BIL 360 - Comparative Physiology - DuBois Spring 2014 EXAM 3 (Form 1) **Failure to correctly indicate form number on your answer sheet will result in a loss of 4 points from your exam. Choose the BEST answer for each question, Two points each. 1. Most mammals are a. protandrous. b. sequential hermaphrodites. c. semelparous. d. parIf you want to learn more check out his 109 exam 2
Don't forget about the age old question of ∙ What is a set point?
We also discuss several other topics like which is representative of the interactionist view of crime?
We also discuss several other topics like concurrent ur in a hospital will be primarily concerned with the
If you want to learn more check out fad 3220 fsu
Don't forget about the age old question of during middle childhood, boys outperform girls in
thenogenetic. @siteroparous. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 2. What process is occurring at the arrow in the figure? a. Ovulation b. Estrus c. Menstruation (d. Both ovulation and estrus e. Both ovulation and menstruation Blood concentration Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Time feedback loop maintains high levels of oxytocin, a hormone that stimulates 3. During the birthing process, a smooth muscle, until occurs. a positive; childbirth b. positive; uterine contraction negative; childbirth d. negative; uterine contraction e negative; menstruation 4. In male mammals, testosterone is produced by the a. sperm cells ) Leydig cells c. seminiferous tubules d. hypothalamas e. anterior pituitary 5. In male mammals, suspending the testes in a scrotum outside the abdominal cavity is functional because a. the scrotum serves as a shifting counterweight during running locomotion b. lower temperatures enhance the release of secretions from the prostate c. the position makes it less energy-expensive to release semen into the urethra @lower temperatures promote normal maturation of sperm e their conspicuous arrangement is more attractive to females ) Which of the following is FALSE? a. spermatogenesis continues throughout the life of a male animal b. Some female mammals do not produce ova all their lives. c. In both males and females, gametogenesis results in four gametes per germ cell. d. In mammals, oogenesis is not completed until the ovum and sperm fuse. e all of the above are true. 7. The anterior pituitary gland secretes which acts on the cells of an ovarian follicle to produce a. FSH; granulosa; aromatase b. FSH; theca; androgens c. FSH; theca; estrogens d. LH; granulosa, estrogens LH; theca; aromatase secretes high levels of which prepares thc endometrial lining of the 8. During the luteal phase, the uterus for implantation by an embryo. a. mature follicle; estrogen b. anterior pituitary; oxytocin .) corpus luteum; progesterone d. uterus, estrogen e. none of these mil 9. One of the many potential problems associated with global warining is that if warm spring temperatures occur earlier, this may disrupt the temporal association between the -regulated reproductive cycles of some animals and the temperature-regulated availability of food for young offspring. a. hormone photoperiod c. temperature d. nutrition e. none of these 10. Which of the following scenarios will result in the fastest transfer of heat from the environment to the animal body? a. During his weekly water change, your goldfish is placed into a bowl of clean water that is slightly colder than the water ir original, dirty bowl, b. A snake emerges from under a rock at dawn and basks on sun-warmed pavement.- Radio A Thanksgiving turkey is rotating in a convection oven heated to 300°F . A mother hare nurses her young with milk that is the same temperature as her body. e. You and your friends are lounging in a Jacuzzi heated to 110°F. Q 6 11. A lizard whose body temperature rises as it basks on a sunny rock exemplifies which of the following: 1) Ectothermy 2) Poikilothermy 3) Thermoregulation a. 1 b. 2 c. 1&2 d. 2 & 3 @ 1, 2, & 3 12. Evaporation is an effective mechanism for cooling because a the latent heat of vaporization for water is large. b. the latent heat of vaporization for water is small. c. the latent heat of fusion for water is large. d. the latent heat of fusion for water is small, e. animals are composed mostly of water. 