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∙ Expletive infixation
o Ex: “hallo-fucking-ween” for “Halloween; NOT “hal-fucking-loween” o No one taught us how to do expletive insertion correctly, yet as English speakers we have some kind of rule that tells us which.
o You, as a native speaker, can add a word to another word/phrase in a way that’s comprehendible, and native speakers will still be able to understand you, for some reason.
∙ Building blocks
o Phonetics: word sounds
o Phonology: patterns of word sounds (ex: cats, like, to, eat. Each are a pattern of word sounds in English.) (ex: rtun, tbatl, opsp. None are word sound patterns in English)
o Semantics: word meaning
o Syntax: building sentences
o Morphology: Knowledge of lang and how sentences should be built o Lexicon: mental dictionary Don't forget about the age old question of texas state university anthropology
∙ Noam Chomsky
o Father of linguistics
∙ Linguistic Knowledge:
o Ling competence: what you know of the language mentally
o Ling performance: what you actually say/do.
Subject to physical limitations, such as taking a breath b/w
words, and performance errors, such as slips of tongue.
∙ Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Grammar
o Descriptive: Actual speaker’s grammar
Sentences not necessarily following the taught “rules” of
grammar, but are still understood by native speakers. Don't forget about the age old question of segmentation of porifera
Ex: I don’t want to talk to nobody --- considered a grammatical sentence bc some native speaker do talk like this.
o Prescriptive: rules of grammar used by teachers, and thus are rules that are a matter of opinion.
What speaker’s rules should be. Ex: don’t use double negatives. Speakers are still understood when prescriptive grammar isn’t used.
∙ Some rules don’t seem to matter in other langs.
Don't forget about the age old question of ecostudy
“Brain and Language”
∙ Brain – most complex organ. It has:
o Cortex – surface of the brain (“gray matter”).
Holds the grammar representing our knowledge of language. o Right and left cerebral hemispheres, the right hemis controls the left side of the body, and visa versa. This function is called a contralateral brain function.
Stimulus processed by other side of brain first before activating response.
Both are connected by the corpus callosum (allows the two hemispheres to communicate with the other) aka “white matter” ∙ Linguistic abilities
o Joseph Gall proposed localization in early 19th cent.
his thought that linguistic capacities are functions of localized brains areas has been supported
∙ Aphasia: neurological term for any lang disorder resulting from brain disease or trauma.
o 1860s, Paul Broca claimed lang is localized on the left hemisphere frontal lobe, or “Broca’s Area”.
o 1870s, Carl Wernicke claimed lang localized also on the left hemis temporal lobe, or “Wernicke’s Area”. Don't forget about the age old question of esci 101 wwu
o Thus, lang is lateralized (localized to one hemis only) on the left hemisphere.
o Broca’s Aphasia: affects lang production. Inefficient ability to form sentences (telegraphic speech). Lang produced is agrammatic (lacking grammatical elements). Have problems with syntax.
o Wernicke’s Aphasia: affects lang comprehension. Person can speak fluently (grammar isn’t affected), but inefficient ability to name objects, choose words when speaking. Often produce nonsense words. Have probs with semantics.
Severe Wern Aphasia aka jargon aphasia.
Reading/writing severely impaired
o Kind of Aphasia – severe trouble coming up with words. If you want to learn more check out the smallest neuroglia of the cns that act as phagocytes are the
o Can be very specific:
May affect only certain part of semantics (plants, animals, etc) o Aphasic deaf signers show similar lang deficits to hearing aphasics. o Often associated with damage to angular gyrus.
o Aphasiology shows that lang function isn’t in just one part of the brain, and that diff areas control diff aspects of the brain.
∙ Brain Plasticity and Lateralization in Early Life
o Lateralization of lang happens very early in life.
o Kids may acquire the lang of the enviro, but they often say things they have never heard before (ex: I breaked my nose)
∙ Thus kids have ling creativity.
o In youth, phonological and syntactic processing are automatic reflexes. o Even if the left hemis (lang hemis) is removed, the right hemis quickly fills in for the missing hemis in young children.
∙ Split Brain
o Those with severe epilepsy have their corpus callosum cut, ending communication b/w the hemispheres.
∙ Wada test: remove small piece of brain in epilepsy patients o One hemis is temporarily put to sleep
o Give the patient something in one hand (depending on which hemis is tested) and asked them what you’ve given them.
o Left hemis awake, patient can ID pic of object verbally. Right hemis, can only draw it/point to it.
∙ Other Experimental Evidence of Brain Organization We also discuss several other topics like uo human physiology
o Dichotic listening: experimental technique using auditory signals to observe brain behavior.
Subjects frequently correct in naming words, syllables, and other linguistic stimuli heard through right ear.
Subjects freq. correct in hearing musical chords, sounds, and other nonverbal stimuli heard through left ear.
∙ The Autonomy of Language
o Some children suffer from specific language impairment (SLI) – affects certain aspects of grammar.
Affects 7-8% of kindergarten age kids.
