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RUTGERS / Information technology / IT 103 / social informatics rutgers

social informatics rutgers

social informatics rutgers


School: Rutgers University
Department: Information technology
Course: Information Technology and Informatics
Professor: Stoerger
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: ITI Study Guide Midterm
Description: Covers Lecture Slide Notes from the Semester so far
Uploaded: 11/02/2016
46 Pages 221 Views 0 Unlocks

Information Technology and Informatics Midterm Review Information Technology and Informatics ∙ Overviews the principal theoretical and social themes across the ITI  major ∙ Takes a people-centered, social perspective ∙ Provides opportunities for consideration of elective studies and career  choices Race and gender Security Ethics Web 2.0/3.0 Management of IT organizations People Information Decision-making Usability Information literacy Information fluency Social informatics Social networking Networking Diffusion of innovation Social construction of technology Technological determinism Computer-supported cooperative work Technology Programing Databases Hardware Software Social informatics: a body of research that examines the social aspects of  communication “The interdisciplinary study of the design, uses and consequences of  information technologies that takes into account their interaction with  institutional and cultural contexts.” Social Construction of Technology: A theory describing how an integrated sociotechnical system is brought into existence 1. What is information? ∙ Data is information is knowledge is data ∙ Information is…  Evaluated Validated  Useful 2. What is technology? ∙ 1st use – early 19th century ∙ Extensive use following World War 2 ∙ Knowledge, tools, techniques ∙ Used to transform inputs into outputs ∙ Technology’s Characteristics  Creative process involving human ingenuity  Craftsman, engineers…others using tools, machines and  knowledge to create and control the human-build world  Importance of systems, controls, and information  Practical, useful arts 3. What is informatics? ∙ Impact of technology on people ∙ Develop new uses for technology ∙ Apply IT in other fields ∙ Informatics is the interdisciplinary study of the design, application, use  and the impacts of information technology ∙ Dimensions of Informatics  Technological Factors  Social Factors  Social communication norms  Group communication expectations  Presences or absence of other tech tools  Perceived cost and value of communication IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN HUMAN HISTORY Notable Developments ∙ Domestication of animals ∙ Agriculture ∙ Major religions ∙ Written word ∙ Modern numbering systems Human Social Development ∙ Information Technology o Sophistication of tools for sharing & processing information o Also includes their use THE FIRST & SECOND MACHINE AGEIndustrial Revolution ∙ First Machine Age ∙ Late 18th Century  ∙ Developments in mechanical engineering, chemistry, metallurgy, etc. ∙ Steam engines o Muscle power o Generate massive amounts of useful energy at will o Led to factories, mass production, railways, mass transportation ∙ Progress driven by tech innovation – first time The Second Machine Age ∙ Computers & digital advances ∙ Overcome past limitations ∙ Metal power o Progress & development o Mastering our physical & intellectual environments ∙ New territory ∙ Will the changes associated with the Second Machine Age be as the  First? Laying the Computing Groundwork ∙ Abacus: An early device to record numeric values ∙ Blaise Pascal: Mechanical device to add, subtract, divide & multiply ∙ Joseph Jacquard: Jacquard’s Loom, the punched card ∙ Charles Babbage: Analytical Engine Early History of Computing ∙ Ada Lovelace: First programmer, the loop ∙ Alan Turing: Turing Machine, Artificial Intelligence Testing ∙ Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC I: Early computers launch new era in  mathematics, physics, engineering and economics When Women Were Computers Happenings in 1945 ∙ World War 2 ∙ FDR Dies in office ∙ Truman becomes President ∙ Orwell publishes Animal Farm ∙ 5,000 homes = TV sets ∙ Percy Spencer – microwave can heat food! Prices in 1945 ∙ Average cost of a new house = $4,600∙ Average wages/year = $2,400 ∙ Average rent/month = $60 ∙ Gas/gallon = $0.15 ∙ Average cost of a new car = $1,020 Dr. Vannevar Bush ∙ Born in Massachusetts ∙ Engineering Student – Tufts & MIT o Inventor o Land surveying device ∙ Employment  o GE o Educator  Taught at Clark University, MIT, Tufts, Navy (WWI) ∙ Automate human thinking = focus What Made the Memex and "As We May Think” Such Milestones in the  Development of Modern Computing? ∙ “Collaborative hypertext” ∙ Individual Use o Private files o Digitized library ∙ Prediction o Research at your fingertips o Make comments ∙ The Memex – prototype for the World Wide Web Forward-looking Concepts Predicted by Bush ∙ Capability to interconnect objects one to another ∙ Networked connectivity (as backbone for object interconnection) ∙ Personalized computing ∙ Allowing us to “…grow in the wisdom