13. Suppose an animal has a metabolic rate of 2 ml O/h at 10°C? The Qio is 2. What is its metabolic rate at 20°C? a. 1 ml Oz/h b. 2 ml 02/h c. 2.2 ml Oz/h (d.4 ml Oz/h e. 22 ml Oz/h 14. Which of the following is a correct definition of compensation"? a. Although physiological rates fall after an animal shifts to a colder temperature, the animal will compensate by way of behavioral changes. O b. After an initial change in an animal's physiological rate due to an acute response to a change in body temperature, acclimation leads to a return closer to the original state. c. Although physiological rates fall after an animal shifts to a colder temperature, the animal will compensate by way of postural changes. d. Although metabolic rate falls after an animal shifts to a colder temperature, the animal will compensate by shifting to anaerobic metabolism. e. Although metabolic rate falls after an animal shifts to a colder temperature, the animal compensates by increasing heart rate. 15. Some animals can survive freezing and others cannot. Which of the following is associated with the ability of animals to survive freezing? a. Freezing of the intracellular and extracellular fluids d. Alternate freezing of intracellular and extracellular fluids b. Freezing of the intracellular fluids only e. Their colligative properties (C. Freezing of the extracellular fluids only ng 16. In winter, some birds stand on frozen ponds and lakes. How do they prevent excessive heat loss? a. By alternately standing on one foot and then the other b. By gular fluttering c. By metabolizing brown adipose tissue in their lower legs and feet d. By selective shivering Through the mechanism of countercurrent heat exchange in their legs 17. Some Antarctic molluscs die of heat stress if their body temperature rises above 2°C and some tropical molluscs die of cold stress if cooled to 4°C. This comparison illustrates a. the phenomenon of acclimation. b. the phenomenon of acclimatization. @he phenomenon of evolutionary specialization. d. that molluscs are eurythermal, e. that for molluscs the pejus temperature is about 3°C. 18. As a mammal experiences an increase in ambient temperature from the lower critical temperature to the upper critical temperature, its body temperature _, metabolic rate , and thermal conductance a. decreases; increases, decreases d. is relatively constant; is relatively constant; decreases b. increases; increases; increases is relatively constant; is relatively constant; increases c. increases; is relatively constant; decreases 19. Compared to the neural circuits responsible for reflexes of invertebrates, the circuits of vertebrates involve a. many more steps in sequence. b. fewer steps in sequence. many more individual neurons to complete the same steps. d. fewer individual neurons to complete the same steps. e. neurons that can be inore easily identified individually. are 20. When your family physician taps your left patellar tendon with a mallet, motor neurons innervating the excited and motor neurons innervating the ___ are inhibited. left knee extensors; left knee flexors d. right knee extensors; left knee extensors, b. left knee extensors; right knee extensors e. left knee flexors; right knee flexors c. right knee extensors; left knee flexors 21. When you instantaneously jerk your hand away from sudden exposure to a hot surface a. your brain has not been involved in the process d. two of the above b. you have experienced a flexion reflex ✓ e. all of the above c. you have experienced a stretch reflex (-22. If only a motor neurons were activated during a voluntary movement, the muscle spindle would be unable to transmit information to correct the rate of the movement because the a. extrafusal fibers would not shorten. intrafusal fibers would be slack. b. a motor neurons would inhibit the spindle. e, intrafusal fibers would remain at their resting length. c. intrafusal fibers would be stretched excessively. 23. How are central pattern generators and peripheral reflexes thought to interact in normal locomotion? a. Peripheral reflexes initiate locomotion but central pattern generators maintain it. b. Central pattern generators initiate locomotion and peripheral reflexes maintain it. Central pattern generators initiate and maintain locomotion and reflexes correct and fine-tune motion. d. Central pattern generators control locomotion with no input from peripheral reflexes. e. Peripheral reflexes control locomotion with no input from central pattern generators. 