Fad 3220 Test 2 Ch. 5 Middle Childhood The Growing body Height & Weight Changes -2/3 inches a year -By age 11 ???? only period where girls are taller than boys -Slightly more rapid physical growth of girls -Girls start adolescent growth spurt around age 10 -5/7 lbs. a yearIf you want to learn more check out what can you study at nyu
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-“Baby fat” disappears Nutrition -Related to social/emotional functioning -Linked to cognitive performance -Malnutrition can damage curiosity, responsiveness, and motivation to learn Obesity: body weight more than 20% above avg for given age & height -Many 6 yr old girls worry about becoming “fat” -40% of girls age 9-10 try to lose weight -US preoccupation with slimness -15% of US children obese (tripled since the 90s) -Some weight is predisposed from birth parents -Children need to control their own eating -If parents are too controlling over what the child eats???? kids may lack their own controls -Lack of exercise -40% of boys age 6-12 unable to do more than one pull up -Ages 6-18 boys decrease physical activity by 24%, girls by 36% -Due to sedentary activities ???? video games, TV, computer Motor Development and Safety Gross Motor skills -Greater differences in gross motor skills in middle childhood -Boys outperform girls -Variations minimal in children that regularly partake in an activity (ex softball) -Sexes don’t need to be separated in sports until puberty -Smaller size of females ???? more susceptible to injury Fine Motor skills -Typing, cursive writing, detailed drawings -Tie shoes & fasten buttons (6-7 yr old) -Use each hand independently (8 yr old) -Manipulate objects like adults (11-12 yr old) -Amount of myelin in brain increases significantly between ages 6-8 -Messages reach muscles faster -Better control -Protective insulin around nerve cells Health during middle childhood-Period of robust health -Routine immunizations -90% of children likely to have at least one serious medical condition over 6 yr period -1/9 have chronic condition -Asthma: periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, shortness of breathe -15 million in US -Airways to lungs constrict -Triggered by respitory infections, allergic rxns to airborne illness, stress, exercise -Accidents -5-14 yrs rate of injury increases -Increased mobility -Traveling to school, inexperience -Most frequent injury = automobile accidents -2 ways to reduce -Seatbelts -Wear appropriate cycling gear -Fire, burns, drowning, gun-related deaths -Safety on Web Psychological disorders -1/5 adolescent Children with Special Needs Visual impairment: legal & educational meaning -Legal blindness: visual acuity below 20/200 after correction -Partial sightedness: visual acuity less than 20/70 after correction Auditory impairments: -Social & academic problems -1-2% of school age population -Some impaired at certain frequencies/pitches -How a child adapts depends on WHEN hearing loss begins -More sever in child w/ little exposure to sound of language ???? inability to produce and understand language -Ex: hard to explain meaning of “freedom” or “soul” w/o use of language -May be accompanied by speech impairments: speech that deviates from the norm -Interferes w/ communication or produce maladjustment in the speaker -Stuttering: most common speech impairment -Substantial disruption in rhythm and fluency -Parents/teachers help by not drawing attn. to it -Give them time to finish sentences Learning disabilities: discrepancies between achievement & capacity to learn -Learning disabilities: interfere with children’s ability to listen, speak, read & write -Diagnosed when children’s academic performance differs from their potential to learn -Dyslexia: reading disability w/ visual misperception of letters, difficulty spelling or sounding out letters, left/right confusion ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder -Inattention, impulsiveness, low tolerance for frustration, inappropriate activity-Behavior is common and interferes w/ home and school functioning -Hard to distinguish between children who are highly active & ADHD -Persistent difficulty finishing tasks/following directions -Fidgeting, squirming, inability to watch TV -Frequent interruption of others/ excessive talking -Jumping into tasks w/o hearing instructions -Difficult in waiting or remaining seated -9% of age 3-17 boys twice as likely -Possible causes -Delay in neural development -Thickening of brain’s cortex lags 3 yrs behind -Treatments -Ritalin or Dexedrine (paradoxically, stimulants) -Side effects: only help academics in short term, irritability, reduced appetite, depression -Behavior therapy: rewards such as verbal praise, structured classroom tasks -Dietary treatments (usually insufficient by themselves) Intellectual development & language Piaget’s approach to cognitive development -Concrete operational thought: (age 7-12) -Active, appropriate use of logic -Logical operations to concrete problems -Ex: liquid poured from 1 container to another, knowing amnt stays the same -Decentering: can consider multiple aspects if a situation -Less egocentric -Reversibility: transformations to a stimulus can be reversed -Ex: clay made into a ball can be reversed back to a square -Ex: 3+5 = 8, 5+3=8 -Relationships between time & speed -Shifting from preoperational ???? concrete operational -Explanations simply “because” -Remain tied to concrete, physical reality -Unable to understand abstract/hypothetical questions or formal logic Information processing -1st grade basic math: single digit add/subtract -6th grade: fractions/decimals, spell words like exhibit/residence -Memory: record, store, & retrieve must all function properly -Exposure alone isn’t enough, must be stored -Short term “working memory” improves -Ex: can hear a line of digits & repeat them in reverse -Metamemory: understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle adulthood -Ex: understand that some people have better memories than others -Control strategies: ex: rehearsal/repetition improves memory -Organizing coherent patterns -Improving memory:-Keyword strategy: pairs 2 sets of words that sound alike -Ex: Spanish word for duck “pato” remember as a duck taking a bath in a “pot” Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development and Classroom Instruction -Classrooms are