of race (human experience) INFORMATION SYSTEMS Computing systems are dynamic! Hardware: The physical elements of computing system (printer, circuit  boards, wires, keyboard) Software: The programs that provide the instructions for a computer to  execute Abstraction: A mental model that removes complex details  *Key concept in computing*Internal View (Inside the car parts) vs. Abstract View (from a seat in the car) The Internet and the Web: The Differences Internet: A vast, uncontrolled but standards-compliant network of computers  (and the network itself with routers, hubs, edge switches, LANs, WANs, MANs and so on) that is available almost anywhere in the world. Basically, when  you sign on to the Internet, you become a part of it. WWW (World Wide Web, W3): A collection of online “documents” on Internet  servers worldwide. World Wide Web documents are written in HTML. In  order to use the World Wide Web, you must have a World Wide Web browser. Components of Internet World Wide Web Email Chat Instant Messenger FTP P2P, etc. Web Standards The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Protocols OSI protocol suite is comprised of numerous standard protocols based on the  OSI reference model. These protocols are part of an international program to develop data networking and other standards that allow multi-vendor inter operability Internet Connections∙ Internet Backbone: A set of high-speed networks that carry Internet  traffic, provided by companies such as AT&T, Verizon, British Telecom,  and IBM ∙ Internet service provider (ISP): A company that provides other  companies or individuals with access to the Internet ∙ Various technologies available to connect a home computer to the  Internet o Phone modem converts computer data into an analog audio  signal for transfer over a telephone line, and then a modem at  the destination converts it back again into data o Digital subscriber line (DSL) uses regular copper phone lines  to transfer digital data to and from the phone company’s central  office o Cable modem uses the same line that your cable TV signals  come in on to transfer the data back and forth. ∙ Broadband: A connection in which transfer speeds are faster than 768 kilobits per second o DSL connections and cable modems are broadband connections o The speed for downloads (getting data from the Internet to your home computer) may not be the same as uploads (sending data from your home computer to the Internet) Social Networks & O’Reilly’s 7 Principles of Web 2.0 1. Web as a Platform 2. Data is in the intel inside 3. End of the S/W Release cycle 4. Lightweight Programming models5. S/W above a single device 6. Rich user experience 7. Harnessing collective intelligence 8. Core Competencies of Web 2.0 Unpacking the 7 Principles ∙ Main Principle: Harnessing Collective Intelligence ∙ The Web As Platform o Web – link us together o Anywhere, anytime ∙ Data is the Next Intel Inside o Collective intelligence o Massive amounts of data ∙ End of Software Release Cycle o “Software as a service” o Software as a ‘product’ cannot keep up with changing  information The Remaining Principles ∙ The Lightweight Programming Models o Reach many more people/sources of information o Enable data collection and a more intelligent web ∙ Software Above the Level of a Single Device o More devices – capture information o Better flow of information – higher degree of collective  intelligence ∙ Rich User Experiences o Leads to better web applications – more web usage o Better information flow on the web – more “intelligent” web Key Elements of Web 2.0 No Single Information = Web 2.0 ∙ Web as platform ∙ Social Sites o Active participation o Not passive consumption ∙ Convergence – three forces o New enabling technologies o Enhanced monetization opportunities o New use patterns/user behaviors What are social network sites? ∙ Linking people one to another in some way through available  technologiesWhat functions are provided? ∙ Chat, e-mail, file sharing, others ∙ Some level of security and verification ∙ … and most importantly, the connection! Social Networks ∙ Ambient awareness – the paradox ∙ Open presence ∙ Co-presence, ambient intimacy ∙ Parasocial relationships ∙ Awareness tools & cognitive loadWeb 3.0 & Emergency Technology ∙ Mobile devices & everywhere presence (always on) ∙ Mobile Web – new standards & awareness ∙ Location-based services ∙ Thick client architecture – native apps ∙ More meaning & organization of data ∙ Visual and voice-based services New Use Patters ∙ Desktop vs. mobile o “Four screen user” o User experience across multiple devices ∙ Web application control (ex: home heating/lighting) ∙ Context specific applications ∙ Personalization & preferences Monetization in the Web 3.0 Era ∙ App stores ∙ Frictionless mobile checkout o Tapping o QR codes o Device detection ∙ Simplifying online purchases ∙ Rethinking advertising modelsWhere are we today? ∙ Astonishing progress with digital technologies o Key building blocks in place o Potential to be as transformative as the steam engine ∙ Digital technology transformations  beneficial o More choices o More freedom o Abundance