Module 3 study guide
Module 3 study guide MGMT301
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Staltari on Sunday April 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT301 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Ron Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 452 views. For similar materials see Management in Business, management at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/15
O O O OO O OO O 0 00 Chapter 8 organizing arranged people and resources to work toward a common goal after the planning phase clarifies jobs and working relationships coordinates activities organization structure a system of tasks reporting relationships and communication anages who is to do what who is in charge of whom etc 3 elements divide up work arrange resources coordinate activities organization chart describes the arrangement of work positions within an organization identifies major job titles and shows the hierarchy of authority division of labor people and groups performing different jobs ideally ones for which they are skilled ideally ones for which they are well skilled formal structure the official structure of the organization of work and people how would I fit in aligns positions people and responsibilities in the best way org chart names attached to it staff function reportino any position that supports producing revenue but does not produce revenue themselves ex HR legal safety manager line function reportino direct line of creating revenue ex sell sheets marketing employee manufacturing manager what org charts provide division of work chain of command span of control communication flow staff vs line levels of mgmt restructure not supporting the mission so you change gt think dell structures aren t permanent and can be changes span of control defines how many people report to you and how many levels there will be talltighter and smaller good for career promotion more focused on individual task speed of decision making is slower flat quicker decisions more flexible problem is getting bigger and bigger people aren t connected ex this class informal structure shadow organization network of unofficial relationships among an organization39s members powerful how all the people connect amp we can foster it ex onboarding get new people connected it can kill you if you don t understand it and it can set policies for you social network analysisidentifies the informal structures and their embedded social relationships that are active in an organization III O 00 O I 000 0 000 O 0 000000 who turns to who who communicates with who regularly etc departmentalization the process of grouping together people jobs into work units how bus orqanizes 5 functions functional divisional matrix team and network bean bag example functional structure groups together people with similar skills who perform similar tasks broad logical different groups but straight forward everyone who does the same thing are together and they get better benefits economies of scale broad expertise training career paths work well for small organizations that produce only one or few products and have stable environments functional chimneys or functional silos problem lack of communication and coordination across functions gt chimney and silos are the same thing everything you do is for your function problem make function great instead of the business great competition members compete against each other and focus on functional goals rather than broader organizational objectives ex yahoo people wanting traffic on the homepage and not another page that isn t theirs divisional structure groups together people working on the same product in the same area or with similar customers specific divide according to criteria product structures groups together people and jobs working on a single product or service respond well to changing market demands and customer tastes geographical structures area structures brings together people and jobs performed in the same location or geographical region customer structures groups together people and jobs that serve the same customers or clients big box would be a division w low prices can organize around one customer gt ex PampG w walmart ex customer type ex sheetz vs CVS vs Lowes matrix structure combines functional and divisional approaches to emphasize project or program teams combination of two things combines functions w proiects or proorams boss of each function and boss of each project are equally reported to negative two bosses found in manufacturing service professional fields non profit sector ex manager says I need people who know how to do this send me SCM advantages of the matrix structures performance accountability rests with program product or project managers better communication exists across functions 0000 0 000 O 00 0000000 O 00 teams solve problems at their levels top managers spend more time on strategy cross functional teams brings together members from different functional departments to work on a common task focus on team goals and work closely with others rare think katniss how to get together singular symbol but it s all about teams ex HR amp mgmt put them on one team and make them solve a problem more people better buy in and better quality decisions team structures uses permanent and temporary teams to solve problems complete special projects and accomplish everyday tasks talents match team tasks advantages of team structure team assignments improve communication cooperation and decision making team members get to know each other as persons not just job titles team members boost morale and increase enthusiasm and task involvement network structure uses IT to link central core of full time employees with networks of outside suppliers and service contractors think oprah and harpo studios give everyone a new car gt network promotional small core group of ppl who run your business massive network when they need it then they shrink back ex dreamworks steady supply of outstanding makeup ppl when you need it advantages of network structures lower costs due to fewer full time employees better access to expertise through specialized alliance partners and contractors easy to grow or shrink with market conditions virtual organization uses IT to operate as a shifting network of alliances goal is to eliminate boundaries that separate a firm from its suppliers and customers organizational designthe process of configuring organizations to meet environmental chaHenges no one fits all best design it is a problem solving activity span of control the number of persons directly reporting to a manager tall more levels of mgmt narrower spans of control viewed as less efficient flexible and sensitive flat fewer levels wider spans of control centralization top mgmt keeps the power to make most decisions