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CSU / Physics / PH 300 / Why do metazoan animals have a cardiovascular system?

Why do metazoan animals have a cardiovascular system?

Why do metazoan animals have a cardiovascular system?


Exam 3  

Why do metazoan animals have a cardiovascular system?

Monday, October 31, 2016

10:40 PM

Cardiovascular system

The Cardiovascular System as a Whole 

1. Why do metazoan animals have a cardiovascular system? 2. What is meant by saying that the cardiovascular system is a closed  system?

3. What are the components of the vascular system?

4. What are the components of the two sides of the heart and where does each component pump blood?

The Cardiac Cycle 

1. What is systole? What is diastole?

2. Trace the flow of blood through the heart.

3. Name each of the valves and describe their location. What causes each valve to open? What causes each valve to close?

4. From what you know about the valves, describe the source of normal  heart sounds.

When in the pressure/volume curve does systole begin?

5. Where does oxygenated blood enter the heart? Where does it leave the heart? What is its destination?

6. Where does deoxygenated blood enter the heart? Where does it leave  the heart? What is its destination?

7. Describe the pressure/volume curve of the cardiac cycle. 8. When in the pressure/volume curve does systole begin? 9. When in the pressure/volume curve does diastole begin? 10. What is end diastolic volume?

11. What is end systolic volume? If you want to learn more check out What does basal metabolic rate tell you?

12. How is the ejection fraction related to the end diastolic and end systolic volumes?

13. Relate “preload” to the end diastolic volume.

14. What is afterload and how is it related to the opening of the aortic and  pulmonary valves?

15. What is Starling’s Law? How is it related to sarcomere length in  cardiomyocytes?

What is meant by coronary blood flow?

16. What is stroke volume and how is it related to cardiac output? Coronary Blood Flow

1. What is meant by coronary blood flow? If you want to learn more check out What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?

2. How is blood supplied to the heart? When in the cardiac cycle does  most of the blood flow? Why is most of the flow during this period? 3. Follow the path of the blood circulation through the heart. Electrical Conduction and Muscle Contraction in the Heart

1. How are the electrically conducting system and contractile system in  the heart different? How are they the same?

2. Trace the path that action potentials follow from the SA node to the  ventricles.

3. How are action potentials in the conductile system converted to  muscle contraction?

4. How are cardiac and skeletal muscle similar? How are they different? 5. Describe the role of gap junctions in the conductile and contractile  systems in the heart.

6. How is the ECG related to contraction in the heart?

7. What is the P wave? What is the QRS complex? What is the T wave? 8. What is meant by conduction block and might it be seen in an ECG? 9. What ion channels are found in the conductile cells?

10. What channels are found in the contractile cells?

11. Describe how the channels found in the membranes of the conductile  and contractile cells determine their function. Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the commander of the u.s. calvary who disobeyed orders and was defeated at the battle of little bighorn?

Autonomic Innervation and the Control of Heart Rate and  Contractility

1. What sites are predominately innervated by the parasympathetic  branch of the autonomic nervous system?

2. What sites are innervated by the sympathetic branch of the nervous  system?

3. What is the effect of the parasympathetic innervation on the SA and AV nodes? If you want to learn more check out Is there an actual change in incidence, or is the instability caused by something else?

4. What is the effect of the sympathetic innervation on the SA and AV  nodes?

5. What is the sympathetic effect on the ventricular cardiomyocytes? 6. Why is the parasympathetic effect on heart rate whereas the  sympathetic effect is on both rate and contractility?

Blood Flow in the Vascular System

1. Describe blood flow in the systemic branch of the cardiovascular  system from the time it leaves the left ventricle until it returns to the right  atrium.

2. Where is the smooth muscle in the aorta? Why is it important? 3. What is the role of elastin in the aorta?

4. Describe how the blood vessels progressively branch between the  aorta and the capillary beds.

5. How do the diameters of individual vessels change with branching?  What effect does this have on the cross sectional area of the vessels? 6. How does the total cross sectional area of all the vessels change with  branching?

7. Why is a pressure difference necessary for flow? We also discuss several other topics like Explain why the government was reluctant to help out the poor.
We also discuss several other topics like What type(s) of memory systems were affected?

8. What is the relationship between pressure, flow and resistance?  (Pressure = Flow x Resistance)

How is pressure measured?

9. What is meant by resistances in series? How do resistances add in  series?

10. What is meant by resistances in parallel? How do resistances add in  parallel?

11. Describe why blood flow in the vascular system is said to be in parallel. 12. Why are arterioles considered to be resistance vessels? 13. Describe why the radius of a vessel plays such an important role in  determining resistance.

14. Why is it important to control the diameter of arterioles? How does the  nervous system control the diameter?

Blood and Immune System

Blood Function and Compostion

1. What are the functions of blood?

2. What are the two major components of blood?

3. What does a hematocrit measure?

4. What are the formed elements? Of these, which ones are truly cells? 5. What is the function of each of the formed elements?

6. What is the major cytoplasmic protein in RBCs? What is its function? 7. What atom in the protein in #6 binds oxygen? Describe how this atom  is incorporated into the protein.

8. Where would you find oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin? Erythrocyte Origin and Fate

1. What is erythropoiesis, and where in the body does it occur? 2. Differentiate between hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. What is the  stem cell that is common to both pathways?

3. How are mature erythrocytes different from most other cells? 4. What is the pathway for erythrocyte production, and why are  reticulocytes a measure of the rate of erythrocyte production?

5. Describe the feedback system that controls erythrocyte production  including the molecules that control the feedback, and the sites of  production and action for these molecules.