not scarcityComputers ∙ Human  non-human o Cheaper o Faster o More accurate ∙ Follow rules, but… ∙ Pattern recognition abilities o DARPA’s Debacle in the Desert o Self-driving vehicles o “Go park yourself” & robotics valets Thinking Machines ∙ Artificial intelligence o Pattern recognition o Complex communication ∙ Natural language processing ∙ Machine learning Emerging Technology Innovations ∙ Intelligent personal assistants ∙ Language translation ∙ Digital sensors ∙ Supercomputers (think Watson) ∙ Robots ∙ 3D Printers ∙ Wearable devices ∙ Internet of Things (IoT) Machine Eyes & Artificial Intelligence (AI) ∙ Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) o Keeping track of where you are o Easy for humans; difficult for computers ∙ Problems o Sensing a sizable area o Immediately crunching the data ∙ Solution  Kinect o Sensing device o Xbox gaming platform o KinectFusion project Narrative Writing Examples ∙ Historically bad writers ∙ SCIgen program o MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Labo Generates computer science research papers ∙ Forbes  o Narrative Science o Corporate earnings previews ∙ StatsMonkey o Sports reporting o Objective data  compelling narrative 3D Printing Additive Manufacturing Project examples ∙ Art  ∙ Prototypes/models ∙ Buildings ∙ Body parts ∙ And more! Wearable Devices ∙ Quantified Self  o Fitbit o Jawbone ∙ Tracking devices o Children o Adults ∙ Augmented reality o Google Glass o Oculus Rift IoT Predictions  50 billion objects by 2020 Considerations: ∙ Integration ∙ Usability ∙ Sustainability ∙ Privacy and security Tendency  throw tech at all gadgets whether necessary or not Technology…what is it good for? ∙ Robots ∙ Intelligent assistants/supercomputers ∙ 3D printers ∙ Wearable devices ∙ IoTWhat are the… ∙ Strengths ∙ Weaknesses ∙ Opportunities  ∙ Threats Innovation  Accessing Knowledge ∙ Theory of recombinant innovation o More eyeballs looking at problems o Rearranging existing pieces to meet challenges ∙ “The main fuel to speed the world’s progress is our stock of  knowledge, and the brake is our lack of imagination.” – Julian Simon ∙ Progress & the Main Impediment ∙ Accessing world’s knowledge o Libraries o Telephones o Computers Mobile Phones: A Knowledge Game Changer? ∙ Rapid changes ∙ In 2000 o 700M mobile phone subscriptions  o 30% in developing countries ∙ Today: Overwhelming mobile device ownership o South Korea = highest smartphone ownership (88%) o Uganda & Ethiopia = lowest smartphone ownership (4%) o Increased across to Internet in developing countries o Gender gaps in technology use & ownershipMobile Phone Projections ∙ Smartphones o Outsell feature phones o Make up –2/3 sales by 2017 ∙ The shift o Performance improvements o Cost declines (devices & networks) ∙ Infinite computing o Full contributors o Knowledge creation & innovation o Fingertip access Thorny Challenges ∙ Industrial Revolution o Pollution o Exploitation of child labor o Unacceptable  changes ∙ Second Machine Age o Minimize negative effects of progress o Special skills vs. ordinary skills o Right education INFORMATION AND CREATING KNOWLEDGE Trying to Define InformationWHAT IS KNOWLEDGE? HOW DO WE CREATE/OBTAIN IT? “Traditional” Symbols of Knowledge: Library, Books, Newspaper Print Representations of Knowledge ∙ Settling on something; universals ∙ Heavily filtered o Reducing knowledge o Brain and technology capabilities ∙ Linear – the pages lead us down a certain path ∙ Influenced by the constraints of the medium (ex: print) Knowledge and Knowing “Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual  information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating  and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is  applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes  embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organization  routines, processes, practices, and norms.” If we are to move through the taxonomy of data, information,  knowledge, there has to be human intervention: “humans must do virtually  all the work.” Characterizing Knowledge Knowledge as PROCESS: Active state of knowing and/or access ∙ The act of informing ∙ Communication of knowledge ∙ Hearing or seeing the news ∙ Action of telling a fact ∙ What is known is changed Knowledge as THING: To be captured, organized, stored and accessed ∙ Objects, entities ∙ Texts, documents ∙ Tangibles ∙ Physical thing ∙ Can be measured “New” Knowledge ∙ Past: To Know = To Understand ∙ Today: o Not just about computers o Not just in people’s heads o It’s about the network  Value of sharing  Connect  Feed  Make work accessible So…is Google Knowledge? ∙ Are we past the age of memory? ∙ Are we becoming more knowledgeable? Or is all this information  distracting and preventing us from gaining knowledge? ∙ Is Google knowledge? Why or why not? What are the implications? Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Implicit or Tacit Explicit ∙ Subconscious ∙ Difficult to articulate ∙ Experience-based ∙ Shared through conversation ∙ Stories/narratives ∙ Insights & understanding ∙ Judgments ∙ Residing in people ∙ Personal ∙ Formally articulated ∙ Fixed ∙ More easily codified ∙ Documented (written, taped,  recorded, digitized, etc.) ∙ Stored in things (databases,  files, etc.) ∙ Pushed or pulled ∙ Organization How do we come to the point that we can say we “know” something or have  the “knowledge” of something? ∙ Riding a bike ∙ Skiing ∙ Baking a pie∙ Speaking German ∙ Playing the piano Mastering Knowledge ∙ What are we getting good at? How do we get good at it? o Does 10,000 hours = success? o Malcolm Gladwell – Outliers o Jane McGonigal – “virtuoso gamers” ∙ Can we teach Baxter how to make a PBJ? o Computer = not always o Complex Searching o Natural language NAVIGATION & METAPHORS Steps to Navigating Your Physical Environment ∙ Knowing where you are NOW ∙ Knowing your destination ∙ Following the best route ∙ Being able to recognize your destination when you’re there ∙ Finding your way back to the starting point Navigating the physical environmentnavigating the online environment Animal & Human Navigation Systems ∙ Cues  natural environment ∙ Geocentric navigation  o External cues o Maps o Printed materials ∙ Egocentric navigation o Self-awareness o Independent of immediate surroundings o Cognitive maps Navigation Tools In the past… ∙ Maps ∙ Charts ∙ Compasses ∙ Landmarks (Kevin Lynch (1960) – The Image of the City) Today… ∙ We still have the information from maps, etc.∙ But we also have RFID chips and GPS systems Map Makers and Sign Designs: Fundamental to their work is understanding ∙ Information in sequence ∙ Information  absorbed at a glace ∙ Reality vs. simplicity ∙ Redundancy = important ∙ Colors, symbols = meaning ∙ Accurate geographic spatial information What is the relationship between maps and knowledge?  NJ Transit System Expressing Ideas & Concepts ∙ Tacit knowledge o What we know o What we have expressed? Maybe not ∙ Expressions o Sometimes have to make explicit o Images charts, maps o Colors, graphics Online System Designers… ∙ Mapmaker principles  useful ∙ Empathy for the user = effective designs o How people read o How people use information o How people interact with technology o How people build knowledge ∙ Space & orientation metaphors  must make sense Orientational Metaphors  ∙ Moods o Happy is UP o Sad is DOWN ∙ Lawyers  “landmark” cases ∙ “We’re getting there!” ∙ “Don’t go there!” Metaphors and Computing Examples? ∙ Being “lost” in cyberspace ∙ “Breadcrumbs”  ways to find your way back to where you were ∙ Online “landmarks” o Homeo Back o URL o Search What comes to mind when you hear these terms? ∙ Data streams  Delivery of data chunks over time ∙ Data mining  Transform data into insights ∙ The cloud  Data storage location ∙ Data exhaust vs. data oil ∙ What do all of these metaphors about technology have in common? ∙ Why do metaphors matter? ∙ What’s missing? Human Computer Interaction (HCI) This field brings together… ∙ An understanding of technology ∙ Knowledge about design and system navigation ∙ Knowing about human learning system ∙ Language that is meaningful∙ Sensemaking ∙ Using technology for information retrieval and communication INFORMATION GROWTH & MOORE’S LAW Who is Gordon Moore? ∙ Computer pioneer ∙ Best known for his predictions ∙ 1965  article about integrated circuits ∙ Component cramming o Silicon computing chips – very young technology o Amount of integrated circuit computing power o Combining electrical components  single chip ∙ What does Moore’s Law mean? o Observation about IT engineers & scientists  The work  Consistent efforts o The amount of integrated circuit computing power you could buy  for $1 o Moore’s observation  This amount doubled each year  Example: 1962 and 1963 o Prediction  too conservative?? The Importance of Moore’s Law: Integrated circuits will lead to such wonders  as home computers or at least terminals, connected to a central computer… and personal communications equipment.” Small But Substantial Changes ∙ Deposit a penny in a bank account ∙ Double the account balance every day Going back to technology…what makes the pace of improvement work? ∙ Constraints of the digital world o Looser o Eventually will slow down, but… ∙ ‘Brilliant tinkering’ o Find ways around roadblocks o Constant modification ∙ In the Second Machine Age o Doublings = faster o Exponential growth = more salientHOW DO PEOPLE SEARCH FOR INFORMATION?  (Calvin) Mooers’ Law “An information system will tend not be used whenever it is more painful and troublesome for a customer to have information than for him/her not to have  it.” Information  Meaining Information retrieval: the process and study of searching for  documents, for information within documents, and for metadata about  documents ∙ Another way to link people together ∙ A way to deal with information overload Information Retrieval – Past & Present ∙ Dialog o Charge to search o Expert searchers o Search syntax ∙ Google o Free o Anyone can search o Natural language Measures of Information Retrieval Effectiveness Precision Recall ∙ Retrieve only relevant  document(s) ∙ Good for known item searches ∙ Retrieve all relevant  documents ∙ Good for browsing ∙ IBM’s STAIRS (Storage and  Information Retrieval System) ∙ Recall