C I O I O OIIO O IIIO O IIOIIO decentralization top mgmt allows lower levels to help make many informed decisions delegation process of entrusting work to others foundation to decentralization 1 assign responsibility explain tasks and expectations to others 2 grant authority allow others to act as needed to complete tasks 3 create accountability require others to report back on completed task empowerment gives people freedom to do their jobs as they think best unlocks the full power of talent Ch 11 leadership the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks when one individual influences a group of individuals to want to reach a goal leaders are made through experience and training ex video ants band together to take out anteater about the team right experiences training and attitude leadership vs management manager administers system structure maintains relies on control short range View asks how and when maintains status quo does things right execution book help people do their best work supervise and help achieve performance goals coach not order giver theme execution leader innovate focus on people develops inspires trust long range View asks what and why Challenge status quo does right thing strategybuild enthusiasm Theme strategy Vision iron law of responsibility those who use power irresponsibly are likely to lose it power the ability to get someone to do something you want done influence people Toffler s sources of power violence wealth and knowledge managerial power position power personal power gt think mighty macs Position power reward power to offer something of value as means of achieving influence If you do what I ask I ll give you a reward carrots ex pay raises bonuses promotions coercive power achieves influence by punishment stick if you don t do what I ask l ll punish you ex pay penalties bad assignments termination IIIO O IIOIIO OO O IOIOI O legitimate power achieves influence by formal authority the boss because I am the boss you must do as ask ex teacher gives you a homework assignment you don t question it legitimacy is lost when you move outside of course boundaries like asking you to attend a sporting event personal power gt social network scene w the rain and meeting coach franklin expert power achieves influence by special knowledge and skills you should do what I want bc of my expertise of information zuckerberg has this here referent power achieves influence by personal identification you should do what I want in order to maintain a good self defined relationship with me zuckerberg doesn t have this here vision clear sense of the future future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve on the present state of affairs visionary leadership brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there someone has to think of the next thing good leaders turn visions into accomplishments make people s work seem worthy and valuable John welch video GE CEO on vision simblifv amp repeat amp rallv a vision trait gt behavior gt contingency gt transformational trait approach leadership is caught not taught gardners leader traits physical vitality accept responsibility understand others courage decisive assertive intelligence task competence people skills motivational trustworthy confident flexible Iohvsical vitalitv brain power can only go so far if you are physically down it is just as hard to func on behavioral styles approach we all have a natural way to operate in a certain way autocratic leader command and control fashion tasks over people focuses on authority and obedience high concern for task low concern people gt med production environment human relations leader emphasizes people over tasks sensitive interpersonal high people ow task democratic leader encourages participation with and emphasis on task and people most effective shares w followers encourages participation supports teamwork IIOI O IIIO IIIOIO O OOIIIOO GOOD 0 IIIO high task and people laissezfaire leader low on both task and people concerns disengaged impoverished minimum effort to get work done low task people contingency leadership perspective what is successful as a leadership style varies according to the situation and the people involved contingency style situation fred fiedler contingency approach success depends on a match between your leadership sty and situational demands style is rooted in personality least preferred coworker scale LPC leadership style is hard to change says you should know your style and seek out situations that fit it hioh and low control situations task motivated leader moderate control situations relationship motivated leader contingency model step 1 determine leadership style tasklow score or relationshiphigh step 2 match style with situation three contextual variables leader to member relationship good or bad task structure structured or unstructured position power strong or weak ex gringotts bank tellers good gt structured gt strongcan hirefire task ex head of psu student org good gt unstructured gt weak relationship org herseyblanchard situational approach suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles based on contingency and maturity of followers xaxis task readiness gt guidance required yaxis relationship behavior low to high support required in the situation delegatingallowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions low task low relationship style followers able willing confident gt high readiness situation ex seasoned manager participating emphasizing shared ideas on participative decision on task directions low task high relationship style followers able unwilling insecure ex starting role supervision graduate school selling explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way high task high relationship style followers unable willing confidence ex fst assignment smeal major classes IIIO O O O OO 00 DO 0000 telling giving specific task directions and closely supervising work high task low relationship style followers unable unwilling insecure gt low readiness situation ex new recruit intro classes substitutes for leadership factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader charismatic leaders develops special leaderfollower relationship and inspires followers in extraordinary ways ex martin luther king l have a dream transactional leadership directs the efforts of other through tasks rewards and structures what are we doing next transformational leadership inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance use their personalities why we are doing this next qualities vision charisma symbolism empowerment intellectual stimulation integrity bass elements intellectual stimulation idealized influence individualized consideration inspirational motivation video ex facing the giants feel defeated promise to do your very