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VIRGINIA TECH / HNFE / HNF 3824 / Joint systems refers to what?

Joint systems refers to what?

Joint systems refers to what?

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: HNFE
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: HNFE 3824 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Covers all material that will be on Exam 3
Uploaded: 10/31/2016
15 Pages 13 Views 3 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study Guide Monday, October 31, 2016 12:44 PM


Joint systems refers to what?



Joint Systems

Spine

Order

○ Vertebral column ○ Hip and pelvis

○ Knee  

○ Foot and ankle

• Discussion

Muscles  

○ Location and Function

Axial Skeletal System

Falls along longitudinal axis ○ Cranium

○ Vertebrae

○ Ribs  

○ Sternum

Vertebral Column

Cervical (7)

○ Atlas- first vertebrae ○ Axis- second vertebrae ○ Convex  curvature


Muscles refers to what?



Thoracic (12)

○ Concave  curvature

Lumbar (5)

○ Convex curvature We also discuss several other topics like What is the control group program?
If you want to learn more check out What are the factors influencing the rate of adoption?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the deviance?

Sacral

○ 5 fused vertebrae

Coccyx

Lumbar (5)

○ Convex curvature

Sacral

○ 5 fused vertebrae

Coccyx

○ 4-5 very small vertebrae

Curvature is important

• It protects  the spinal cord  

• Gives the vertebral column flexibility  • Good at absorbing forces

Alignment


Axial skeletal system means what?



Scoliosis

○ Mediolateral curvature

Causes

▪ One limb shorter than the other (un-alignment of pelvis)

Lordosis

○ Excessive anterior curvature

Causes

▪ Overweight  ▪ Pregnancy  Don't forget about the age old question of Why have there been no great women artists?

Kyphosis

○ Excessive posterior curvature (humpback) ○ Seen in elderly women

Causes

▪ Osteoporosis  

Vertebrae Structure

All have body, vertebral foramen (spinal cord passes through), and  processes

Wolff's Law  

Bones adapt to  the way they are used

Reason why lumbar vertebrae are bigger than the cervical because  they carry more weight  

Vertebral Column Motions

• Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension

Reason why lumbar vertebrae are bigger than the cervical because  they carry more weight  

Vertebral Column Motions

• Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension  • Axial rotation, left-right

• Lateral flexion, left-right

Degrees of Movement If you want to learn more check out What is amphetamine?

Very small, but when added all together you get a larger amount of  movement

Atlanto-Occipital Joint

• No body

• Superior articular facet

• Inferior articular facet

• Condyloid joint

○ Flexion-extension

○ Lateral flexion-extension

○ No rotation

Atlanto - Axial Joint

• Dens

• Superior articular facet

• Pivot joint

○ Left-right rotation

○ Some flexion-extension

○ No lateral flexion/extension

Vertebral Structure

• Vertebral foramen

○ Spinal canal

• 2 superior and inferior facets

• 3 processes  

○ These are the bumps you see on you back  We also discuss several other topics like Where do you feel the most at home?

• Intervertebral foramen

○ Where afferent and efferent nerves exit spinal cord  • Ligaments

○ 6 total  

○ Anterior Longitudinal

• Intervertebral foramen

○ Where afferent and efferent nerves exit spinal cord  • Ligaments

○ 6 total  

○ Anterior Longitudinal

▪ Anterior side of the vertebral body

○ Posterior longitudinal

▪ Poster side of the vertebral body

○ Ligamentum Flavum

▪ Name in Cervical: ligamentum nuche

○ Intertransverse

○ Interspinous

▪ In between  two processes

○ Supraspinous

▪ Goes from base of skull to  the sacrum  

Intervertebral Disks

• Protects spinal cord and nerve roots

• Bear and distribute loads

• Retrains excessive movements

○ Maintains integrity of intervertebral foramen  

• Annulus  fibrosis

○ Ban of fibrous structure that sit on  the outside of the disk  ○ Donut part

• Nucleus pulposus

○ Is the jelly part

If intervertebral disk can't maintain size of the foramen, then  there will  be problems with  the spinal cord and nerves

