Exam 3 Study Guide Behavioral Neuroscience – Kristin Supe Homeostasis of Temperature and Thirst ∙ What is homeostasis? ∙ What is a set point? ∙ What is motivation, in terms of homeostasis? ∙ How is temperature regulated? o What are homeothermic animals? o What are endothermic animals? o How do different animals adapt to maintain temperature? ∙ What is Reynaud’s disease?If you want to learn more check out scm 300 exam 1
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∙ What brain mechanisms are used in temperature detection and response? o What is the function of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus? o What is the function of the posterior hypothalamus? ∙ What are some ways the human core temperature can deviate? o Explain how fevers work ∙ How do humans regulate the body’s fluid levels? o What are the different levels of fluids in the body? ∙ What is osmosis? o What are the different levels of osmosis? ∙ What are the different types of thirst? o What are the different mechanisms of osmotic thirst? o What are the different mechanisms of hypovolemic thirst? ∙ What role do the kidneys play in body fluid regulation? o Describe the different ways / levels fluids are lost ∙ How does the human body respond to thirst? o What hormones and other processes are involved? ∙ What is the pathway of drinking behavior to the brain and out of the brain? ∙ What is hyponatremia? o Can sports drinks help with this problem? Why or why not? Homeostasis of Hunger ∙ How does our body regulate food consumption? ∙ What is hunger / appetite? ∙ What is satiety? ∙ Why do we eat? o What types of eaters are there? o What are some cultural differences in food preference? ∙ What factors come into play when we are selecting food? ∙ What signals human’s to start eating? o What is ghrelin and its role in food consumption? o What is orexin and its role in food consumption? ∙ What is the central pathway of hunger to the brain? ∙ Describe the process of digestion o What are the differences in lipid / fat digestion and protein digestiono How is glucose digested? ∙ What happens when there are disturbances in pancreatic hormone activity? ∙ Explain the glucose homeostasis system ∙ What is satiety? o How do we asses it? o What brain mechanisms are involved in it? o What neurochemicals are involved in it? ∙ What major hypothalamic nuclei have a role in hunger? o What does the ventromedial hypothalamus do? o What does the lateral hypothalamus do? o What happens in both of these if they are either stimulated or lesioned? ∙ Is the BMI scale a good measurement to use? Why or why not? o What is another scale that could be used that is better than the BMI scale? ∙ What are some factors that may contribute to obesity? o What is the French Paradox? o How can we treat obesity? ∙ What are some different forms of disordered eating? o Describe each o What are some causes for disordered eating? o What are some treatments for it? Sex and Hormones ∙ What is the difference between sex and gender? ∙ How and when is sex determined? ∙ What are some abnormalities we may see in sex chromosomes? o What is Turner Syndrome and how is it expressed? o What is Klinefelter Syndrome and how is it expressed? o What is a “supermale” abnormality and how is it expressed? ∙ What are gonads? o What are the female version of gonads? o What are the male version of gonads? o What are the gonads’ functions? o How are male gonads differentiated? ∙ How are the internal sex organs differentiated? o Male vs. female internal differentiation o When does this differentiation occur? ∙ What are androgens? o What do they do? o What is androgen insensitivity syndrome? ∙ What are the external genitalia of males vs. females? o How are these different genitalia developed? ∙ What is congenital adrenal hypoplasia? ∙ How do early sex toy preferences differentiate? o How may prenatal androgen exposure play a role in toy preference? ∙ What are some markers of prenatal hormone environments? o Is it easy or difficult to measure / do research on this environment?o How are finger digit ratios possibly related to prenatal hormones? o How are otoacoustic emissions differed between sexes? ∙ What are the differences between organizational effects and activational effects of hormones on sexual development? ∙ How does sexual development change at puberty? o What parts of the brain may change with this? ∙ What are some secondary sex characteristics for both males and females? o What hormones stimulate these? ∙ How does the human menstrual cycle work? o What are some mood conditions related to the menstrual cycle? ∙ How are sex differences mediated? ∙ How are sex hormones synthesized? ∙ Explain the process of masculinization of the brain o How do sex hormones change the organization of the brain? o What are the sexually dimorphic structures in the brain? ∙ What are some of the hormonal effects on cognitive behavior between males and females? ∙ What is sexual orientation? ∙ What is gender identity? ∙ What is transsexuality? ∙ How does sexual orientation influence cognition? ∙ How do otoacoustic emissions relate to sexual orientation? ∙ How does finger digit ratio relate to sexual orientation? ∙ What difference do we see in brain structure for different sexual orientations? ∙ Can genes influence sexual orientation? o How, why, or why not? ∙ What are activational effects of human sex hormones? ∙ How is attraction formed? ∙ How do sex hormones influence female sexual interest? ∙ Can sexual arousal be habituated? o How? o What is the Coolidge effect? ∙ How are oxytocin and vasopressin involved in mating? Circadian Rhythms ∙ What are biological rhythms? ∙ What are circadian rhythms? o What is the difference between diurnal and nocturnal animals? o What are some systems that are regulated on a circadian cycle? ∙ How is the circadian timing system organized? ∙ How is the circadian rhythm susceptible to disease? o How is our immune system in the morning compared to the evening, how does it change? ∙ What are the environment cues for activity? o What is entrainment? o What is zeitgeber?o What is the strongest environmental cue? ∙ What is the retinohypothalamic pathway? o How is it involved in circadian rhythms? ∙ How does light influence our internal clock? ∙ How does the feedback loop of circadian rhythms work? o What is per? o What is tim? o What is clock? o How do these influence each other? o What time of day are these different proteins active in the body? o Remember this is in fruit flies ^^^ ∙ What happens when environmental cues are taken away from us? ∙ What brain structures are involved in our biological clock? o What does the retinohypothalamic pathway do? o What does the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) do? o What does the pineal gland do? ∙ What are the two different groups of circadian neurons in the SCN? o What do M-Cells do? o What do E-Cells do? ∙ What are some biochemical circadian rhythms? ∙ What is melatonin? o How is it entrained? o What happens if there is disruption in circadian rhythms? o What is shift maladaptive syndrome? ∙ What is jet lag? o How does this effect circadian rhythms? o What happens when we fly east? o What happens when we fly west? ∙ What is seasonal affective disorder? o What neurochemicals are involved in it? o What treatments are there for it?