best don t quit he made it to the end zone ex toby and michael talking gt not going to transform emotional intelligence Gl the ability to manage our emotions in leadership and social shua ons understanding self and others self aware mgmt social aware understand others emotions relation mgmt emotional intelligence quotient EQ measure of a person s ability to manage emotions in leadership and social relationships self awareness social awareness self mgmt relationship mgmt IQ T0 technicalevery training does not equal EQ interactive leadership strong on communicating participation and dealing with problems by teamwork associated with female leaders moral leadership has integrity and appears to others as good or right by ethical standards integrity leadership is honest credibility values into action earns trust moral overconfidence overly positive view of one s integrity I m a good person so I can t go wrong on this O OO O OO O IOIOO O O OO O servant leadership serving others and helping them use their talents to help orgs benefit society believe the follower is more important than the leader in leadership empowerment gives people job freedom power to influence affairs in the org Ch 13 motivation accounts for the level direction and persistence of effort expended at work managers who leads through motivation creates conditions that inspire people to work hard results in abilitv develooment and performance results jordan romero video clime 7 peaks by age 13 took six weeks to climb prepared for years needed support both extrinsic and intrinsic Performance Ability x Motivation gt need to develop ability and go to work Ability Ability x Training Experience needs an unfulfilled physiological or psychological desire that make people behave in ways that will satisfy them maslow people are motivated to meet and solve needs lower order needsphysiologicalsafety and social concerns wellbeing focus higherorder needs esteem and self actualization development and growth deficit principle a satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior progression principle try to satisfy lower level needs first and then move step by step up the hierarchy Alderfer ERG theory condensed maslows theory into three disagrees with maslows deficit and progression principles any or all can influence behavior at any time existence needs desires for physiological and material well being lower order relatedness needs desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships connect personalnegative selfish personalpositiveothers growth needs desires for continued psychological growth and development esteem self actualization alderfer s frustration regression principle an already satisfied lower level need can become reactivated when a high level need cannot be satisfied McClelland s three acquired needs to understand motivation need for achievement the desire to do something better to solve problems or to master complex tasks need for powerthe desire to control influence or be responsible for other people gt position of control need for affiliation the desire to establish and maintain good relations with people O O O O OOOOIOOOO OOIIOII OIIO Herzberg and needs video twofactor theory most practical applied satisfier factor found in job content such as a sense of achievement recognition responsibility advancement or personal growth high motivators want to be allowed to do something hygiene factor basic environment found in the job context such as working conditions interpersonal relations organizational policies and salary NOT motivators but lack in these can be demotivating job dissatisfaction gt influenced by hygiene factors working conditions co worker relations policiesrules supervisor quality base wagesalary improving hygiene factors decreases dissatisfaction job satisfaction gt influenced by satisfier factors achievement recognition responsibility work itself advancement personal growth improving the satisfier factors increases job satisfaction job design the allocation of specific work tasks to individuals and groups is a good personjob fit job enrichment increased job content by adding work planning and evaluating duties normally performed by the supervision takes a lot of self management five core job characteristics skill variety task identity task significance autonomy feedback equity theory of motivation think manning and tebow pregnant junior beat the odds input outputs comparisons to referent fairness real of perceived compared to others ex exams other study less and get better scores perceived negative inequity discomfort felt over being harmed by unfair treatment ex feeling underpaid gt motivation to restore the situation work less perceived positive inequity discomfort felt over benefitting from unfair treatment guilt ex feeling overpaid gt work more or take on harder assignments motivation expectancy x instrumentality x valence expectancy person s belief that working hard will result in high task performance can I achieve the desired level of task performance to max make the person feel competent and capable of achieving instrumentality person s belief that various outcomes will occur as a result of task performance successful performance rewards what work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance to max make them confident in understanding which rewards will follow valence the value a person assign to workrelated outcomes how highly do I value work outcomes to max make them understand the value of various possible rewards work effort gt to achieve task performance gt reward zero in any will result in zero motivation O O I O O O 0 O 10 selfefficacy a person s belief that they are capable of performing a task goal motivation more specific the better challenging but not impossible dog that loses weight goals 5 elements clarity gt challenge gt commitment gt feedback gt task complexity specific measurable attainable realistic time bound SMART law of effect people repeat behavior that results in a pleasant outcome and avoid behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome Skinner s operant conditioning control of behavior by manipulating its consequences types of reinforcement pain and pleasure big bang theory with chocolates positive reinforcementstrengthens a behavior by making a seriable consequence contingent on its occurrences ex manager nods to express approval of a useful comment negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence ex manager nags when someone is late doesn t when they re on time punishment discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence ex reprimand employee who causes problems extinction discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence ex withhold praise and rewards shaping creation of new behavior by the positive reinforcement of successive approximations