Neck of Giraffe

• Ball and socket joints between vertebrae  • 7 cervical joints  

• Much larger range of motion

Injury of intervertebral disk  

• Bulged disk

○ Protrudes into intervertebral foramen ○ Compresses nerves

▪ Causes numbness or referred pain

○ Most damage is causes by load amount

• Bulged disk

○ Protrudes into intervertebral foramen ○ Compresses nerves

▪ Causes numbness or referred pain

○ Most damage is causes by load amount

Leading with the Helmet

• Compression of vertebrae

• Can cause damage to the intervertebral disk  ○ Could damage spinal cord

Aging and intervertebral disk degeneration

When loss of height you get disk protrusion, which leads to degeneration  and osteophyte  formation

• During aging the fluid content  decreases which can cause the  intervertebral disk to become weak

Lumbar Injuries

• Spondylolysis 

○ Fracture of arch

○ Caused by hyperextension

• Spondylolisthesis 

○ Stress facture with disk slippage  

○ The vertebrae slide over one another

Spinal Stenosis 

• Narrowing of spinal canal

• Collision with  this disease can cause increased risk for spinal cord injury

Spinal Fusion Surgery

• Disk fused together  

• Reposition vertebral column into a normal position

• Opens up intervertebral column

Other Treatments

• Laminectomy 

○ Decompression  

○ Removes part of vertebrae  

○ Sometimes used  to alleviate spinal stenosis

Other Treatments

• Laminectomy 

○ Decompression  

○ Removes part of vertebrae  

○ Sometimes used  to alleviate spinal stenosis

• Non-surgical

○ Inflammation

▪ NSAIDS

▪ Epidural Cortisone

□ Relieves inflammation and swelling

○ Non surgical decompression

Muscles

• Anterior Cervical Region

○ Sternocleidomastoid

▪ Cervical flexion

▪ Rotation  to opposite  side

• Cervical Region

○ Scalene Group

▪ Anterior, Middle, Posterior

▪ Lateral flexion

▪ Right and left scalene groups work  together to stabilize  cervical vertebrae

○ Splenius Group

▪ Cervical extension

▪ Lateral flexion

▪ Rotation on same side  

□ Rotate neck to left side= left splenius group

• Posterior Region

○ Erector Spinae Groups

▪ Cause extension

□ Spinalis (medial)

□ Longissiumus (middle)

□ Iliocostalis (lateral)

◆ Attaches  to pelvis and ribs  

• Anterior Lumbar Region

○ Rectus Abdominus

▪ Trunk flexion

▪ Compression of stomach  

▪ Can be independently  controlled

• Anterior Lumbar Region

○ Rectus Abdominus

▪ Trunk flexion

▪ Compression of stomach  

▪ Can be independently  controlled

□ separated by linea alba  

• Anterior/Lateral Lumbar Region

○ Transverse abdominus

▪ Compression of stomach

▪ Applies tension  to linea alba  

□ Pulls in interiorly to compress the abdominals  

○ External oblique

▪ Rotation  to opposite  side  

▪ Rotation  to left

□ Right external

○ Internal oblique

▪ Rotation  to same side

▪ Rotation  to left

□ Left interior  

• Oblique Muscles

○ Synergist action

▪ Contraction of both internal and external oblique muscles  ▪ Trunk flexion

□ Contraction of all four  

Hip and Pelvis

Hip and Pelvis Structure

• Illium

• Ischium

• Pubis  

• Sciatic Notch

○ Sciatic nerve passes through

○ Acetabulum

▪ Makes ball and socket joint of hip

Pubic Motion

• Coxal bones move together

○ Sacroilliac joint

 

▪ Makes ball and socket joint of hip

Pubic Motion

• Coxal bones move together

○ Sacroilliac joint

• Sacral flexion

○ Sacral nutation-sacrum moves forward while the coccyx moves  backwards (AKA posterior pelvic tilt)

○ Anterior rotation

• Sacral Extension

○ Counternutation-the sacrum moves backwards (AKA anterior pelvic tilt) ○ Posterior rotation