perfect for zone of proximal development -Classrooms should focus on interactions with others -Cooperative learning: children work in groups to achieve a common goal -Individual children learn best when some group members are more competent and can act as experts -Reciprocal teaching: giving students a chance to take on the role of a teacher 1. Teachers lead students 2.Students gradually progress thru ZPDs until they can take on teaching role -Raises reading comprehension levels Language development -Vocabulary continues to increase -Grammar improves -Early school years -Passive voice is seldom used “ the dog was walked by jon” -Rarely use conditional statements “if you ___, I will ___” -Middle childhood -Passive & conditional increase -Syntax: rules of governing how words and phrases combine into sentences -Inotation: tone of voice -Struggle to point out differences -Pragmatics: rules governing use of language to communicate socially -Become more competent -Better at taking turns -Metalinguistic awareness: understanding of their own use of language -Help children understand when info is fuzzy -More likely to ask for clarification if they don’t understand Bilingualism: use of more than one language -Bilingual education: children initially taught their native language while learning English -Offers cognitive advantages -Higher self-esteem -Greater creativity and versatility -Greater metalinguistic awareness -Diff types of brain activation Schooling: the 3 R’s or childhood Reading: -Requires low-level(letters) and high-level(matching words to meanings) cognitive skills -Stages: -Stage 0: (birth – 1st grade) Prereqs for reading -Letter identification name writing-Stage 1 (1st/2nd grade) -Real reading -Phonological recoding: sound out words by blending letters together -Learning names of letters & sounds that go with them -Stage 2 (2nd-3rd grade) -Read aloud with fluency -Not much meaning w/ words -Use most effort to sound out words, not much left to process meaning -Stage 3 (4th-8th grade) -Means to an end (a way to learn) -Understanding gained from reading isn’t complete: -Ex: can only understand info when it’s presented in a single perspective -Stage 4 (transition into high school) -Read & process multiple points of view -Sophisticated literature -How to teach reading -Code-based approach: -Focus on basic skills -Letter sounds and combos, phonics -Whole-language -Reading as a natural process, like oral language acquisition -Learn thru authentic writing -Rather than sounding out, they make guesses based on context -Trial n error Educational trends -Cultural assimilation model: goal to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified American culture -Non-English speakers discouraged from using their native language -Pluralistic-society model: America is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features -Bicultural identity: maintaining one’s original cultural identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture Intelligence: determining individual strengths Intelligence: ability to understand the world, thinks rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges -Intelligence benchmarks -Binet’s test -Bright vs dull -Determined fast and slow learners -Mental age: typical intelligence level found for people at a given age -Chronological (physical) age: actual age of the child taking the intelligence test -Intelligence Quotient (IG): score that accounts for student’s mental & chronological age -IQ= MA/CA x 100 -IQ= Mental Age/ Chronological age X 100-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th edition (SB5): series of items that vary according to age of the person -Questions get harder until they are unable to continue -Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV): test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance skills, & a total score -Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II): measures children’s ability to integrate diff stimuli simultaneously to use sequential thinking -Tests DON’T measure: -Fluid Intelligence: information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory -Crystallized intelligence: -Cumulative info, skills, and strategies -Applied in solving problems -Vygotsky: -Dynamic assessment: intelligence is reflected in how children perform on their own, and when helped by adults -Sternberg: -Information processing approach examines the process underlying intelligent behavior -Triarchic theory of intelligence: intelligence made up of 3 components 1.componential: how people process & analyze info 2.experimental: insightful component can compare new w/ what they know 3.contextual: practical intelligence, everyday demands -Below/Above intelligence norms: -Least restrictive environment: setting most similar to that of children w/o special needs -Mainstreaming: exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the traditional educational system and provided w/ a broad range of educational alternatives -Intellectual disabilities: significant limitation in intellectual functioning & in adaptive behavior -(covers everyday social & practical skills) -Familial intellectual disabilities: -No cause apparent -History of retardation in family -Mild intellectual disability: disability with IQ 50/55????75 -Moderate intellectual disability: IQ 35/40???? 50/55 -Severe intellectual disability: most severe IQs 20/25 ???? 35/40 -Profound intellectual disability: IQ below 20/25 -No speech, poor motor control, may need 24 hr care -Gifted: -Acceleration: special programs to move ahead at own pace (sometimes skip grades) -Enrichment: kept at grade level but enrolled in special programs to allow greater depth of study Developing Self Psychosocial Development: -Industry vs Inferiority stage: -Age 6-12 -Efforts to attain competence in meeting challenges by parents, school -Success brings feeling of mastery-Failure brings feeling of inadequacy Understanding one’s self -Describe themselves as “pretty, smart, friendly, helpful” -Psychological characteristics and inner traits -Personal & academic spheres -Discover strengths & weaknesses Self-esteem: individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self- evaluation -More emotional oriented -Ex: Everybody thinks I’m a nerd -Compare themselves to others -Begins to decline around age 12 Moral development -Usually have reached