chemical weathering –weathering through an alteration of chemical composition
differential weathering – takes place at different rates. Different properties give different weathering rates.
erosion – removal of weathered materials (by running water, wind, glaciers, and waves)
exfoliation dome –large round masses exposed by pressure release expansive soil –soil that contains clay that considerably expands when wet and contracts when dry. Destroys the foundation of buildings, roadways, and other structures.
frost action –water freezing and thawing in cracks. The water will expand when freezing and create bigger cracks in rock. It would likely occur in an area where temperatures cool/warm repeatedly. mechanical weathering- mechanically altering the size of materials. Physical forces break down materials.
Oxidation- rock will rust due to iron minerals that break down when exposed to oxygen.
parent material –the original rock
pressure release –type of mechanical weathering where energy is released by outward expansion
regolith –layers of weathering products on Earth’s surface. Unconsolidated rock (broken down rock), mineral fragments, and soil. salt crystal growth- type of mechanical weathering where salt crystals grow and expand in cracks of rock. Happens in salty areas like desserts and beaches.
soil- organic-bearing regolith that supports plant life. soil degradation- any process that leads to loss in soils fertility including: Erosion, contamination with pollutants, and the destruction of nutrients.
Don't forget about the age old question of Is the dna replication semiconservative?
soil horizon-distinct layers of soil that differ in texture, structure, composition, and color.
solution- type of chemical weathering where rocks will dissolve in a liquid substance, like water or acidic solutions.
spheroidal weathering- angular rocks (square/jagged edged) tend to round during chemical weathering
thermal expansion and contraction weathering- type of mechanical weathering where extreme heating and cooling cracks rocks and physically breaks them down into smaller pieces by expansion and contraction.
Relationship between chemical and mechanical weathering Weathering is an essential part of the rock cycle. It is responsible for the formation of soil.
Mechanical weathering-pieces keep composition and increase surface area. The more surface area available the more chemical weathering can happen.
Greater surface area=greater mechanical weathering.
Types of mechanical weathering
Frost Action (water freezes in cracks)
Pressure Release (sheets of rock will fall off due to a decrease in pressure) Thermal Expansion and Contraction (heat of the sun causes expansion and contraction that eventually breaks rock) Growth of Salt Crystals (salt forms in cracks and grows which cracks the rock)
Activities of Organisms (animals that burrow or plant roots) All of these forces can work together, and often do. Don't forget about the age old question of What is a nucleosome?
Types of chemical weathering
Solution (rocks dissolve) and Oxidation (rocks rust).
Chemical weathering operates on surface particles from the outside in. It will change the rock’s composition.
What is soil and how does it form?
Soil is organic-bearing regolith that supports plant life, meaning it houses living organisms. Soil is formed from weathered materials (broken down rock). It is formed from the top down.
Order and composition of soil horizons
Orange Apes Eat Boston Crème (Donuts.) –Order of horizons (Figure in powerpoint is very helpful)
Factors that control soil formation
- Climate and Soil- climate is the most important factor of soil formation. Chemical processed operate faster where it is warm and wet (because those factors support chemical weathering). Tropics will have the thickest amount of soil, where deserts/the artic will have the least amount.
- Parent Material- chemically stable rock will have less soil (Like Quartz) If you want to learn more check out What is obstructive lung disease?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the benefits of internet and multichannel ratailing?
- Organic Activity- Humus comes from organic activity. (microorganisms/plant root nutrients)
- Relief/Slope- if there is a slope, soil will be less likely to form there bc of gravity.
- Time- More time=more erosion/weathering=more soil Dust Bowl – causes and solutions
The cause was a severe drought a failure to apply dry land farming methods to prevent wind erosion.If you want to learn more check out What is site-directed mutagensis?
Trees were planted to hold down soil and block the wind. They also paid farmers $1 an acre to practice better farming techniques. Reading assignment
(It would probably be a good idea to read over your summary of the hw assignment)
biochemical sedimentary rocks –rocks that are formed from sediment derived from biological processes.
evaporite –a natural salt or mineral deposit left after the evaporation of a body of water. (ex. salt or gypsum)
Rounding- the father away a grain goes from its source area, the rounder it will be If you want to learn more check out What are the functions of lipids?
carbonate rock –Calcite, made of calcium carbonate. The larger grouping of rocks that we refer to Limestone.
fossil-tangible remains and traces of ancient life. Usually formed only in sediments and sedimentary rocks. Important for determining depositional environments.
sediment- any solid that settles to the bottom of a liquid cementation- glues sediments together
graded bedding –upward decrease in grain size. Smaller grains at top, bigger grains at the bottom.
sedimentary facies –bodies of sediment each possessing distinctive physical, chemical, and biological attributes.
chemical sedimentary rock- precipitate or are extracted by organisms
lithification –sediment becomes sedimentary rock by compactation, cementation, or both.
sedimentary rock- products of mechanical and chemical weathering. Compaction- the volume of sediment decreases
marine regression –sea level decreases, the rock facies will be deeper into the water.
sedimentary structure- features within sedimentary rocks that formed at the time of deposition and represent the physical and biological processes that operated in depositional environments. cross-bedding –angled with respect to dispositional surface (due to wind/water)
marine transgression – sea levels rise and the rock facies will move more towards land with the water.
sorting –the further away the rock is from the source, the more sorted it will be.
depositional environment –places where sediments are deposited. Where places would have certain grain characteristics. mud crack –sedimentary structures formed as muddy sediment dries and contracts (common in desert)
strata (beds) –layers of rock
detrital sedimentary rock- rock that derives from weathering of preexisting rock.
ripple mark- small scale alternating ridges and troughs. Made by the current (asymmetric ripple marks) or waves (symmetrical ripple marks).