drops as collection  increases Information Interaction – The Classic Model Information Interaction – The Updated Model: Bates’ model of evolving  search or “berrypicking”The Information Floodgate ∙ Publishing barriers removed o Anyone can be a publisher! o No humans required (in some cases) o Amazon recommendations ∙ New information o Didn’t exist o Didn’t have access to  o Now we can’t ignoreInformation Overload “Conditions” ∙ Attention deficit traits o Processing information at high speeds = stress o Personal + social expectations ∙ Continuous partial attention ∙ Email apnea ∙ Lower intelligence ∙ Information addiction ∙ Work-home life blurred Productivity and Information Overload ∙ Email o Two+ hours processing email o 1/3 of messages = unnecessary ∙ Constant interruptions o 24 minutes to return to suspended o Reduces creativity o Online silence  Past experience calculations  Delays decision-making  Reduces efficiency Making Decision Makes Us Miserable ∙ Barry Schwartz’s (2005) Paradox of Choice ∙ Swimming in information, but… o Trust in authority? o We find our own solutions – news, sources, etc. o Rely less on pull, resort to push  Too Many Choices = Unhappy People ∙ Amazon sells 1,161 types of toilet brushes – you just need one ∙ Too many choices = exhausting ∙ Decision fatigue ∙ Take the easy route ∙ Option limits = better decision Are better filters the answer? New Infrastructure for Knowledge: Open Source Culture The Open Source Movement ∙ Information  open and accessible to all ∙ Richard Stallman – free and open source software (FOSS) o Idea: “Information is Free”  Quit his full-time job to create GNU Free ∙ Freedom (not price) ∙ “Free speech,” NOT “free beer”  Spoke out against cloud computing ∙ Linus Torvalds developed Linux o Free operating system o Based on Unix o Compete effectively with the Microsoft Office Suite (Word,  Access, PowerPoint, Excel) o Linus’s Law (as described by Eric Raymond): “With enough  eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.” If technology is making us miserable and hurting productivity…What are  some solutions? Help for Information Overload ∙ Social networks ∙ Software tools ∙ A new mindset o In-box zero o Don’t feel guilty ∙ Company culture change o Establish norms and productive email behavior o Email free mornings/evenings/weekends o Phone calls vs. email UNIT 4 WHAT CAN YOU FIND ON THE INTERNET? Discussion 1. Who are the decision makers? 2. Did they use the available information appropriately? Legally? In the  best interest of HJ? 3. Is everything found in Google authoritative? “The truth”? 4. Identify the issues you see with this case. INFORMATION ORGANIZATION Questions: How can website designers develop pages that people can find?  Information ArchitectureCreate structures User-centered Design Organize & Label Websites Manage information Design Infrastructure to Let Others Manage It Information Architecture: Focus Areas ∙ Target Audience ∙ Technologies related to the website ∙ Data that will be presented through the ∙ Results of early usability tests ∙ Maintaining the vision o Would you assign an architect to a building after it is construced? Information Architecture Activities ∙ Research o Audience o Business ∙ Analyze data o User interviews o Behavior patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, etc. ∙ Developing labeling/navigation/site structures Information Architecture Structure Elements ∙ Organizing ∙ Labeling ∙ Navigating ∙ Searching  ORGANIZATION SYSTEMS Exact Organization Schemes ∙ Alphabetical ∙ Chronological ∙ Geographical Ambiguous Organization Schemes∙ Topic ∙ Task ∙ Audience Organization Strategies ∙ Top-down information architecture o Step 1: Understand business strategies and user needs o Step 2: Define the high level of structure of site o Step 3: Define detailed relationships between content ∙ Bottom-up information architecture o Step 1: Define detailed relationships between content o Step 2: Understand business strategies and user needs o Step 3: Define the high level structure of site Structure Charactersitics ∙ Top-down Approach o Hierarchical model o Taxonomies  Controlled vocabularies  Mutually exclusive (ideally) o Ontologies  Type of logical language that assigns features to objects (X  Y)  Structural framework  Scenario: ∙ Customer A o Travel arrangements o Hotel in the “City” (not the suburbs) ∙ Customer B o Travel arrangements o Hotel in NYC ∙ What makes the terms associated with these two  searches the same? ∙ Bottom-up Approach o Database model o Metadata  More information/details  Information retrieval  How do we decide what to include as metadata?  