Piaget’s formal operations -Consider broader issues of right/wrong -3-level sequence (6 stages) -Preconventional morality(stages 1-2) -Follow rigid rules based on punishment/reward -Egocentric/self-centered -Ex: Stealing the drug isn’t worth it BC you’d goo to jail -Conventional morality (stages 3-4) -“Good boy” morality -Good responsible members of society -Behave to win approval/respect of others -Ex: Shouldn’t steal the drug bc theyd feel guilty for violating social norms -Postconventional morality (stages4-6) -Moral principles that govern our actions more than society’s rules -Want others to do well -Ex: I cant steal the drug because id be violating my own moral principles -People move through stages in fixed order -Can’t reach highest stage until adolescents -Cognitive deficiencies -Not everyone reaches the highest stage, relatively rare -Doesn’t always reflect behavior -Ex: may know its wrong, but still may cheat -Moral Domain Theory -Social conventional reasoning and moral reasoning -Ex: you should eat food with a fork bc society says so -Girls -Boys: justice & fairness -Girls: responsibility, sacrifice for relationships, compassion -Move in this order -1.Oreintation toward stimuli -2.Goodness as self-sacrifice -3.Morality of non-violence & self-sacrificeFriendship Stage 1: -4-7yrs -Base friendship on other’s behavior -Who likes me? -Who do I spend most time with? -Who also likes to play with cars? Stage 2: -8-10yrs -Basing friendship on trust -Considering others qualities/traits & the rewards they provide -Can I trust them? Can they trust me? -Mutual trust -Stage 3: -11-15yrs -Psychological closeness -Intimacy: sharing secrets/personal/vulnerable -Loyalty -Trust -Differences in friendship -Status: evaluation of a role/person by other relevant group members -High status: more access to resources (toys, books, etc.) -Tend to have more friends -More likely to form cliques -Interact with more children -Low status: likely to follow others’ lead -Popular children -Social competence: collection of social skills ???? successful performance in social settings -Boys: may show negative behaviors to be popular -Social problem solving: Gender/friendship -Sex Segregation: usually same-sex groups -Across cultures -Dominance hierarchy: members of higher status can safely question/oppose those lower than them -Boys play in larger, mixed-age groups -Acknowledged leader/hierarchy -Restrictive play: interactions disrupted when a boy feels his status challenged -Girls have fewer, more intimate friends -Equal status -Social harmony Culture/friendship -Tend to be friends w/ same race -11-12yrs ???? blacks sensitive to prejudice Bullying -Report harassment at least once:-85% girls -80% boys -Those who’re bullied???? more likely to be loners, passive, lack social isolation -Does bullying lead them to isolation? -10-15% of students bully others -About ½ from abusive homes -Bullies tend to watch more violent TV, misbehave, & break laws as adults Family Life -Coregulation: parents & kids jointly control behavior -Respect each other w/ boundaries and limits -Influence each others’ behaviors -Siblings influence -Can provide support -Sibling rivalry -Cultural differences -Siblings less likely to misperceive parental favoritism when culture has high values on family -Only children: can be better adjusted/higher self-esteem/motivation -Spend less time w/ parents -School -Still big influence -Self-care child: -May emerge here -May take care of themselves after school -Comes w/ risk -Family diversity -Divorce -Adjustment may take 6 months????2years -Children may blame themselves -Single parent -1/4th of children in the US under 18 live with 1 parent -Higher for minorities -60% African American children -35% Hispanic children -Multigenerational (parents & grandparents) -Blended families -Remarried couples that have at least one stepchild living with them -Gay/lesbian parents -No significant difference in children with hetero/homosexual parents -Reported that gay/lesbian parents have better relationships with children -Group Care: Orphanages -Now referred to as “Group homes” or “residential treatment centers” -3/4 of kids in group care have been neglected/abused -Most children return to their families, ¼ do notCh 6 Adolescence Adolescence: time between childhood and adulthood with major physical, cognitive & psychological changes -Ages 11-20 -Physical Growth Spurt -Boys: 4.1 inch/year -Starts around age 12 -Girls: (a little less each year) -3.5 inch/year -Starts around age 10 -May be taller than boys here -Puberty: -Puberty: sexual maturity & ability to reproduce -Begins in pituitary gland (sex hormones) -Androgens (males) -Estrogen (females) -Male/females produce estrogen & androgen, but they just produce MORE of one -Growth hormones -Leptin: hormone affecting onset of puberty -More fat and muscle -Girls: 11-12 years old -Boys: 13-14 years old -Signs of puberty -Primary sex characteristics (not seen outwardly) -Development of organs for reproduction -Girls ???? ovaries -Boys ???? testes -Secondary sex characteristics (physically seen/appearance) -Physiological signs of maturity -Don’t involve sex organs -Larger breasts -Facial hair, change in penis size -Regardless of timing, follows same order -Signs of sexual maturity -Spermarche: boy’s 1st ejaculation -Age 13 -Menarche: girls 1st membrane -10-16 years old -Earlier Maturation/Menstration linked with: -Access to resources -Later menstration in developing countries -Good nutrition -Athletes (lower body fat %) may start later -Obesity: earlier menstration -Stress: earlier onset of menstration -Boys: -Usually successful athletes (their size)-Risk of delinquency, age-inappropriate activities, school difficulties -Girls: -May feel uncomfortable with their body -Secular trends: patterns of change observed over several generations -Decreased age in puberty (puberty earlier) -Increased height/weight -Factors: -Nutrition, economics, health care, exercise, family relationships -Consequences for early/late maturation Eating Disorders/Nutrition -Obesity: -1/5 adolescents overweight, 1/20 obese -Older they get???? less exercise -Fast food -TV/Internet/Video games -Body image: descriptive & evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance -Girls: less satisfied with weight gain -Boys: more satisfied with muscle -Anorexia Nervosa self starvation -Refusing to eat -15-20% of victims starve themselves to death -On the rise for boys -Associated with steroids -10% of boys -Bulimia nervosa: binging/purging -Ex: may eat an entire gallon of ice cream and intentionally throws it up -Guilt of eating -Harder to tell if someone has it -Teeth affected from throwing up a lot -Factors -Negative body image -Dieting fads -Personality???? type A -Family difficulties -Over demanding parents -Culture -Rarely seen outside US -Relatively rare in Asia -Body image ???? more pressure outside US -Easier access to junk food Adolescent Brain -Still maturing -# of neurons increases (richer connections) -Myelination: insulating nerve cells-Biologically immature regions -Prefrontal cortex (area of the brain) -Higher level thinking -Impulse control -Because prefrontal cortex isn’t fully developed, lacks impulse control -Poor choices -Limited ability to inhibit impulses/risky behavior -Overestimate rewards -Unnecessary gray matter in brain -They genuinely think they know what’s right -Can’t fully think through/understand -US Supreme court ruling -No one under 18 can receive death penalty -Adolescent brain still developing -Sleep deprivation -School demands -Shift in internal clock ???? need to go to bed later -Don’t get sleep until later -Need 9 hours of sleep, but most get 7 or less Drug Abuse/Use -Marijuana -50% of high school students reported using -School performance -Adderall -Alcohol -3/4 college students -3/4 high school student -Reasons: -Prove prowess (boys/athletes) -Release inhibitions/reduce stress -False consensus effect: they drink because they believe everyone else is -Substance Abuse: repeated, harmful, use of substance -Binge alcohol -Men: 5 or more drinks in one sitting -Women: 4 or more drinks in one sitting -Damages brain tissue -Alcoholics: depend on alcohol and are unable to stop drinking -Genetics play a role -Triggered by stress -Cocaine at parties -Substance dependence: -Addiction: physical, psychological, or BOTH -Alcohol -Tobacco -Gender -On the rise for girls-Girls smoke more than boys: In Austria, Norway, Sweden -Racial differences -White children & lower class more likely to try cigarettes -More high school white males than African American -Habit is harder to maintain because of “smoke free” zones -Some see smoking as an “adolescent rite of passage” -Nicotine ???? addicting -Illicit drugs -Prescription drugs -Over-the-counter drugs -Use for pleasure -Self-medication -Peer pressure -False consensus: -Ex: “Everyone at school does it, so I’m going to do it” -Realistically, not as many people are doing it as they think -Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI): infection through sexual contact -1/4 contract before graduating high school -Human Papilloma Virus (HPV): -Most common STI -Can be transmitted through genital contact without intercourse -Can produce genital warts and lead to cervical cancer -Vaccine available for HPV -Trichomoniasis: infection of vagina/penis by parasite -Can cause painful discharge of Chlamydia -Burning urination and discharge -Genital Herpes: blisters/sores around genital in recurring cycle -Incurable and contagious -Gonorrhea & Syphilis -Oldest known STIs -Deadly before antibiotics, but now treatable -Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): -Deadliest STI -No permanent cure -Bigger issue with: -Homosexuals -Intravenous drug users -Minorities (account for 70% of victims) Cognitive Development -Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage: ability to think abstractly -By age 12 -Think of problems in an abstract way instead of concrete -Using formal principles of logic -Can start with general theory ???? move to finding more specific explanations/ outcomes-Ex: May start by knowing the general theory of gravity, but they will be able to apply this general theory to the specific outcome about gravity if they were to throw a ball in the air -Propositional thought: Reasoning using abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples -Ex: Given the propositions 1 and 2, they can think through to determine 3 -1.All men are mortal -2.Socrates is a man -3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal -Consequences: -Increased abstract thinking -Adolescents may question parents and authority -Argumentative -Indecisive when considering multiple sides Information Processing Approach -IQ remains stable -Increased verbal, math, & spatial abilities -Increased memory capacity -Can handle more than 1 stimulus at a time -Ex: They can listen to music/TV while doing homework -Metacognition: Knowledge of one’s own thinking -Increases -They can monitor their own thinking -Ex: “How well do I know the material?” -Ex: Know how they should study better for a test -Egocentrism: state of self-absorption where the world is seen as focused on one’s self -Returns during adolescence -Highly critical of authority figures -Hostile to criticism -Quick to find flaws/fault in other people -Imaginary audience: fictitious observers who pay as much attention to their behavior as they do -They think people notice their every move, everything they wear, or every time they mess up -Personal Fables: They believe that what happens to then doesn’t happen to anyone else -Ex: Break ups: -Teens may say, “You don’t understand, you’ve never been through this.” -May not feel vulnerable to risks -Ex: may not use a condom during sex because in their personal fable STIs/pregnancy wouldn’t happen to them School Performance -Even though grades improve… usually do to grade inflammation -Grades get better but the rigor of the work has decreased -They can usually get good grades without working as hard -Pressure to give everyone A’s & B’s -SAT scores have not risen -U.S. students score lower on math/science than other countries-Factors: -Grade inflammation -Less time spent in the classroom -Problem: hard to keep up with increased technology programs -Other factors of school performance -Immigration status -Socioeconomic status -Nutrition -Achievement testing -No Child Left Behind Act (2002): students must past achievement tests to graduate from high school -Ensure students reach minimum level before graduating -Problem of teachers “teaching to the test” Media use -Ages 8-18 spend an average of 6.5 hours/day with media -8.5 hours if you include multiple devices -Some teens