24. The involvement of the cerebellum in motor learning is demonstrated by the observation that patients with cerebellar lesions a. are paralyzed on one side of their body, b. are paralyzed on both sides of their body. are capable of voluntary movements but are clumsy and uncoordinated. d. are capable of coordinated movement if they are helped with initiating the movement. e. fatigue easily. 25. Experiments in which sensory afferent fibers in the hindlimbs of cats are transected show that sensory feedback from the limbs a. is necessary to maintain repetitive movements. b) is not necessary to maintain repetitive movements. c. has no role in cat locomotion. d. is necessary to initiate locomotor movements. e, normally acts to inhibit liib muscle contractions. 26. A striated muscle fiber is made up of many parallel , each containing a series of a. fascicles; fibrils d. sarcomeres, myotomes O nyofibrils; sarcomeres e. cross-bridges; myosin ladders c. fascicles; z-lines 27. Which of the following statements about skeletal muscle is true? Proteins in thick filaments pull on thin filaments, while intermediate filaments hold sarcomeres together. . Proteins in thin filaments pull on intermediate filaments, while thick filaments hold sarcomeres together. c. Proteins in thin filaments pull on thick filaments, while intermediato filaments hold sarcomeres together. d. Proteins in interncdiate filaments pull on thin filaments, while thick filaments hold sarcomeres together. e. Proteins in thick filaments pull on intermediate filaments, while thin filaments hold sarcomeres together. 28. In rigor mortis, a dead body will remain rigid and stiff from about 3 hours after death until about 24 hours after death. The stiffness of the body results from a lack of ATP, which leads to: a, a breakdown of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, release of calcium, and muscle contraction b. fusion of the actin and myosin proteins in the sarcomere c. enzymatic breakdown of tropomyosin, allowing for tonic muscle contraction myosin remaining bound to actin in a contracted position e none of these 2+ 29. When the cell membrane of a vertebrate skeletal muscle is depolarized, ryanodine receptors change configuration and permit passage of Ca2+ a. passively, from the extracellular fluid to the cytoplasm. passively, from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm. c. actively, from the extracellular fhuid to the cytoplasm. d. actively, from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm. e. actively, from the cytoplasın to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The role of calcium in muscle contraction is to a.) bind with troponin, changing its shape to expose the actin filament . break the cross bridges by acting as a cofactor in ATP hydrolysis transmit the action potential across the neuromuscular junction spread the action potential through the transverse tubules é re-establish the plasma membrane potential after an action potential 5-3-2 31. Place the following events in the proper sequence 1) tropomyosin shifts and unblocks the cross-bridge binding sites. 2) calcium is released and binds to troponin 3) transverse tubules depolarize the sarcoplasmic reticulum 4) Thin filaments are pulled across thick filaments by myosin heads and ATP An action potential in a motor neuron stimulates release of acetylcholine, depolarizing the sarcolemma. -a. 1-2-3-4-5 b. 2-1-3-4-5 c. 2-3-4-1-5 d. 5-3-1-2-4 e. 5-3-2-1-4 32. A hypothetical skeletal muscle cell with no t-tubules would probably a. contract and relax more quickly during twitch contractions. D contract and relax more slowly during twitch contractions. c. shorten more quickly during tetanic contractions, d. have a lower rate of aerobic ATP production. e. generate more force during twitch contractions. 33. A skeletal muscle fiber with high myosin ATPase activity, a high rate of Ca * reuptake by the SR, and large number of mitochondria would be classified as a a. slow oxidative fiber. d. slow glycolytic fiber. fast oxidative glycolytic fiber. c. tonic fiber. c. fast glycolytic fiber. 