of it always throw praise at employees law of contingent reinforcement deliver the reward only when desired behavior occurs law of immediate reinforcement deliver the reward as soon as possible after the desired behavior occurs the more immediate the better reinforcing value positive reinforcement clearly state desired behavior diverse rewards inform everyone what much be done to get rewards recognize individual differences appropriate punishment tell person what is being done wrong tell person what is being done right make sure the punishment matches the behavior administer the punishment in private Ch 12 perception the process through which people receive and interpret information from the environment way we form opinions benefits or difficulty O 0000 O IIIOIO OIIIO OO 11 berlo SMCR communication approachwhat do I want to say how to organize it source encodes gt message content structure gt channel sight sound touch smell taste gt receiver decodes take it in and immediately filter it on previous knowledge and personal biasexperience noise everything that screws you up distractions perception filtering and distortions stereotype assign attributes commonly associated with a group to an individual reduces the need to deal with individual characteristics oversimplification halo effect uses one attribute to develop and overall impression of a person or situation one impression 1st impression effect ex she s always at work early shes a great performer professors reverse halo assuming people can t get better selective perception focuses attention on things consistent with existing beliefs needs or actions everything goes through a strong filter projection when we assign our personal attributes to other individuals similar to me error assume other people share our needs desires and values can be corrected by selfawareness communication and empathy huge problem of projection between baby boomers and millennials distortions shortcuts video only take in overall not the changing detail attribution process of creating explanations for events fundamental attribution error overestimates internal factors and underestimates external factors as influences on someone s behavior blame others when things go wrong don t take the time to look at what they re actually doing ex why a student isn t doing well in a class they are performing poorly gt it s their fault self serving bias underestimates internal factors and overestimates external factors as influences on someone s behavior I am performing poorly it s not my fault impression managementtries to create desired impressions in the eyes of others personality the profile of characteristics making a person unique from others Myers Briggs dimensions think big bang theory personalities 12 all unique how we approach the world each type is equal each have blind spots big issue different not wrong you use the other dimensions but you have a clear inborn sense extraversion vs introversion whether a person tends toward being outgoing and sociable or shy and quiet where is your energy built ceo s 5050 split between the two sensing vs intuitive S or N whether a person tends to focus on details or on the big picture in dealing with problems sensing facts applied present practical details fst bio pic 2nd iNtuition concepts theory relation hunches pic 1st fill in details I two core functions information gathering and decision making 0 O GO GO thinking vs feeling T or F whether a person tends to rely on logic or emotions in dealing with problems thinking problem 1st people 2nd men feeling people fst problem 2nd women T woman F male feel slightly out of phase to the dominant decision making approach to my gender 2nd core function thinking feeling both logical look different judging vs perceiving J or P whether a person prefers order and control or acts with flexibility and spontaneity J very structured and detailed formal to do list CEO s bc corporations are productivity driven P informal unstructured flexible big five personalities extraversionoutgoing vs reserved agreeablenessgood or bad w others conscientiousnessworks well or poor emotional stabilitysteady or anxious and openness to experienceopen or closed minded locus of control is the extent to which one believes what happens is within one s control externals blaming others and outside forces internals self confident and accept responsibilitymore satisfied less alienated authoritarianism the degree to which a person defers to authority and accepts status differences authoritarians obey and are control oriented machiavellianism degree to which someone uses power manipulatively unattached high mach exploritative and unconcerned about others low mach allow other to exert power over them 13 self monitoring the degree to which someone is able to adjust behavior in response to external factors stress state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands type A personality oriented toward extreme achievement impatience and perfectionism likely to bring stress on themselves constructive stress is a positive influence on effort creativity and diligence in work ex when the pressure is on violin string destructive stress is a negative influence on one s performance breaks down system job burnout physical and mental exhaustion from work stress flameout occurs when we communicate extreme agitation in interpersonal communication or electronic messages workplace rage aggressive behavior toward co workers or the work setting personal wellness pursuit of a personal health promotion program leading a healthy life basically attitudepredisposition to act in a certain way don t always predict behavior cognitive dissonance discomfort felt when attitude and behavior are inconsistent job satisfaction the degree to which an individual feels positive about a job and work expenence aspects tasks quality of supervisors co workers opportunities pay security withdrawal behaviors include absenteeism not showing up for work and turnover quitting one s job strong relationship with job satisfaction organizational citizenship behaviorsthings people do in order to go the extra mile at work strong relationship with job satisfaction employee engagement a strong sense of belonging and connection with one s work and employer shows in high commitmentinvolvement generate more profits strong relationship with job satisfaction only modest connection between job performance amp satisfactiondepends on rewards emotional intelligence Ean ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively emotionsstrong feelings directed toward someone or something short term moods generalized positive negative feelings or states of mind pays to be likeable mood contagion the spillover of one s positive or negative moods onto others 14
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