Kids may start speaking late, may be hard to understand
∙ May have normal IQ and normal ability in general,
including speech comprehension and visual-spatial skills,
but just certain parts of ling ability are impaired.
Struggle with verbal inflection, syntactic stuctures. Resembles aphasic problems.
∙ Ex: “meowmeow chase mice”; “show me knife”; “it not
Basically, we learn that lang is NOT connected w general
intelligence in kids.
∙ Other Dissociations of Language and Cognition
o Savants: those who are gifted with talent, but lack ability to care for themselves.
∙ Genetic Basis of Language
o Turner syndrome: normal lang and advanced reading skills, but major nonlinguistic cognitive deficits.
o Williams syndrome: certain ling functions relatively preserved despite visual and spatial cognitive deficits and moderate retardation.
Extremely social/friendly; may not be able to tie their shoes or draw pictures.
General intelligence not affected/correlated with ling ability.
Language and Development
∙ The Critical Period: lang is acquired easily at young age
o Lang acquisition is innate, and requires external input for further devlpmnt.
o Late lang exposure affects the fundamental organization of brain for lang.
o Critical age hypothesis: lang is biologically based, ability to learn lang develops in fixed period, usually birth to mid childhood.
o Kids who missed their critical period show uncommon patterns of brain lateralization.
Usually never acquire the grammatical rules of English.
Lang lateralizes to the right hemis for them b/c of inadequate ling stimulation, and lang areas in left hemis are no longer
∙ Ex: Genie, didn’t learn lang until age 15.
∙ Critical Period for Bird Song
o A chaffinch can’t learn new song elements after 10 months of age. o Must not be isolated from other birds in order to develop song correctly o Shows us that basic nature of human lang is innate, but the details of it are acquired.
“Phonetics”: how speech sounds produced, transmitted, and perceived.
o There are no breaks in our speech; only those who speak the lang know where the stops b/w words are.
∙ Segment: to break up a sound into parts
o Ex: “bus” has three sounds
∙ Acoustic phonetics: physical properties of sounds
∙ Auditory phonetics: comprehension of sounds heard
∙ Articulatory phonetics: study of how vocal tract produces lang sounds (primary focus of chapter)
Phonetic Alphabet – aka the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) ∙ IPA symbols are in ’s
∙ Orthography: alphabetic spelling
∙ Articulatory Phonetics
o Shaping parts of the vocal tract (structures that work together to produce sounds) cause different lang sounds.
Air pushed through Vocal cords (pair of membranes) and out mouth (aka oral cavity) and nose (aka nasal cavity).
∙ Glottis: opening b/w vocal cords, located in the Larynx,
which is below the tubular pharynx in the throat.
∙ Hard palate
∙ Soft palate/velum
∙ Uvula: back of the throat
o Consonants: refers to a type of sound, not particular letters Three Feautures
∙ 1) Where this air restriction occurs in vocal tract is called place of articulation
o 7 Places of articulation:
Bilabials: [p], [b], [m] – produced by putting
Labiodentals: [f], [v] – bottom lips meets
Interdentals: th [θ][ð] – tip of tongue touches
∙ Dental: also th – but tongue merely
touches behind teeth
Alveolars: [t], [d], [n], [s], [z], [l], [r] – tongue
touches alveolar ridge in various ways.
Palatals: [ʃ], [ʒ], [tʃ], [dʒ], [j] – air constriction
where the front of tongue touches hard
Velars: [k], [g], [ŋ]
Uvulars: [R], [q], [G] – trill sounds, produced
by raising back of tongue to uvula
Glottals: [h] – air flows through open glottis
∙ Some vowel sound always follows [h]
∙ Glottal stop: air is completely stopped,
then released (ex: uh- oh)
Labio-velar: [w], [wh]
∙ Voiceless: vocal cords apart; air flows freely through
o Voiceless sounds either aspirated or not
o Aspiration: puff of air released before glottis closes.
Cords open for very short time.
Transcribed as consonant with little h [p^h].
Ex: spit, spin, stick, skin.
o Unaspirated: cords vibrate as soon as lips open
Ex: pit, pin, tick, kin.
o English speaker consider aspirated/unasp sounds to
∙ Voiced: vocal cords together; forced air comes through and makes vibration
(3) Manner of Articulation: manipulation/degree of air usage through vocal tract.
∙ Oral: air only escapes through oral cavity.
o Most sounds are oral, except for nasal sounds.
Ex: [b] [d] [g]
∙ Nasal: velum is lowered, allowing air to escape through nose.
