posterior Region ○ Erector Spinae Groups § Cause extension □ Spinalis (medial) □ Longissiumus (middle) □ Iliocostalis (lateral) ® Attaches to pelvis and ribs • Anterior Lumbar Region ○ Rectus Abdominus § Trunk flexion § Compression of stomach § Can be independently  controlled □ separated by linea alba • Anterior/Lateral Lumbar Region ○ Transverse abdominus § Compression of stomach § Applies tension to linea alba □ Pulls in interiorly to compress the abdominals ○ External oblique § Rotation to opposite  side § Rotation to left □ Right external ○ Internal oblique § Rotation to same side § Rotation to left □ Left interior • Oblique Muscles ○ Synergist action § Contraction of both internal and external oblique muscles § Trunk flexion □ Contraction of all four Hip and Pelvis Hip and Pelvis Structure • Illium • Ischium • Pubis • Sciatic Notch ○ Sciatic nerve passes through
○ Acetabulum
§ Makes ball and socket joint of hip Pubic Motion • Coxal bones move together ○ Sacroilliac joint • Sacral flexion Sacral nutation- sacrum moves forward while the coccyx moves backwards (AKA posterior pelvic tilt) Anterior rotation • Sacral Extension ○ Counternutation- the sacrum moves backwards (AKA anterior pelvic tilt)
○ Posterior rotation
Pelvic Motion • Lumbopelvic rhythm ○ Trunk extension § Posterior pelvic tilt § Sacral flexion ○ Trunk Flexion § Lumbosacral junction flexion § Anterior pelvic tilt § Sacral extension • Asymmetrical torsion ○ Coxal bones are twisting in opposite directions
○ Left counternutation
○ Pubic symphysis
○ Right nutation
Hip joint structure Biaxial; ball and socket joint • Acetabular labrum Connective tissue Extends from outer rim and surrounds  the head of the femur, but doesn't attach • Round ligament Attaches to phobia and acetabulum • Ligaments ○ Iliofemoral Attaches in the ilium and splits into two parts § Shaped like a y § Pubofemoral
○ Ischiofemoral
Wraps around the neck of the femur § These ligaments are very dense and sort of twist around the head of the femur which helps give it more stability and strength • Angle of inclination ○ About 125 degrees Varies from on individual to another § ○ If angle is less than 125 Condition called coxa varum (knock-kneed) § ○ If angle is greater than 125 Bow legged § • Q-angle If you have a small angle of inclination then it is coxa varum and the q angle gets larger If you have a large angle of inclination that is bow legged and you get a small q-angle • Angle of Anterversion ○ Looking from above the condyles are lined about along the medial axis The angle trochanter should be slightly behind the head of the femur and the shaft of the femur is twisted inward § ○ Anter0version Toeing in meaning there is an increased twist § ○ Retroversion Toeing out meaning there is a reduced twist § • Hip Pathologies ○ Hip fractures Falls in elderly § Force of falling pushing hip in and fractures the neck of the femur § ○ Avascular necrosis Vascular supply gets compromised and disrupts the production of new bone cells, which causes bone death § Tends to occur in the neck of the femur § ○ Arthritis Caused by overuse § Some caused no known cause § 10-15% prevalence in people over age of 55 § • Total Hip Replacement Replace head and neck Rebuild and replace the acetabulum • Femoral on Pelvic Movements ○ Pelvis is stationary and the femur is moving § Flexion/extension Larger angle/smaller angle § Abduction/adduction Angle increases/angle decreases Internal and external rotation § ○ Femur is stationary and pelvis is moving Flexion- anterior pelvic tilt and angle gets smaller § Extension- posterior pelvic tilt and angle gets larger § When the femur is stationary and pelvis moves it's just opposite of when pelvis is stationary and femur moves • Lateral tilt When you hike your left hip your right one abducts and vice versa When you drop your left hip your right one adducts and vice versa • Rotation Stepping forward with left foot the left hip goes outward and the right foot stays back and you get inward rotation Hip Muscles • Flexion ○ Sartorius
○ Tensor Fascia Latae
○ Rectus femoris
• Extension ○ Semitendinosus (knee flexion)
