Monday, October 31, 2016
The Cardiovascular System as a Whole
1. Why do metazoan animals have a cardiovascular system? 2. What is meant by saying that the cardiovascular system is a closed system?
3. What are the components of the vascular system?
4. What are the components of the two sides of the heart and where does each component pump blood?
The Cardiac Cycle
1. What is systole? What is diastole?
2. Trace the flow of blood through the heart.
3. Name each of the valves and describe their location. What causes each valve to open? What causes each valve to close?
4. From what you know about the valves, describe the source of normal heart sounds.
5. Where does oxygenated blood enter the heart? Where does it leave the heart? What is its destination?
6. Where does deoxygenated blood enter the heart? Where does it leave the heart? What is its destination?
7. Describe the pressure/volume curve of the cardiac cycle. 8. When in the pressure/volume curve does systole begin? 9. When in the pressure/volume curve does diastole begin? 10. What is end diastolic volume?
11. What is end systolic volume? If you want to learn more check out What does basal metabolic rate tell you?
12. How is the ejection fraction related to the end diastolic and end systolic volumes?
13. Relate “preload” to the end diastolic volume.
14. What is afterload and how is it related to the opening of the aortic and pulmonary valves?
15. What is Starling’s Law? How is it related to sarcomere length in cardiomyocytes?
16. What is stroke volume and how is it related to cardiac output? Coronary Blood Flow
1. What is meant by coronary blood flow? If you want to learn more check out What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?
2. How is blood supplied to the heart? When in the cardiac cycle does most of the blood flow? Why is most of the flow during this period? 3. Follow the path of the blood circulation through the heart. Electrical Conduction and Muscle Contraction in the Heart
1. How are the electrically conducting system and contractile system in the heart different? How are they the same?
2. Trace the path that action potentials follow from the SA node to the ventricles.
3. How are action potentials in the conductile system converted to muscle contraction?
4. How are cardiac and skeletal muscle similar? How are they different? 5. Describe the role of gap junctions in the conductile and contractile systems in the heart.
6. How is the ECG related to contraction in the heart?
7. What is the P wave? What is the QRS complex? What is the T wave? 8. What is meant by conduction block and might it be seen in an ECG? 9. What ion channels are found in the conductile cells?
10. What channels are found in the contractile cells?
11. Describe how the channels found in the membranes of the conductile and contractile cells determine their function. Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the commander of the u.s. calvary who disobeyed orders and was defeated at the battle of little bighorn?
Autonomic Innervation and the Control of Heart Rate and Contractility
1. What sites are predominately innervated by the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system?
2. What sites are innervated by the sympathetic branch of the nervous system?
3. What is the effect of the parasympathetic innervation on the SA and AV nodes? If you want to learn more check out Is there an actual change in incidence, or is the instability caused by something else?
4. What is the effect of the sympathetic innervation on the SA and AV nodes?
5. What is the sympathetic effect on the ventricular cardiomyocytes? 6. Why is the parasympathetic effect on heart rate whereas the sympathetic effect is on both rate and contractility?
Blood Flow in the Vascular System
1. Describe blood flow in the systemic branch of the cardiovascular system from the time it leaves the left ventricle until it returns to the right atrium.
2. Where is the smooth muscle in the aorta? Why is it important? 3. What is the role of elastin in the aorta?
4. Describe how the blood vessels progressively branch between the aorta and the capillary beds.
5. How do the diameters of individual vessels change with branching? What effect does this have on the cross sectional area of the vessels? 6. How does the total cross sectional area of all the vessels change with branching?
7. Why is a pressure difference necessary for flow? We also discuss several other topics like Explain why the government was reluctant to help out the poor.
We also discuss several other topics like What type(s) of memory systems were affected?
8. What is the relationship between pressure, flow and resistance? (Pressure = Flow x Resistance)
How is pressure measured?
9. What is meant by resistances in series? How do resistances add in series?
10. What is meant by resistances in parallel? How do resistances add in parallel?
11. Describe why blood flow in the vascular system is said to be in parallel. 12. Why are arterioles considered to be resistance vessels? 13. Describe why the radius of a vessel plays such an important role in determining resistance.
14. Why is it important to control the diameter of arterioles? How does the nervous system control the diameter?
Blood and Immune System
Blood Function and Compostion
1. What are the functions of blood?
2. What are the two major components of blood?
3. What does a hematocrit measure?
4. What are the formed elements? Of these, which ones are truly cells? 5. What is the function of each of the formed elements?
6. What is the major cytoplasmic protein in RBCs? What is its function? 7. What atom in the protein in #6 binds oxygen? Describe how this atom is incorporated into the protein.
8. Where would you find oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin? Erythrocyte Origin and Fate
1. What is erythropoiesis, and where in the body does it occur? 2. Differentiate between hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. What is the stem cell that is common to both pathways?
3. How are mature erythrocytes different from most other cells? 4. What is the pathway for erythrocyte production, and why are reticulocytes a measure of the rate of erythrocyte production?
5. Describe the feedback system that controls erythrocyte production including the molecules that control the feedback, and the sites of production and action for these molecules.
6. Why do erythrocytes have a limited life span? How are they disposed of when worn out, and how are their constituents recycled?
1. How are platelets different from other formed elements? How are platelets produced? Why are they important?
2. What is the role of hemostasis in homeostasis? What are the three phases of hemostasis, and what occurs in each phase?