Pelvic Motion

• Lumbopelvic rhythm

○ Trunk extension

▪ Posterior pelvic tilt

▪ Sacral flexion

○ Trunk Flexion

▪ Lumbosacral junction flexion

▪ Anterior pelvic tilt  

▪ Sacral extension

• Asymmetrical torsion

○ Coxal bones are twisting in opposite directions

○ Left counternutation

○ Pubic symphysis

○ Right nutation

Hip joint structure

• Biaxial; ball and socket joint  

• Acetabular labrum

○ Connective tissue

Extends  from outer rim and surrounds  the head of the femur, but  doesn't attach

• Round ligament  

○ Attaches  to phobia and acetabulum  

• Ligaments

○ Iliofemoral

▪ Attaches in the ilium and splits into two parts ▪ Shaped like a y  

○ Pubofemoral

• gamens

○ Iliofemoral

▪ Attaches in the ilium and splits into two parts ▪ Shaped like a y  

○ Pubofemoral

○ Ischiofemoral

▪ Wraps around the neck of the  femur  

These ligaments are very dense and sort of twist around the head of  the femur which helps give it more stability and strength  

• Angle of inclination

○ About 125 degrees  

▪ Varies from on individual to another

○ If angle is less than 125  

▪ Condition called coxa varum (knock-kneed) ○ If angle is greater than 125  

▪ Bow legged

• Q-angle

If you have a small angle of inclination then it is coxa varum and the  q angle gets larger

If you have a large angle of inclination that is bow legged and you  get a small q-angle  

• Angle of Anterversion

○ Looking from above  the condyles are lined about along the medial  axis  

The angle trochanter should be slightly behind  the head of the  femur and the shaft of the femur is twisted inward

○ Anter0version 

▪ Toeing in meaning there is an increased twist  ○ Retroversion 

▪ Toeing out meaning there is a reduced twist • Hip Pathologies

○ Hip fractures

▪ Falls in elderly  

Force of falling pushing hip in and fractures the neck of the  femur  

○ Avascular necrosis  

Vascular supply gets compromised and disrupts  the  production of new bone cells, which causes bone death  

▪ Tends to occur in the neck of the  femur

emur  

○ Avascular necrosis  

Vascular supply gets compromised and disrupts  the  production of new bone cells, which causes bone death  

▪ Tends to occur in the neck of the  femur  

○ Arthritis  

▪ Caused by overuse  

▪ Some caused no known cause

▪ 10-15% prevalence in people over age of 55  

• Total Hip Replacement

○ Replace head and neck  

○ Rebuild and replace the acetabulum  

• Femoral on Pelvic Movements

○ Pelvis is stationary and the femur is moving

▪ Flexion/extension

□ Larger angle/smaller angle

▪ Abduction/adduction

□ Angle increases/angle decreases

▪ Internal and external rotation

○ Femur is stationary and pelvis is moving  

▪ Flexion- anterior pelvic tilt and angle gets smaller

▪ Extension- posterior pelvic tilt and angle gets larger

When the femur is stationary and pelvis moves it's just opposite of when pelvis  is stationary and femur moves  

• Lateral tilt

○ When you hike your left hip your right one abducts and vice versa ○ When you drop your left hip your right one adducts and vice versa • Rotation

Stepping forward with left foot the left hip goes outward and the right  

foot stays back and you get inward rotation

Hip Muscles

• Flexion

○ Sartorius

○ Tensor Fascia Latae

○ Rectus femoris

• Extension  

○ Semitendinosus (knee flexion)

○ Semimembranosus (knee flexion) ○ Biceps femoris (knee flexion)

○ Gluteus Maximus

  

• Extension  

○ Semitendinosus (knee flexion)

○ Semimembranosus (knee flexion)

○ Biceps femoris (knee flexion)

○ Gluteus Maximus

• External Rotation

○ Pirifomis

○ Gemellus

○ Obturator

• Adduction/ Internal Rotation

○ Adductor group

○ Gracilis

• Abduction

○ Gluteus Medias

○ Gluteus Minimus

On exam he will ask you which one does not externally rotate the hip

• Piriformis syndrome 

○ Compression of sciatic nerve in area of sciatic notch ○ Caused by overuse

Gait

Deep Gluteal Action

○ Right hip hiking= left hip abduction

○ Stair Climbing

▪ Right hip dropping= left hip adduction

• Hip rotation

○ Right foot moves forward left hip undergoes inward rotation ○ Left foot moves forward, the left hipundergoes outward rotation

Why can't my dog walk on two legs?