-How are the different types of sedimentary rocks formed? Detrital: Are made from preexisting rock. They have a clastic texture (meaning they are composed of clasts). Origins include weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, and lithification. Classified by grain size. Conglomerate/Breccia are the largest. Chemical and Biochemical: substances derived from solution by inorganic or biochemical processes. They can have a crystalized texture (composed of interlocking crystals) or clastic texture (made up of fragments, like shells glued together.) Chemical sedimentary rocks form from the precipitation of ions in solution. Classified by composition and texture. Ex. Limestone, Chert, Rock Salt.
-What is sediment?
Sediment is any solid that settles to the bottom of a liquid.
-Types of sediment and how they form - Rounding, sorting and info about transportation and deposition (grain characteristics) Types of Sediment: Detrital/Chemical or Biochemical
Smaller grains, more rounded, and better sorted will mean that the rock is farther away from its source. (Chart in powerpoint)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Form from the precipitation of ions in solutions. (Limestone, Rock Salt)
-Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
Detrital rocks are classified by grain size. The biggest pieces (grain size) of rocks you will find will be the closest to where they came from.
Chemical/Biochemical sedimentary rocks are classified by composition/texture.
Sedimentary Structures are features within sedimentary rocks that formed at the time of deposition and represent the physical and biological processes that operated in depositional environments. They
include: Strata beds, Cross-bedding, Graded bedding, Ripple Marks, and Mud cracks.
Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environments Sedimentary rocks give us clues to the past environments of Earth. By the sedimentary structures, fossils, and depositional environments.
Many valuable resources are found in sedimentary deposits. Placer deposits are surface accumulations from streams that are sorted by density. Coal, Water, Petroleum, Banded iron formations ect.
aureole –area of metamorphism surrounding an intrusion. heat –the most common/important agent of metamorphism. Souces of heat include: Lava, Magma, Deep Burial-geothermal gradient metamorphism –the transitions of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed. contact metamorphism – metamorphism due to contact with or proximity to an igneous intrusion.
index mineral- chart in powerpoint (metamorphic grades). You can use the index mineral to determine how much temperature and pressure (metamorphism) has occurred. Different metamorphic minerals form from diff temps and pressure and can be put into an index to figure out their composition.
nonfoliated texture –metamorphic rock that lacks foliation. differential pressure –not the same pressure on all sides. Ex. When a place converges together at a convergent plate boundary. metamorphic grade –order of grade: Slate (Low grade), Phylite, Schist, Gneiss (high grade)
protolith –parent rock
fluid activity –hydrothermal activity, chemically active fluids. Small scale metamorphism caused by a migration of heated fluids through a rock.
metamorphic rock –Added heat/pressure to sedimentary rocks. They are some of the oldest rocks on Earth.
regional metamorphism –metamorphism that happens over a large area. (High temperature and pressure associated with mountain building or at a subduction zone.)
foliated texture –any planar arrangement of mineral grains or structural features within a rock (driven by compressional stress)
metamorphic zone- zones of higher grade meta and lower grade exist.
Agents of metamorphism
The agents of metamorphism include: Heat, Pressure (increases with depth/confining pressure is equal on all sides, differential pressure is not the same pressure on all sides), and Chemically active fluids (that come from a plume underground, the fluids will be hot). Causes of metamorphism
Temperature/Pressure (main causes) and Chemically Active Fluids (small scale)
Protolith and metamorphic rock pairs
Protolith is another word for parent rock. Mineral make up determines the degree to which each metamorphic agent will cause change.
Limestone-Marble is a metamorphic rock pair.
Foliated (Slate, Phylite, Schist, Gneiss) or Nonfoliated (Marble, Quartzite, Anthracite.)
Texture: size, shape, and arrangement of grains within a rock. Foliation: any planar arrangement of mineral grains or structural features within a rock. Grains aligning themselves horizontally. Can be:
1. Slaty Cleavage- closely spaced planar surfaced along which rocks split. (Typically the low-grade
metamorphosis of shale/slate)
2. Schistosity- platy mineral exhibits a planar or layered structure. (middle-grade metamorphosis). A schist will be shinier than slate.
3. Gneissic- distinctive banded appearance. (high-grade metamorphosis)
Metamorphic rocks can also be nonfoliated.
Common Metamorphic Rocks
Foliated: Slate, Phylite, Schist, Gneiss
Nonfoliated: Marble, Quartzite, Anthracite
(There is an important chart in powerpoint)
1. Contact or thermal metamorphism –magma or lava alters country rock around it.
2. Hydrothermal metamorphism –water is heated enough to metamorph the rocks.
3. Burial metamorphism –rock gets buried under Earth’s surface at a subduction zone where there is increased heat/pressure.
Can also happen where a basin subsides, causing rock to be pushed lower into the ground.
4. Regional Metamorphism –over a large area (subduction zone) Metamorphic Grades
Highest temperature/pressure happens at a meteorite impact. Most metamorphism happens at subduction zones.
Temperature beyond Gneiss will melt rock back to igneous. (Multiple diagrams explaining in powerpoint)