send 30,000 tests a month -Positives: -More available material -Negatives: -Decreased social interaction -“Weed through” material to ensure info is appropriate/accurate -Cyber bullying -Digital divide: poorer and lower socioeconomic groups have less access to computers Identity -Self-concept “What am I like?” -Increasing sophistication of self-concept -Take other’s views into account too -View of self becomes more organized and coherent -Viewing psychosocial traits -Much deeper than just physical appearance -Ex: “I am generous” -Ex: “I am an environmentalist” -Self-esteem “How do I like myself? -Girls’ lower than boys -Worry about physical appearance, social success, and academic success -Boys’ drops in adolescence too (but not as much as girls) -Feel the need to be tough, fearless, and confident -Ethgender: the idea that race and gender influence self-esteem Erikson’s psychosocial theory -Identity vs. Identity confusion -Seek to determine what makes them unique about themselves -3 major issues-Occupation -Values -Sexual identity -Try on different roles -If they don’t find a suitable identity…. -A “diffuse” sense of self (failing to organize around a unified identity) -May adopt socially unacceptable roles to express what they DON’T want to be -Psychological Moratorium: period where adolescents may take time off from the upcoming responsibilities of adulthood to explore possibilities -Ex: taking a semester off of college, traveling Identity: coherent conception of self, made up of goals, values, and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed -Rely more on peers/friends to help develop identities (less on parents) -Race & Ethnicity: -Cultural Assimilation Model: individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture -Ex: US ???? “Melting pot” -Pluralistic Society Model: US society is made of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve individual features -Ex: US???? “Salad Bowl” -Cultural assimilation denigrates heritage of minorities -Bicultural Identity: drawing from one’s own culture while integrating themselves into the dominant culture Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development: Updating Erikson: Crisis or Commitment? -Crisis: period where one may choose between various alternatives and makes decisions -Commitment: psychological investment in a course of action or ideology -4 Categories of Identity 1. Identity Achievement: -Successfully found who they are -Following a crisis, they committed to an identity -Psychologically healthier, higher in achievement motivation and moral reasoning 2.Identity Foreclosure: -Committed to an identity without going through a crisis -They accepted other’s decisions of what was best for them -Ex: Son who enters a family business because it is expected -Not necessarily happy but have “Rigid Strength” -Need for social approval, -Tend to be authoritarian 3.Moratorium: -Explored some alternatives but made no commitment -Relatively high anxiety and psychological conflict -Lively and appealing, seek intimacy with others -Typically settle on an identity, ONLY after a struggle 4.Identity Diffusion -Neither explore nor commit-Shift from one thing to the next -Appear carefree, but their lack of commitment affects relationships -Socially withdrawn -“MAMA” cycle ???? Moving between moratorium and identity achievement Religion and Spirituality Spirituality: sense of attachment to some higher power such as God or nature -View of spirituality becomes more abstract in adolescence -Ex: literal view of the bible as a child ???? “God sitting on the top of the Earth” -Individuative-reflective stage (adolescence): -Reflect on beliefs and values -Understand that there are many views of God -Conjunction stage: (last stage) -Broad, inclusive view of religion and humanity -May move beyond formal religion to a unified view of people Depression -Many report depressed feelings during adolescence -Only small amount have CLINICAL diagnosis of depression (“Major Depression”) -Girls more likely -Girls “internalize” more (feelings/emotions) -Boys “Externalize” (aggression, behavior, etc) Suicide -Adolescent suicide rate triples over last 30 years -Suicide rate higher for boys -Use more lethal methods (hanging, guns, etc) -Girls attempt suicide more than boys -Attempt 3X as much as boys -Factors: -Depression, stress, anxiety, family conflict, school struggles, relationship struggles -Cluster Suicide: one suicide attempt leads to suicide attempts by others -Warning sings -Direct or indirect talk: “I wish I was dead”, “You wont have me to worry about” -School difficulties -Making arrangements (as if preparing for long trips) -Writing a will -General depression -Preoccupation with death in art, music, literature Family relationship -Relationships change during adolescence -Seek Autonomy: independence/control over one’s life -Parents understand this concept -Day-today aspects are difficult for parents to understand sometimes -Gender: -In US, boys’ autonomy is usually more encourages -Culture:-Collectivistic society (good of group): -Autonomy is less supported -Greater obligation to fulfill family’s expectations -Ex: China -Individualistic society (individual orientated) -Autonomy is an expectation -Ex: US -Perceived “Generation Gap” is actually very narrow -Generation gap example: An environmentalist will have a child that owns a polluting factory- -People think the generation gap between kids/parents is large (but isn’t) -Realistically: A republican parent will have children with similar views -Most parents and kids actually get along -Conflicts/arguments -More in early adolescence than late Peers: -Social comparison: Adolescent’s comparison and evaluation of other’s opinions. Abilities, and physical changes -Compare their peers lives to their own -Reference group: who teens compare to -“Popular group” -Who they look up to -Cliques: 2-12 people with frequent social interactions -Crowds: broader, larger groups -Share certain characteristics -Don’t necessarily interact -Ex: The jocks, the preps, the snobs -Gender Relations: -Sex Cleavage: sex segregation where boys primarily interact w/ boys and girls w/ girls -Changes with puberty ???? mixed-gender groups emerge Popularity and rejection -Controversial adolescents: -Liked by some, but not by others -Still have a solid group of friends -Rejected adolescents: -Actively disliked -Peers react to them in an obviously negative manner -Picked on -Neglected adolescents: -Neither liked or disliked -Overlooked -The Popular & Controversial adolescents tend to have more social interaction, social development, and have more opportunities Juvenile delinquents-Undersocialized Delinquents: raised with little discipline or by harsh parenting -Criminal activity before onset of adolescence -Aggressive, violent ???? leds to peer rejection and academic failure -Likely to live on the margins of society their entire life -Socialized Delinquents: know and subscribe to the norms of society -Offenses don’t lead to a life of crime -Peer influenced, sometimes in groups -Petty crimes (ex: shoplifting) -Don’t continue into adulthood Peer Pressure: -Doesn’t “soar” in adolescents -Gradual shift from: “What my parent’s expect of me” to ???? “What my peers expect of me” -Adolescents conform less to both peers and adults as autonomy increases Dating/Sex -Function of dating= intimacy -Early/middle adolescents don’t develop intimacy as well -Dating is very superficial during this period -Sex statistics: -1 in 5 adolescents have had sex by age 15 -Average age is 17 -75% of adolescents have had sex by 20 -Attitudes towards sex are more lenient with males -Boys’ sexual promiscuity more applauded or tolerated than girls’ -Girls experience more shame: -They experience a pressure to “put out” (Shamed if they do, shamed if they don’t) -Affects their mental health -Double standard(The previous norm): premarital sex okay for males but not females -Permissiveness with affection (Today’s norm): premarital sex okay for either in the context of committed or loving relationship -Masturbation: - 1st sex act adolescents usually engage in ???? solitary sexual activity -Males: -Frequency high as teens declines -Females: -Lower initially, but increases -Normal, healthy, harmless -Sexual orientation -Sexuality/orientation viewed on a continuum -Not as separate as “heterosexual” OR “homosexual” -Not as black & white -Who you’re attracted to, want to have sex with -It could be somewhere in the middle -Transgender: people believed they were born the wrong physical sex -Biological factors -Research finds that sexuality is more biologically wired -Not as much due to one’s environment -Gay teens face more difficulties -Society may be rejecting -Homosexual suicide rates are significantly higher than heterosexual Teen Pregnancies -Decrease in teen pregnancies -Factors: -New initiatives for risks of unprotected sex (ex: sex ed) -Rates of sexual intercourse among teens as declined -Use of condoms increased -Substitutes for sexual intercourse -Virginity pledges Ch 7 Early Adulthood -Early Adulthood -Between ages 20-40yrs -Sub Period: Emerging adulthood -Late teen/early 20s -No longer adolescents -Haven’t fully taken on full responsibilities of adulthood -“Markers” for adulthood -Accepting responsibility for oneself -Making independent decisions -Financially independent -Physical Development of Early Adulthood -Health -Relatively healthy -Senescence: natural physical decline from increasing age -Starts now, but not usually obvious -Physical growth ???? late bloomers are still growing -Brain reaches is maximum in adulthood -Senses peak (sight, hearing, touch, etc) -Leading cause of death -Accidents -Age 35 ???? leading cause of death changes to illness -Culture -Leading cause for black males = homicide -Men more likely to die than women -Lifestyle choices can affect secondary aging -Secondary aging= external factors that affect aging -Substance use/abuse-Unprotected sex -Primary aging: natural factors of aging -Motor Functioning -Psychomotor abilities peak in early adulthood - Reaction time, muscle strength, eye-hand coordination -Physical fitness -Recommended 30 minutes/day for 5 days/week -Exercise important for health ???? Stress reduction* -Nutrition -Adults must change caloric intake -No more rapid growth -Less active/more sedentary -1/3 of adults obese -Tripled since 1960s -Obesity prevalent in US -World avg. weight = 137 lbs -US avg. weight =180lbs -Experts agree that Yo-yo dieting is not beneficial -Yo-Yo diet: losing weight from dieting, then gaining it back -Healthier to maintain a constant weight -Physical Disabilities: -Disability: condition that substantially limits a major life activity (Ex: walking, vision) -Disabled: Minority that is undereducated and underemployed -1990 American Disabilities Act: -Requires full access to public buildings -BUT some old buildings are still inaccessible -Prejudice: -May face pity or avoidance Stress -Stress: physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us -Can be good when it -Cause us to defend ourselves -Motivation to get things done -Ex: need to get an assignment done, or need to get out of an unhealthy relationship -Acute Stressor: sudden, one-time event -Ex: September 11th -Chronic stressor: long-term, continuing event -Ex: chronic illness, unhealthy long-term relationship -Consequences of stress: -Physical illness -Tiredness -Compromised immune system (organs, glands, cells) -Somatic symptom disorders: -Medical problems caused by interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties-Ex: Ulcers, asthma, arthritis, high blood pressure -Origins of stress -Primary appraisal: -Determining if event is positive, negative, neutral -Is this event a stressor? How do I feel about it? -Ex: Will taking my child to the grocery be stressful? -Secondary appraisal: -Determining if one’s coping abilities/resources are about to overcome stressor -What are we going to do about it? -Ex: “Can I handle it?” “I will bring a toy to distract my child” -Coping: Effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate stressors -Problem-focused coping: directly changing situation to make it less stressful -Emotion-focused coping: regulating emotions to deal with stress -Social support: assistance & comfort from others -Emotional and tangible -Defensive coping: unconscious strategies that distort the true nature of the situation -Can be harmful -Emotional insulation: people try to block emotions and avoid pain -Ex: minimization: something happens and acting like its not big deal -Ex: Failing a test ???? “it’s no big deal” -Hardiness: personality characteristic -“Take charge” attitude -Welcomes life’s challenges -Lower rate of stress-related