Quadrapeds have very forceful hip extension, but because the trochanter  is rotated backwards is can’t do any abduction and isn’t able to fully  extend  the hip like we can

Knee

Anatomical Structures

• Medial condyle is slightly bigger than the later condyle

nee

Anatomical Structures

• Medial condyle is slightly bigger than the later condyle

Joint Structure

• The tibial plateau is tilted slightly which gives it a “genu valgus” alignment • Concave shape going medial to lateral

• Convex going anterior to posterior

Knee alignment  

Coxa Varus 

○ knock kneed

○ Large q angle

• Coxa valgus 

○ Small q angle

Genu Varus 

○ more inward tibia (bow legged)

Knee Structure

• 4 ligaments  

○ Coronary- anchor meniscus to  tibia

○ Transverse-  attach the two menisci  

• 2 menisci  

○ Medial - c shaped

○ Lateral  

Knee Ligaments

• Fibular (lateral) collateral  

• Tibial (medial) collateral  

• Anterior Cruciate  

○ Anterior medial attachment in respect to the tibia

Inserts on  the posterior side of the  tibia and going through  the  intercondylar notch

○ Provides rotational, anterior, and valgus restraint ○ Also prevents hyperextension  

• Posterior cruciate

Posterior lateral attachment on the  tibia and inserts on  the  intercondylar notch  

Valgus Restraint

     • Posterior cruciate

Posterior lateral attachment on the  tibia and inserts on  the  intercondylar notch  

Valgus Restraint  

• Tibial collateral does this

• Movements in frontal plane  

• Valgus movement- lower end of the tibia and move it outward  • Retrains against abduction  

Varus Restraint  

• Fibular does  this

• Prevents  the knee from going inward  

ACL Bundles

• Posterior lateral

○ Rotational restraint  

• Anterio-Medial  

○ Resists anterior displacement

Drawer Test and Lachman's test 

• The main idea is trying to pull the  tibia forward  

• If you can pull the  tibia forward, then  the ACL has been damaged  Knee Movements

• Flexion- > inward rotation

• Extension -> outward rotation

Knee Muscles

• Quadriceps- knee extension

○ Rectus femoris

▪ Flexes hip  

○ Vastus lateralis

○ Vastus intermedius

▪ Hidden by rectus femoris  

○ Vastus medialis

Hamstring Group- Knee Flexion ○ Semitendinosus  (medial) ○ Semimembranous (medial) ○ Biceps femoris (lateral)

○ Gastrocnemius

  

Hamstring Group- Knee Flexion ○ Semitendinosus  (medial) ○ Semimembranous (medial) ○ Biceps femoris (lateral)

○ Gastrocnemius

▪ Provides stabilization

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

• 250,000 ACL injuries per year

• Women more likely than men  

• Patients higher risk of getting arthritis  

• Passive Restraint

○ Means it doesn't actively contract  

○ Prevents movement based on inability to stretch  

Contact Injuries

• ACL

○ Blow to lateral side of the knee  

○ Tibial/femoral rotation

○ Can also cause medial collateral and meniscus  tear at the same time • PCL

○ Hyperextension

○ Posterior displacement of tibia  

○ Blow to front of tibia  

Non Contact Injuries

• Valgus collapse 

○ Landing stopping and  turning

○ Tibial/femoral roatation while the  foot is stationary  

○ Valgus movement is abduction  

• Anterior displacement

○ Stopping or landing from jump  

○ Forceful contraction of quadriceps muscle  

Non-Contact  ACL injuries: female specific factors

• Women are more knock kneed

• Hormones affect the ligament structure

○ Not as big of a deal today  

• Intercondylar notch is smaller in females

-   :    • Women are more knock kneed

• Hormones affect the ligament structure ○ Not as big of a deal today  

• Intercondylar notch is smaller in females

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