○ Semimembranosus (knee flexion)
○ Biceps femoris (knee flexion)
○ Gluteus Maximus
• External Rotation ○ Pirifomis
○ Gemellus
○ Obturator
• Adduction/ Internal Rotation ○ Adductor group
○ Gracilis
• Abduction ○ Gluteus Medias
○ Gluteus Minimus
On exam he will ask you which one does not externally rotate the hip • Piriformis syndrome Compression of sciatic nerve in area of sciatic notch
○ Caused by overuse
Gait ○ Right hip hiking= left hip abduction
○ Stair Climbing
§ Right hip dropping= left hip adduction Deep Gluteal Action • Hip rotation ○ Right foot moves forward left hip undergoes inward rotation
○ Left foot moves forward, the left hip undergoes outward rotation
Why can't my dog walk on two legs? Quadrapeds have very forceful hip extension, but because the trochanter is rotated backwards is can’t do any abduction and isn’t able to fully
extend the hip like we can
Knee Anatomical Structures Medial condyle is slightly bigger than the later condyle Joint Structure The tibial plateau is tilted slightly which gives it a “genu valgus” alignment Concave shape going medial to lateral Convex going anterior to posterior Knee alignment Coxa Varus ○ knock kneed
○ Large q angle
• Coxa valgus ○ Small q angle Genu Varus ○ more inward tibia (bow legged) Knee Structure • 4 ligaments Coronary- anchor meniscus to tibia Transverse- attach the two menisci • 2 menisci Medial - c shaped Lateral Knee Ligaments Fibular (lateral) collateral Tibial (medial) collateral • Anterior Cruciate Anterior medial attachment in respect to the tibia Inserts on the posterior side of the tibia and going through the intercondylar notch Provides rotational, anterior, and valgus restraint Also prevents hyperextension • Posterior cruciate Posterior lateral attachment on the tibia and inserts on the intercondylar notch Valgus Restraint Tibial collateral does this Movements in frontal plane Valgus movement- lower end of the tibia and move it outward Retrains against abduction Varus Restraint Fibular does this Prevents the knee from going inward ACL Bundles • Posterior lateral Rotational restraint • Anterio-Medial Resists anterior displacement Drawer Test and Lachman's test The main idea is trying to pull the tibia forward If you can pull the tibia forward, then the ACL has been damaged Knee Movements • Flexion- > inward rotation • Extension -> outward rotation Knee Muscles • Quadriceps- knee extension ○ Rectus femoris Flexes hip § Vastus lateralis
○ Vastus intermedius
Hidden by rectus femoris § Vastus medialis Hamstring Group- Knee Flexion Semitendinosus  (medial) Semimembranous (medial) Biceps femoris (lateral)
○ Gastrocnemius
§ Provides stabilization Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries 250,000 ACL injuries per year Women more likely than men Patients higher risk of getting arthritis • Passive Restraint Means it doesn't actively contract Prevents movement based on inability to stretch Contact Injuries • ACL Blow to lateral side of the knee Tibial/femoral rotation Can also cause medial collateral and meniscus tear at the same time • PCL Hyperextension Posterior displacement of tibia Blow to front of tibia Non Contact Injuries • Valgus collapse Landing stopping and turning Tibial/femoral roatation while the foot is stationary Valgus movement is abduction • Anterior displacement Stopping or landing from jump Forceful contraction of quadriceps muscle Non-Contact ACL injuries: female specific factors Women are more knock kneed • Hormones affect the ligament structure Not as big of a deal today Intercondylar notch is smaller in females Exam 3 Study Guide Monday, October 31, 2016 12:44 PM

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School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: HNFE
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Williams
Term: Fall 2016
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Name: HNFE 3824 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Covers all material that will be on Exam 3
Uploaded: 10/31/2016
15 Pages 40 Views 32 Unlocks
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