illness -Cognitive Development of Early Adulthood -Postformal thought: mature thinking that relies on subjective experience, intuition, and logic. -Useful in dealing with ambiguity, uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection, & compromise -Problems must be solved in relativistic terms -Solution depends on the specific problems -You can’t use same solutions you’ve always used before -Different problems vary by context, culture, point of view, etc -Useful when emotions are involved -Use emotions to our advantage -See another person’s point of view -Giesela Labouvie-Vief’s Approach: -Believes adulthood thinking requires more than just logic -Requires practical experience, moral judgments & values -Perry’s Approach: -Found college kids began with dualistic thinking and expanded later on to understand multiple views-Dualistic thinking: viewing things as either right or wrong, good or bad -Adulthood thinking changes to understand that there are multiple views and opinions -Schaie’s Stages of Development -Acquisitive stage: -1st stage -Encompassing of childhood & adolescence -Info acquired for use in later on -Achieving Stage: -Young adulthood -Intelligence applied to specific situations -Info acquired in stage prior -Achieving long-term goals -Family, career, society -Responsible Stage: -Middle-aged adults -Concerned with protecting/nourishing -Spouses -Families -Careers -Maintaining healthy and stable careers/home -Executive stage: -Later middle adulthood -Concern for larger world (society) -Ex: volunteering, political activism -Reintegrative stage: -Late adulthood -Focus on tasks with personal meaning -Ex: Retirement -Before death/dying -Focus on what makes life meaningful -Intelligence -Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: -Componential Aspect: mental components used to solve problems -Problem solving strategies -Making use of what you’ve learned in the past -Experiential component: intelligence, prior experiences, and coping with new situations -Relating what you know to a new situation -Contextual component: Using intelligence with everyday demands -Real world environment - IQ scores -Relate well to academic intelligence -Don’t reflect other types of achievement (ex: career success) -Practical Intelligence: -Learned by observing others -Modeling their behaviors-Have good “Social radar”, can read people -Ex: Shadowing/training at your new job -Emotional intelligence: -Evaluation, expression, regulation of emotions -Getting along with/ understanding others -“Can I emotionally a tune to myself and others? And how can I use this?” -Ex: relationship success, becoming a leader -Not innate for a lot of people, but can be taught Creativity: combining responses or ideas in a novel way -Goes along with intelligence -Applying intelligence, but using it in a way that hasn’t been used before -Art, books, movies -Early adulthood is a period of creativity -Many protégées emerged during early adulthood -Ex: Mozart -“Familiarity breeds rigidity”: the more you know about a subject, the less likely to be creative Higher Education -Post High School -University, College, vocational skills, associated degrees -Demographics -U.S. college students primarily white and middle class -Greater access of resources -Pattern of previous family members attended college -Only 40% finish college in 4 years -Lower for minorities -Changing: -Idea that it’s never too late to attend college -1/3 of community college students is over 30 years old -Gender gap in college attendance -More women than men attend/graduate with degrees -Men more stereotypically encouraged to take on manual labor jobs -Male/female seek different classes/degrees -Women may be subject to sexism -Men/women with same scores may pick very different careers -Men ???? math/sciences -Women???? more nurturing degrees -Professors -More likely to call on men -Men more likely to receive extra help -Male students more likely to receive positive reinforcement -College influences economic success -Living above poverty -3% who complete a 4 year degree will live below poverty line -College Adjustment -First- Year Adjustment: cluster of psychological symptoms-Loneliness, anxiety, depression -Common in students that were unusually successful in high school -Common in first generation college students -This phase usually passes -Stereotype threat and Disidentification with school -Academic Disidentification: lack of personal identification with an academic domain -Ex: Women in math ???? there is a stereotype that women are not as good at math -They may believe that succeeding is not worth the effort -Ex: African Americans: may work so hard to disconfirm the negative stereotype regarding their academic performance -Pressure leads them to underperform -Future orientation: tendency to think about/prepare for the future -Ex: Students with a low future orientation were discouraged from attending college because of earlier discrimination -Opposite for students with a high future orientation ???? motivated to attend Erikson’s view of social and emotional development -Intimacy vs Isolation -Period of post adolescence into early 30s -INTIMACY: Focuses on developing close, intimate relationships -Selflessness, sexuality, deep devotion (commitment) -Those experience difficulties in this stage: -Lonely -Isolated -Fearful of relationships -Important to exist in isolation, or be alone is important to -Get work done -Relax on our own -Love -Stimulus-Value-Role (SVR) theory ???? Bernard Murstein -Explains the evolution of relationships (“Falling in love”) -Stimulus: relationships built on surface -Physical characteristics -Initial encounter -Value: relationship characterized by increasing similar values/beliefs -Ex: same religious values, ideas about family -2nd and 7th encounter -Role: relationship built on specific roles played by participants -Ex: give the relationships a status (Boyfriend/girlfriend, marriage, etc) Two faces of love -Passionate/romantic love: state of power absorption -Intense physiological interest and arousal -Caring for each others needs (selflessness) -Labeling Theory of Passionate Love: -People experience romantic love when 2 events occur together: 1. Intense physiological arousal (sexual arousal, or even jealousy/anger) 2. Situational cues suggesting that the arousal is due to love (“I must