Metadata in a tweet ∙ Unique numerical ID ∙ ID for replies, favorites, tweets ∙ Timestamp ∙ Location stamp∙ Language ∙ Data account created ∙ URL of author (for website) ∙ # of followers ∙ Other tech specifications  Credit Card Metadata ∙ Study: o Date of transaction o Amount charged o Name of store  Impications of Metadata ∙ Volume of information ∙ Big data & companies ∙ NSA & security o Currently: metadata collection o New bill: limit NSA bulk collection of metadata ∙ ACLU o Personal information  metadata o Content = metadata SOCIAL CLASSIFICATION Folksonomies ∙ Bottom up (ex: Flikr) ∙ Found in social software as tags ∙ No controlled vocabulary ∙ Affects findability; different people assign different tags ∙ Allows for serendipity ∙ Facilitates collaboration/interaction ∙ Questions to consider o What are the advantages to employing a taxonomy created by  the folks? o What are the drawback to employing a taxonomy created by the  folks? o In what ways can tags alter the perception of a text image, other  content? Well designed Taxonomies vs. Social Classification: Having it all? ∙ Foundation = standards of Semantic Web ∙ Infrastructure = traditional modes of classification ∙ Fast, innovative layer = emerging modes of classification INTERACTION WITH INFORMATION: DOCUMENTSWhat is a document? ∙ Intention: Intended to be treated as evidence ∙ Process: Processed or made into a document ∙ Perception: perceived as a document ∙ Indexing: Organized within a collection of evidence Changing Genres ∙ Genres  how a document is conveyed o Same form, function, purpose ∙ Supports: o Findability o Recognition o Navigation INFORMATION CHALLENGES Words…what are they good for? ∙ Words o Labels o Links o Keywords ∙ Find & evaluate products ∙ But words can be messy The Future of Information Interaction ∙ Deep Learning (AI) o Speech recognition o Image search o Web rankings o Advertising systems ∙ Andrew Ng’s prediction o Speech o Images ∙ Watson (AI) & Language Ambiguities o Jeopardy clue:  Sink it and you’ve scratched. What is the question? The People Problem ∙ People  highly subjective o Information fast food o Satisficing ∙ Silicon Sycophant Study o Computer flattery  positive people responseo People  polite to computers ∙ Attractive things work better (Norman) ∙ The power of gossip – going viral RESEARCH AN AUDIENCE: PUSH, PULL & SPAM 3 TV Networks + AM Radio  Audience Pushing Information ∙ Push = information comes o Wanted: Job Ads o Unwanted: Spam advertising ∙ Push technology and RSS o “Really Simple Syndication” or RSS Feeds ∙ RSS Feeds o Subscirbe to specialized information o Examples: news feeds, weather, research, etc. ∙ Opt in to a Push  we don’t have to remember to Pull ∙ Dark Side of the Push ∙ Information Pushers o People o Organizations (ex: corporate culture) o Geography o Media o It’s all about balance! Pulling information ∙ Pull = we seek out information ∙ Example = Wikipedia search on spam What is it about a website’s push and pull strategies that would… ∙ Entice you to buy? ∙ Annoy you so much that you wouldn’t even if it were a product you  wanted or needed? Blurring Information Boundaries: Intertwingularity Ubiquitous Computing & Online Interactions ∙ Pervasive ∙ Mobile ∙ Embedded ∙ Invisible ∙ AmbientTracking Data & Objects through Time & Space: Spimes ∙ Blurring boundaries ∙ Metadata ∙ Sustainable design model ∙ Implications? What happens when we become the “target”?...or our devices track more  than we think? Emerging Interaction Environments: Blurring Physical and Digital Worlds ∙ Interwingularity, technological convergence, ubiquitous computing,  spimes ∙ Issues o Mobile computing  Imperfect conditions o Location  Physical vs. symbolic   Absolute vs. relative Unit 5 IT DESIGN & USER EXPERIENCE Humans, Computers, and Interaction ∙ Humans o Interact with computer systems o Direct & indirect use ∙ Computers o Ubiquitous o Embedded computer systems o Interface ∙ Interface o Interaction o Bridge between users & systems Importance of Design ∙ Back in the day…command-line interfaces o Steep learning curve o Specialist users ∙ Benefits o Tangible benefits -- $$$ o Business benefits ∙ Bad Design  stress & unhappinessWhat is good user design? ∙ GOAL: Usability o Used by specific users o Achieve specific goals ∙ IMPORTANT o Effectiveness o Efficiency o Satisfaction o Context Problems with “Bad” Designs ∙ User frustration, dissatisfaction ∙ Financial costs o Productivity o Efficiency o Money ∙ Safety issues o Task not supported o Misinformation ∙ Small “irritations” Taking the Users Needs into Account in the Product Lifecycle Design Life Cycles ∙ Classic life cycle o Too simplistic o Linear ∙ Iterative design o Users o Tests & evaluations ∙ Star life cycle o Evaluation o Start anywhere in the process  Involving the Users in Design Who are they? Usable vs. useful Challenge: Different views  one design User involvement ∙ Early in the process: requirement specifications ∙ During prototyping ∙ Before delivery/launch ∙ During training/immediately after lunch Design Takes Work Elements of the Honeycomb ∙ Useful: Are we really helping users? We can’t just create things to be  self-serving ∙ Usability: Should be easy to use ∙ Desirable: It should look good ∙ Findable: When I’m navigating your website, can I find what I’m looking for? ∙ Accessible: Accessibility across devices and different people should be  able to access it ∙ Credible: position in the results list ∙ Valuable: We have to make money somehowWhat does the honeycomb do? ∙ Moves the conversation beyond usability ∙ Supports a modular approach to design ∙ Transforms our viewpoint ∙ Helps us explore options ∙ NOTE: Important