34. Resistance training increases muscle mass primarily by increasing the a. number of muscle cells. d. thickness of the extracellular space in the muscle. b. length of muscle cells. e. thickness of the muscle cell membranes. C diameter of muscle cells. myosin relative to the 35. Based on the figure, detraining following resistance training results in an increase in __ state. Mhci Mhc Ila Mhc 11x a. Type I; untrained b. Type I; trained c. Type Ila; untrained d. Type Ila; trained Type IIx; trained 92 Mhc isoform (%) Pre-training Post-training Post-detraining 36. The increase in mitochondrial number that occurs with endurance training increases the a. rate at which ATP is used in the muscle. rate at which ATP can be supplied by steady-state aerobic pathways. c. rate of calcium release and reuptake in the muscle. d. maximum force production by the muscle. e. maximum shortening velocity of the muscle. 37. Sarcopenia is muscle atrophy due to a. disuse b. injury aging d. overuse e. buildup of toxins 38. Respiratory gases move from place to place principally by a. diffusion. b. convection. c. active transport. d. Both a and b e. All of these 39. Which of the following statements regarding the diffusion of materials between gas mixtures and aqueous solutions is false? a. Diffusion can be predicted by means of partial pressure measurements. O Diffusion can be predicted by using concentrations, c. Respiratory gases can exist in the gas phase as well as dissolved in an aqueous solution. d. Respiratory gases can move from aqueous phase to gas phase, and vice versa. e. Each gas has a unique solubility in aqueous solution. 40. The partial pressure of any given gas a. is the individual pressure exerted by the gas in a gas mixture. b. can be calculated from the universal gas law. c. is independent of any other gas present. d. Both a and c Te All of the above 41. Which of the following scenarios will result in dissolved gas coming out of solution? -1) Collecting cold creek water, sealing the container, and allowing the solution to warm 2) Collecting warm water, sealing the container, and allowing the solution to cool 3) Collecting cold creek water, adding salt, sealing the container, and allowing the solution to warm 4) Collecting cold creek water, adding salt, sealing the container, and keeping the solution at the original temperature - a. 1, 2, and 3 h. 3, and 4 c.2, 3, and 4 d. 3 and 4 e, all of these 42. Which of the following is the most accurate definition of external respiration? a. The process of CO2 production and O2 consumption during aerobic metabolism b. Bulk flow (convection) of air or water to and from the gas-exchange membrane The process by which O2 is transported to the gas-exchange membrane from the environmental medium and CO2 is Transported away from the membrane into the environmental medium d. The process by which CO, is transported to the gas-exchange membrane from the environmental medium and O, iş transported away from the membrane into the environmental medium e. Diffusion of Oz and CO2 across the gas exchange membrane 43. The partial pressure of Oz in the blood leaving the breathing organ depends on the a. flow of blood. d. Both a and c b. flow of air or water at the interface. All of the above c. difference between the initial partial pressure of Oz in the blood and the air (or water). Z. RO. TK Refer to the figure on the right for numbers 44 & 45. an arc. deri .. : 48C 44. The diagram is referring to what physiological process? Medium a. Cocurrent gas exchange 100 - b. Tidal ventilation and gas exchange c. Countercurrent gas exchange d. Nondirectional ventilation and gas exchange Blood Cross-current gas exchange 1A . : thi. Tu TTF . ..9 from left 45. At letter A in the diagram, Oz partial pressures are the corresponding medium values and to right. a. lower than; increase d.higher than; decrease blower than; decrease e identical to; decrease . higher than; increase 46. Which of the following animals is likely to have the highest O2 and CO2 exchange percentage via the skin? a. Goldfish b. Bullfrog tadpole Lungless salamander d. Adult bullfrog e. Musk turtle 47. Fish make use of_ a. cross-current exchange in their gills. b. tidal c. cocurrent d) countercurrent e. All of the above (48) In which of the following structures does diffusion of oxygen to capillaries not play a major role? (a. primary bronchi b. respiratory bronchioles c. alveolar ducts d. alveolar sacs e. alveoli 49. Bird respiration is characterized by a. nondirectional; countercurrent unidirectional; cross-current C. bidirectional; cocurrent air flow and gas exchange. d. nondirectional; cross-current e. unidirectional; cocurrent 50. In mammals, moving air into the lungs is achieved mainly by a. positive pressure. d. relaxing the diaphragm. b. relaxing the intracostals. e. contracting the abdominals. fotontracting the diaphragm.