6. Why do erythrocytes have a limited life span? How are they disposed  of when worn out, and how are their constituents recycled?

Blood Clotting

1. How are platelets different from other formed elements? How are  platelets produced? Why are they important?

2. What is the role of hemostasis in homeostasis? What are the three  phases of hemostasis, and what occurs in each phase?

3. In the process of coagulation, what are the five steps between  breaching the blood vessel to blood clot formation?

Lymph and Lymphatics

1. What are the components of the lymph system?

2. What is lymph, and how is it related to blood?

3. What is the role of the lymph vessel?

4. How is the entrance of lymph into the lymph vessels controlled? How  is lymph moved through the lymph vessels?

5. How are the lymph nodes associated with the lymph vessels? Lymphoid Tissues

1. What are the germinal regions in lymph nodes? What cells are located  here and why are they important? Why is the flow of lymph through the  lymph nodes important?

2. What are the two main roles for the spleen? Where in the spleen are  these roles carried out?

3. What are tonsils and Peyer's patches? Where are they found? Why are these locations strategic?

4. What is the thymus? What cells mature in the thymus? How is the  thymus structurally different from other lymphoid tissues?

5. What is a major functional difference between lymph nodes and other  lymphoid tissues?

Blood Cells of the Immune System

1. What are the formed elements in blood that are components of the  immune system?

2. What are the two broad groupings of the cells in #1? 3. What are the types of cells in each of the groups named in #2? 4. What are the granules in granulocytes? What is the fate of the  granules, and what do the components of the granules do?

5. What are the two groups of lymphocytes?

6. What cells do monocytes become?

7. Where do prolymphocytes and promonocytes go to mature? The Nonspecific Versus the Specific Defense Systems

1. What are the components of the nonspecific defense system? Distinguish between those that are barriers and those that are cellular. 2. What cells are part of the specific defense system?

3. What is the fundamental difference between the specific and  nonspecific defense systems?

4. What cell does most of the killing in the nonspecific immune system? How do they kill? Why are these cell considered to be nonspecific? 5. What are the signs of inflammation?

6. What is diapedesis?

7. Describe how #'s 4, 5, and 6 are interrelated.

8. Why is the immune system considered to be the specific defense  system?

9. What are the two branches of the specific immune system? 10. What are the characteristics of each branch?

11. What is an antibody? How does it bind to an antigen? 12. What is an antigen? How does antibody bind to antigen? 13. Define self and non-self.

14. Which lymphocyte is responsible for humoral immunity? 15. Which lymphocyte is responsible for cellular immunity? 16. Describe four ways in which the soluble antibodies involved in humoral immunity destroy antigens.

Humoral Immunity and Antibody Specificity

1. Draw the shape of an antibody molecule showing the position of the  heavy and light chains

2. What is the constant region of the antibody molecule? What is the  variable region of the antibody molecule?

3. How do the variable regions of the heavy and light chains produce  antibody specificity for a single antigen?

4. How is a nearly infinite diversity of antibodies possible from a finite  number of genes?

5. What is the significance of V regions and J regions in antibody  production? Describe how V and J regions in the genome are converted  into V and J regions in the antibody.

Memory in the Humoral Immune System

1. What is meant by the term "memory" in the immune system? 2. How do vaccines take advantage of this concept of memory?

3. Describe clonal selection of B cells and explain how clonal selection  and memory are related.

4. Describe the life history of a B cell from its origins to its demise or  immortalization. How is the decision made for a B cell to become  "immortal"?

5. Understand the difference between those antibodies anchored to the B  cell and those that are secreted antibodies. Understand the difference in  the B cell type that has anchored antibodies and secreted antibodies.

6. What is the name of the B cell type that secretes antibodies? 7. How does one build up a significant supply of B cells that produce a  specific antibody?

Cell Biology of the B Cell Response

1. What is the role of the T-helper cell in #7 above? Where are the T helper cells produced?

2. What is a major histocompatibility complex protein?

3. What does the MHC bind protein? How does it act as a kind of  receptor? How does it play a role in antigen presentation?

4. In #3 distinguish between class I MHC proteins and class II MHC  proteins

5. How does a T-helper cell recognize a B cell that is presenting antigen?  What is the role of the CD4 receptor in this process? What is the role of  the MHC II proteins?

6. Describe the sequence of events of a T-helper cell encountering an  antigen presenting B cell. How does this interaction occur and how does  it lead to the production of more B cells?

7. List the cell types where MHC class II proteins are found. Cytotoxic T Cells and the MHC Class I Proteins

1. What is the origin of T lymphocytes? Where do they become  immunocompetent?

2. What are the cell types where MHC Class I proteins are found? 3. How are MHC Class I proteins and their load of protein cargo processed and placed on the surface of the somatic cell?

4. What is the molecule on T-cells that recognizes MHC class I proteins?  What is the protein on the T cell that recognizes the antigen fragment on  the MHC class I protein?

5. How do the cytotoxic T-cells distinguish self from non-self? 6. What is interleukin-2, and what is its role in the immune system? 7. Describe the series of events that occur when a CD8-containing cell  

encounters a cell expressing an MHC class I protein that contains a  fragment of a non-self protein bound to the MHC class I protein. How is  the distinction between self and non-self made?

8. As part of your answer to #6, describe how the T killer cell responds to  recognizing a foreign protein fragment.

9. What is the purpose of the T helper cell? How is the interaction  between T helper cells and antigen presenting B cells T cells similar to the interaction between cytotoxic T killer cells and killing by T killer cells ? How is it different? In your answer include a discussion of the role of  interleukin-2.

10. How do the cytotoxic T cells effect cell killing?

11. What are perforins and how do they lead to cell death?

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