3. In the process of coagulation, what are the five steps between breaching the blood vessel to blood clot formation?
Lymph and Lymphatics
1. What are the components of the lymph system?
2. What is lymph, and how is it related to blood?
3. What is the role of the lymph vessel?
4. How is the entrance of lymph into the lymph vessels controlled? How is lymph moved through the lymph vessels?
5. How are the lymph nodes associated with the lymph vessels? Lymphoid Tissues
1. What are the germinal regions in lymph nodes? What cells are located here and why are they important? Why is the flow of lymph through the lymph nodes important?
2. What are the two main roles for the spleen? Where in the spleen are these roles carried out?
3. What are tonsils and Peyer's patches? Where are they found? Why are these locations strategic?
4. What is the thymus? What cells mature in the thymus? How is the thymus structurally different from other lymphoid tissues?
5. What is a major functional difference between lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues?
Blood Cells of the Immune System
1. What are the formed elements in blood that are components of the immune system?
2. What are the two broad groupings of the cells in #1? 3. What are the types of cells in each of the groups named in #2? 4. What are the granules in granulocytes? What is the fate of the granules, and what do the components of the granules do?
5. What are the two groups of lymphocytes?
6. What cells do monocytes become?
7. Where do prolymphocytes and promonocytes go to mature? The Nonspecific Versus the Specific Defense Systems
1. What are the components of the nonspecific defense system? Distinguish between those that are barriers and those that are cellular. 2. What cells are part of the specific defense system?
3. What is the fundamental difference between the specific and nonspecific defense systems?
4. What cell does most of the killing in the nonspecific immune system? How do they kill? Why are these cell considered to be nonspecific? 5. What are the signs of inflammation?
6. What is diapedesis?
7. Describe how #'s 4, 5, and 6 are interrelated.
8. Why is the immune system considered to be the specific defense system?
9. What are the two branches of the specific immune system? 10. What are the characteristics of each branch?
11. What is an antibody? How does it bind to an antigen? 12. What is an antigen? How does antibody bind to antigen? 13. Define self and non-self.
14. Which lymphocyte is responsible for humoral immunity? 15. Which lymphocyte is responsible for cellular immunity? 16. Describe four ways in which the soluble antibodies involved in humoral immunity destroy antigens.
Humoral Immunity and Antibody Specificity
1. Draw the shape of an antibody molecule showing the position of the heavy and light chains
2. What is the constant region of the antibody molecule? What is the variable region of the antibody molecule?
3. How do the variable regions of the heavy and light chains produce antibody specificity for a single antigen?
4. How is a nearly infinite diversity of antibodies possible from a finite number of genes?
5. What is the significance of V regions and J regions in antibody production? Describe how V and J regions in the genome are converted into V and J regions in the antibody.
Memory in the Humoral Immune System
1. What is meant by the term "memory" in the immune system? 2. How do vaccines take advantage of this concept of memory?
3. Describe clonal selection of B cells and explain how clonal selection and memory are related.
4. Describe the life history of a B cell from its origins to its demise or immortalization. How is the decision made for a B cell to become "immortal"?
5. Understand the difference between those antibodies anchored to the B cell and those that are secreted antibodies. Understand the difference in the B cell type that has anchored antibodies and secreted antibodies.
6. What is the name of the B cell type that secretes antibodies? 7. How does one build up a significant supply of B cells that produce a specific antibody?
Cell Biology of the B Cell Response
1. What is the role of the T-helper cell in #7 above? Where are the T helper cells produced?
2. What is a major histocompatibility complex protein?
3. What does the MHC bind protein? How does it act as a kind of receptor? How does it play a role in antigen presentation?
4. In #3 distinguish between class I MHC proteins and class II MHC proteins
5. How does a T-helper cell recognize a B cell that is presenting antigen? What is the role of the CD4 receptor in this process? What is the role of the MHC II proteins?
6. Describe the sequence of events of a T-helper cell encountering an antigen presenting B cell. How does this interaction occur and how does it lead to the production of more B cells?
7. List the cell types where MHC class II proteins are found. Cytotoxic T Cells and the MHC Class I Proteins
1. What is the origin of T lymphocytes? Where do they become immunocompetent?
2. What are the cell types where MHC Class I proteins are found? 3. How are MHC Class I proteins and their load of protein cargo processed and placed on the surface of the somatic cell?
4. What is the molecule on T-cells that recognizes MHC class I proteins? What is the protein on the T cell that recognizes the antigen fragment on the MHC class I protein?
5. How do the cytotoxic T-cells distinguish self from non-self? 6. What is interleukin-2, and what is its role in the immune system? 7. Describe the series of events that occur when a CD8-containing cell
encounters a cell expressing an MHC class I protein that contains a fragment of a non-self protein bound to the MHC class I protein. How is the distinction between self and non-self made?
8. As part of your answer to #6, describe how the T killer cell responds to recognizing a foreign protein fragment.
9. What is the purpose of the T helper cell? How is the interaction between T helper cells and antigen presenting B cells T cells similar to the interaction between cytotoxic T killer cells and killing by T killer cells ? How is it different? In your answer include a discussion of the role of interleukin-2.
10. How do the cytotoxic T cells effect cell killing?
11. What are perforins and how do they lead to cell death?