to consider the interaction of the pieces too! ∙ They key: Interaction with the “right” information o Find it o Use it Designing a Search Experience & Finding Information Remember…when you design for the web You are not the user ∙ Focus groups ∙ Observation The experience is the brand ∙ It isn’t just about the looks ∙ Findability EMOTION & ATTRACTIVE DESIGN Design Matters ∙ Preferred design? o Occasion o Context  o Mood Affect, Behavior & Design ∙ Affect (always passing judgment) o Solve problems o Perform tasks (easier, difficult, cognitive tasks) o Independent of thought ∙ Stressful tasks o Good human-centered design o Minimize distractions, bottlenecks, irritations, etc. o Design should not get in the way Attractive Things Work Better o Attractive  overlook design faults o But, ultimately… o Easy to use o Affordable o Functional o Provides enjoyment & pleasure  o Design in Harmony DESIGING CONNECTIONS & THE NETWORK Our Connections o Information o People o Things, objects o Connections  meaning Our Networks Network Components o Nodes o Links o Activity o Betweenness o Closeness It’s A Small World o Small worlds phenomenon o 6 degrees of separation o 19 clicks away from finding any document o But does it work? o Barabasi – It’s not as easy as it sounds Metcalfe’s Law The utility of a network equals the square of the number of users o Characterizes network effects o Internet o Social media o The web o Example: The telephone o One phone = useless o Value increases as phone network increases o Think about Facebook vs. Google+… PERSONALIZATION & FILTER BUBBLES Website Design, Pushing & Personalization o “No more searching. Information comes to you.” o Successful examples of personalization o Amazon, Facebook, Mapmyrun, Pandora, Spotify, etc. o More data in  better system servicePersonalization “Problems” o Ambiguity of language o Implied effort – it takes time o Who you’re buying for – weird reccomendations? o Timeliness o Privacy Personal Information & Facebook Facebook  collects a lot of data Did you know  o Complex dossiers – 2B+ members o Like a post, tag a photo, update information in profile, post comment  about a politician, change relationship status  o Pages you visit on the web – including those that have Facebook  sharing buttons o Use apps on your phone – Whats up, Instagram o Buys data – mortgages, car ownership, shopping habits, etc. Facebook Data & Personal Information: Some Numbers  ∙ 4.7M liked a FB page about health conditions/treatments  ∙ 4.8M used FB to say where they planned to go on a certain day  ∙ 20.4M included their birth date  ∙ 900K discussed finances on their wall  ∙ 2.6M discussed their recreational use of alcohol on their wall  ∙ 4.6M discussed their love life on their wall  Personalization & The Filter Bubble ∙ Website algorithm ∙ Selectively guesses what information a user would like to see ∙ Based on information about the user Popping the Filter Bubble ∙ Recommendation engine o Exposes opposing views o Discover commonalities – discuss differences ∙ Study o Controversial topic abortion o Twitter users in Chile - #prochoice #prolife o Words clouds provided o Connection to similar cloudsOther Algorithm Advances ∙ Automated “warm personal regards” ∙ Mobile phones o Walking, driving, taking public transportation o Track movements – stop & starts o City planners  understand navigation of residents ∙ News  creating a buzz around current events ∙ Predictions  epidemics & protests INFORMATION, AUTHORITY & CREDENTIALS Determining Authority ∙ Accuracy o Author vs. webmaster o Contact information? ∙ Authority o Credentials o Domain ∙ Objectivity o Adjectively o Bias ∙ Currency ∙ Coverage And Once Something Has Been Found ∙ Disinformation: Deliberate attempt to mislead or deceive, resulting in  inaccurate information o Example: AIDS  Soviets  US Army biological warfare experiment  Articles  newspapers in other countries ∙ Newspapers = unbiased sources ∙ Plausible denial ∙ Misinformation: An honest mistake o Example: Google’s wrong information about MOCA misleads  museum-goers ∙ Result: presence of inaccurate information Sources Should Be Checked and Analyzed… ∙ Good vs. bad intentions o Mislead o Spread false information ∙ Fast checking & the race to be first“EXPERTS” IN A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT The Body of Knowledge ∙ Knowledge vs. beliefs vs. truths ∙ The Internet o Everyone is a curator o Everything is linked ∙ Knowledge  individual heads to the networking of the group ∙ Experts and credentials  important Cognitive Authority Theory Patrick Wilson (1983) argues people construct knowledge in 2 different ways ∙ First-hand experience o What they learn first-hand based o Interpretation/understanding  the world ∙ Second-hand experience o Depend on others for ideas as well as for information o Outside the range of direct experience ∙ But is hearsay or second-hand knowledge reliable? Establishing Authority of Sources ∙ Characteristics of Wilson’s cognitive theory o Trustworthy – confident that true o Reliable  o Scholarly academic, professional o Official o Authoritative o Credible – believable Credibility is