be in love”)-Companionate love: strong affection for those who out lives are deeply involved -Doesn’t have the sexual component of passionate love -Ex: love for family members or friends -Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love ???? love made of 3 components 1.Intimacy: closeness, affection, connectedness -Emotional and social closeness 2.Passion: motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, romance -Physical intimacy 3.Commitment: decision to love someone and maintain that love long term -Passion tends to peak early and declines/levels off -Intimacy increases quickly and grows over time -Sternberg’s different combinations of love 1.Nonlove: no intimacy, passion, or commitment -Most casual relationships 2.Liking: ONLY intimacy 3.Infatuated love: ONLY passion 4.Empty love: ONLY commitment -No passion or intimacy -Ex: “staying together for the sake of children” 5.Romantic love: Intimacy and passion -No commitment/ not long lasting 6.Companionate love: intimacy and commitment 7.Fatuous love: passion and commitment -No intimacy, no emotional bond (mindless loving) 8. Consummate love: ALL 3: intimacy, passion, & commitment Finding a partner/spouse -Beyond love???? look for characteristics -Dependability, emotional stability, pleasing disposition, and intelligence -Culture: -Differs based on culture -Ex: China: men ranked good health most important -Ex: Pakistan/India: said it was okay to marry without love (arranged marriages) -Filter Model of mate selection: -People seek a mate by screening potential partners by broader determinants of attraction and later filter by more sophisticated screens. -Homogamy: tendency to marry someone similar to us -Age, race, education, religion, socioeconomic status, etc -Marriage gradient: tendency of marriage -Men: likely to marry women smaller, younger, and lower in status -Women: likely to marry men older, larger, and higher status -Ex: Cinderella: gives depiction of women dating higher status Attachment styles -Infants fall into 3 broad categories of relationships with primary caregiver -Research shows the attachment continues from infancy to adulthood-Secure attachment: -“I find it easy to get close to others” -“I don’t worry about being abandoned or people getting too close” -Over ½ of adults -Happy/confident with future of relationships -Sensitive & supportive care -Anxious attachment: -“I find that others are reluctant to get as close to me” -“I worry my partner doesn’t really love me or want to stay with me” -1/4 of population -Higher break-up rates, lonely, less-invested -Compulsive, intrusive assistance -Avoidant attachment: -“I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others” -“Its difficult for me to trust people” -20% of population -Overly invested, low-self esteem, repeated break ups with same partner Marriage: -Cohabitation: couples living together without being married -Married couples have become minority of households (48%) -Cohabitation is a “practice” for marriage -Divorce rates higher for those who have cohabitated before marriage -Alternatives???? single or cohabitation -Prevalence of marriage is less in past year -Higher divorce rates -People marrying later -Perceptions of marital quality/satisfaction/happiness change throughout life -Drop in satisfaction with birth of a child -Drop in satisfaction when child reaches adolescence -Increase in satisfaction when they become “Empty nester” Parenthood: -Transition to parenthood can be difficult -Decrease in marital satisfaction after children arrive -Fatigue, finances, household chores -Add a new role (now “mother” not just wife) -Gay/Lesbian parents tend to divide labor more equally -Don’t have role/gender stereotypes -Increased role specialization still occurs -Splitting of duties -Children raised by homosexual parents show no differences than those raised by heterosexual parents Work: -Career Consolidation: (ages of 20-40) young adults become centered on their careers -Ginzberg’s Career choice theory: -People typically move through stages while choosing a career -Fantasy period: -Until age 11 -People make and discard choices without regard to skill, abilities, etc -Ex: Astronaut -Tentative period: -Adolescence -Thinking more practically about requirements and their own abilities -Ex: Engineer ???? requires a lot of math, and I’m not very good at math -Realistic period: -Early adulthood -Exploring specific career options (training, education, shadowing) -Narrowing down and making a commitment -Holland’s Personality Type Theory: People with different personalities match well with certain careers -Realistic: practical problem solvers, physically strong but mediocre social skills -Ex: Farmers, laborers, truck drivers -Intellectual: oriented towards theoretical and abstract -Not particularly good with people -Ex: Math/Science careers -Social: strong verbal skills, good with people -Ex: Teachers, salespersons, counselors -Conventional: prefer highly structure tasks -Ex: Clerks, secretaries, bank tellers -Enterprising: Risk-takers, take-charge types, leaders -Ex: Managers, Politicians -Artistic: prefer art over interactions with people -Ex: Art occupations Gender and Career: -Communal Professions: occupations associated with relationships (ex: nursing) -Women traditionally considered best for these jobs -Typically have lower status/pay -Agentic Professions: occupations associated with getting things accomplished (Ex: Carpentry) -Men considered best for -Women less traditionally found in male-dominated professions -Ex: engineering, computer programing -Women now more likely to be physicians, lawyers, insurance agents, and bus drivers -Glass ceiling: invisible barrier in an organization preventing individuals from being promoted beyond a certain level -Women & minorities often experience this -Why do people work? -Extrinsic Motivation: drives people to obtain tangible rewards -Money, prestige -Intrinsic Motivation: working for own enjoyment, personal rewards/fulfillments -Working brings psychological well being-Working contributes to their personal identity -Pride in what they do -Work is a source of friends/activities -Status: evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of society -Work helps determine their status -Higher status job ???? more satisfied one tends to be -Lower financial stress -More social approval