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USC / Political Science / POLI 201 / What is considered as the key to democracy?

What is considered as the key to democracy?

What is considered as the key to democracy?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Political Science
Course: American National Government
Professor: David darmofal
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final
Description: Chapter 11 exam
Uploaded: 11/01/2016
8 Pages 137 Views 1 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-5}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-1 0}ul.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7 0}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-2}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1 0}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-8 0}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-8}.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-1}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-7 0}.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-8}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-6 0}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-0 0}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-3 0}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-0}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-6 0}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_bt1dxeybs6y-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-4 0}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3 0}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-4 0}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-7 0}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-2}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-6}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-8}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-4}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-5 0}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5 0}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-4}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-1 0}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-0 0}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-8 0}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0 0}ul.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-2 0}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szb3eohnmfe-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_c6102eulqwgs-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-2}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-3 0}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-7}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bqwpxu9vjbaf-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-1}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ifn0e45gly8e-7}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-0}.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_r121wat0qbz-6}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-6 0}.lst-kix_efvescak092o-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-3}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7i2vv5k7jt3d-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_topv06gqo921-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_efvescak092o-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_efvescak092o-5 0}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vbcfxdvjwyjz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_upjuf7gqnrgf-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_r121wat0qbz-6{list-style-type:none}

Chapter 11If you want to learn more check out What happened after the death of trajan during the high empire in 117 ce?

 

Elections and Democracy

  • Frequent elections are key to democracy and in elections, principals (citizens) choose to agents act on their behalf
  • Two problems for principals
  • Adverse selection: the problem of incomplete information of choosing alternative without fully knowing the details of available options
  • Moral hazards: the problem of not knowing all aspects of the actions taken by an agent

 If you want to learn more check out What is a replication bubble and fork?

Institutions of Elections

-       Consist of mix of federal and state laws, court decisions and local administrative practicesIf you want to learn more check out What are indole hallucinogens?

 We also discuss several other topics like How are proteins imported into mitochondria?

Four basic questions of election law:

1.        Electoral composition: Who votes:

2.        Ballot access and form: How do we vote:We also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate abs max?

3.        Electoral districts: Where do we vote:

4.        Criteria for Victory: What does it take to win?We also discuss several other topics like What is the life cycle of the swine?

 

Electoral composition: Who votes?

  • First amendment allowed blacks to vote but local laws restricted voting until 1960s
  •  Most states, women could not vote until 19th amendment was ratified in 1920s
  • 18 year olds could not vote until 26th amendment was ratified in 1971

Notes:

v  Voting is a right, not a compulsory

v  US voting was lower a century ago

v  Voter Registration is key obstacle to voting

  •  Some are not registered to vote
  • Some recently moved registers
  • Young are less likely to vote

 

2008 Demographics

-       Income, education increased

-       Older educated are more likely to vote

 

Exceptions to one person one vote

  1.  Members of the US Senate represent states with each state given the same number (2) of senators
  2. This violation of the one person, one-vote standard authorized by Article V of the constitution
  3. The Electoral College is also an exception

 

Effects of single member districts

  • Single-member districts tend to exaggerate the victory of the majority
  • 2010, Republicans won 53.5% of the national tow-party vote 55.6% of the seats
  • 2008, Obama won 53% of the national vote but 68% of the electoral college
  •  Also shrinks the power of smaller groups
  • Single-member districts also weaken third parties

 

Issue of Redistricting

  • Because of the one-person one-vote standard, legislative distinct are not static
  • Redrawn 10 years and in most states, the power to do this resides with the state legislature
  • Gerrymandering – district boundaries may be manipulated to give one party or another an advantage

 

Gerrymandering

  • Appointment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to a political party
  • Creates less of a bias than in previous decades
  • One reason for this is that voters are already largely segregated into commutes of like-minded votes

 

Racial Gerrymandering

  1. Redistricting can also be done to the advantage/ disadvantage of groups as well as parties
  2. Breaking communities of racial minorities those drawing the maps can dilute their power and make to more difficult to elect minority legislators
  3. This is unconstitutional gerrymandering

 

What it takes to win: Criteria for victory

  •  Most elections require a plurality of votes to win
  • Plurality rule: a type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election, but not majority votes cast
  • Main alternative to plurality rule Proportional Representation bit is not consistent with single member districts

 

The referendum and the Recall – Direct Democracy

  • 24 states for Referenda: A measure proposed/ passed by a legislature that is referred to the electorate for approval
  • 24 states also allow for the initiative-process by which citizens may petition to put a proposal on the ballot for public vote
  • 18 states allow for the recall – the removal of a public official by popular vote

 

How voters decide: whether to vote

  1. Correlated strongly with demographics, electoral chores and context
  2. Older people vote
  3.  Highly educated people vote
  4. People who have not moved

 

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