∙ Stops: complete obstruction of airflow in vocal tract
∙ Liquids: [r] [l]
∙ Glides: [w] [y]
o Four distinguishing features
Backness: how far back/forward is tongue in mouth
∙ Front – [i] beet, [ɪ] bit, [e] bait, [ɛ] bet, [æ] bat
∙ Central – [ə] about, [ʊ] but, [a] cot
∙ Back – [ɔ] bought, [ʊ] book, [o] boat
Height of tongue
∙ high - [i] beet, [ɪ] bit, [u] boot, [ʊ] book
∙ mid - [e] bait, [ə] about, [ʌ] but, [o] boat, [ɔ] bought
∙ low - [æ] bat, [a] cot
∙ treat [ɔ] (bought, lost, moss, etc) as a MID VOWEL, not a
LOW VOWEL (like it is in the book)
∙ tense: muscles tensed/tighter [i][e][o][u][a]
o slightly higher than lax vowels
∙ lax: muscles relaxed more
∙ lips in [i] vs. [u]
A combination of two symbols/sounds (ex: [aɪ] in “fine”
o Natural classes: group of sounds sharing a particular feature Ex: [t], [d],and [n] are all alveolar stops
Ex: [b] [d] [g] all voiced, oral stops
Should know quite a few natural classes and how to group them o Transcription: rendering a word in IPA
Ex: help – [hɛlp]; dig [ɪ]; keys [kiz]; schedule [skɛdʒul]; rad [ræd] Know how to transcribe and reverse transcribe. Will be given words in English orthography and asked to transcribe
Phonology (p. 267): study of sound patterns in language
∙ Pronunciation of Morphemes– morphemes pronounced differently depending on context.
o Pronunciation of Plurals
Some plurals nouns end with [z] (ex: cab => cabs)
Some end with [s] (ex: cap => caps)
Some end with [əz] (ex: bus => buses, badge => badges)
Some don’t conform to one form group, and are individually memorized (ex: child => children; ox =>oxen; sheep => sheep) Plural words with [əz] have sibilant segments.
Plural words with [z] or [s] have nonsibilant segments.
o Morphophonemic rules: phonological rules that shape a plural morpheme and other certain morpheme’s phonetics.
o Additional Allomorphs
Past tense forms parallel plural forms
∙ Regular past tense morphemes use the allomorphs [d]
(ex: grabbed), [t] (ex: kissed), [əd] (ex: gloated).
∙ Phonemes: [the abstract mental representations of] Phonological Units of Lang (p.273)
o Ex: /p/ /b/ /t/
Sensed in the mind, but aren’t heard/spoken
Associated with allophones: corresponding sounds to the phoneme
∙ ALLOPHONES are what are pronounced, not phoneme.
∙ Allophones must differ bc of at least one feature.
Use // to enclose phonemes, and  to enclose allophones and phones.
Diff bw allophones and minimal pairs
∙ Ex: [p] and [p^h] are NOT minimal pairs bc no change in meaning when you switch one out for the other. But they
are allophones of /p/ bc relatively same sound.
o If find minimal pair, that means SPEAKERS DON’T
CONSIDER THE TWO SOUNDS TO BE SAME.
o Vowel Nasalization in English as Illustration of Allophones
Phone: certain pronunciation of a phoneme.
∙ A group with same phoneme are the allophones of that
o Contrastive distribution
Minimal pairs are in contrastive distribution: two words with different meanings, but identical sounds except for one sound segment.
If English speakers were asked if for ex. [b] and [p] were the same sounds, they’d say no. (batch and patch)
o Complementary distribution
If English speakers were asked if for ex. [t] and [t^h], or [i] and [ii] were the same sounds, they’d say yes (tick and stick, preet and peed)
They never occur in same environment, thus, will NEVER form MINIMAL PAIR
English oral/nasal vowels are complimentary b/c non-distinctive in English
Ex: lowercase and capital letters are in complementary distrib. o How to figure out if contrastive or complimentary
∙ First check for min pairs
∙ Then write down enviros where you find the allophones
(ex: [u] => n_s, d_d, l_s; [ũ] => n_n, d_m, l_n, s_n)
o Can you discover the rules about when each
Ex: [ũ] appears in nasal stops. [u] appears
o Just so you know
# indicates word boundary
#_t (or any letter) = sound “_” occurs at beginning of sentence t(or any letter) _# = sound “_” occurs at end of sentence. o Phonology Problem
When complementary distrib is found, can explain the by saying: /_ / becomes [_] when it occurs before/after [_]. [_] occurs everywhere else.
When comntrastive distrib is found b/c of a minimal pair, can explain by saying: [_] and [_] are minimal pairs, and thus in contrastive contribution.
o Distinctive/phonemic feature: feature that distinguishes between two or more phonemes.
If a sound has a certain feature, for ex, it’s nasalized, then it would have a +, as in [+nasal]. If the sound doesn’t have the feature, then it’s -, as in [-nasal]
∙ Ex: [s] is [-voiced]
o Non-distinctive feature
These are features that aren’t enough to make certain sounds make words sound different for native speakers.
Aspiration: is this type of feature b/c only changes one allophone in a word, and isn’t enough to change a word or its meaning in ENGLISH.
Length: non distinguishing feat. Linguists know it makes vowels/consonants different, but regular native speakers wouldn’t hear the diff.
o Formal notation OPTIONAL
Basic format: x => y/z ( x becomes y in enviro z)
Ex: /p/ => p^h/s_i (as in spirit)