Powerful ∙ Change user attitudes o Comfortable interaction with site o Embrace site’s point of view ∙ Change user behaviors o Register personal information o Complete ecommerce transactions o Return visit to site o One factor can damage credibility! Credibility & Expertise ∙ Expertise was… o Topic-based o Valuable because of the certainty of its conclusions o Often opaque o One-way ∙ Expertso Were a special class o Gatekeepers, trusted information, peer review User-generated Content & Credibility ∙ Users  consume AND produce content ∙ On the rise ∙ Dynamic, collaborative environment ∙ Wisdom of crowds ∙ Questions o Who is the authority? o Who says so? o What evidence is there that this information is true? ∙ No reliable source cues ∙ Anonymous o Author identification o Contributor expertise ∙ Quality of content AND… ∙ Trustworthiness & expertise ∙ Comparable quality, but lots of unknowns Encyclopedias & Credibility: Then and Now ∙ Comprehensive written compilations ∙ Contain information on all branches of knowledge/particular branch of  knowledge o Ex: Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine and Nursing ∙ Readability and targeted education-level of readers ∙ Growing influence of wiki-based approaches such as Wikipedia Perceptions of Wikipedia (Flanagin & Metzger) ∙ Perceptions of credibility of Wikipedia ∙ Survey & quasi-experiment Key takeway: ∙ Content without context ∙ Equally credible With the rise of user-created content…are we developing new forms of  credentials? ∙ More people can participate ∙ Social & authoritative connections  more complex ∙ Authority – messier ∙ Open models o Work  public o Who gets the credit? o How do you judge authority?What counts in the online network? ∙ Quality of participation o Authorities  Not a special class  Not credentialed  Not producing a special class of works o Authority of the work  continuously negotiated The Tech “Advantage” ∙ Experienced & Credentialed people ∙ Easy to find both INFORMATICS & THEORETICAL CONCEPTS Talkin’ about a Revolution ∙ Technology + evolution = progress o Enormous tech change o No models or guides ∙ Michael Rothschild  four revolutions in IT o Tally sticks o Invention of writing o Invention of moveable type o Electronic communications 3 Theories & Perspectives on Technology William Gibson: “…the street find its own uses for things.” Bijker – Technology and Social Structures ∙ Understanding the place of technology in our lives and in our society ∙ Three technological advances o The safety bicycle – social challenges o Bakelite plastic – the “lone” geniuso Fluorescent bulbs – politics and power ∙ Technology and society are human constructs Bijker – Innovation Process Pitfalls ∙ Failures ∙ Technological creativity ∙ Power ∙ Linear development How does Bijker propose we study technology? ∙ Change/continuity o Not always a linear path ∙ Symmetry o “Working” vs. “not working” ∙ Actor/structure o Tech constrained by social structures o Social structures constrain what we can innovate ∙ Seamless web o Economic, political, social spheres of influence Thinking about SCOT ∙ Who is your market? o Who is using your technology? o What are they using it for? ∙ Which solution is “best”? Society decides o Markets o Participation o Social Media Example: The Betamax ∙ “Lost” out to VHS∙ Higher quality/image fidelity ∙ Turned into Betacam SP, DigiBeta, and HDCAM ∙ New life  rewrote the solution ∙ Home = cheap solution ∙ Broadcast studios = higher quality ∙ And the moral of the Betamax story is: just because you lose out in one market does not mean the end of your technology o Reframe the problem o Present a new solution Example: the “murder” of the Electric car ∙ The setting (location, time, date) o California, 1997-early 2000s) ∙ The characters o Car companies, government, oil companies, consumers ∙ The story o Electric cars  California o Big car manufactures  a few 1,000 available via lease o Cars reclaimed by end of 2004 o People liked the car, but the problem:  Car companies wanted them back   Destroyed  Ads  unattractive o “Solutions”  Push SUVs  Alternatives ∙ Hydrogen fuel cells ∙ Hybrids o Today, electric cars steal the show Key SCOT Takeaways ∙ People have the power ∙ Technology  created within society ∙ 3 technologies and their frameworks ∙ Important SCOT Keywords o Relevant Social Group o Interpretive Flexibility: Closure/Stabilization o Technological Frame o Power Technological Determinism ∙ Technology o Has characteristics o Outside influence o Impacts social lifeo “Using” IT vs. “used by” IT ∙ An optimistic theory o Negative outcomes  new/better technology ∙ Disempowering o We cannot stop the change! Older Technologies and Technological Determinism ∙ Technologies o Progress o Changed society ∙ Socrates o Reading and writing o Trusting characters not memories ∙ Gutenberg – the printing press ∙ Newer technologies o Telephone o Radio ∙ Benefits – not visible at the time Two Distinctions ∙ Strong (or hard) – A particular technology is… o Sole cause OR o At least a necessary condition o Extreme stance ∙ Weak (or soft) – the presence of a particular tech… o Enabling or facilitating factor o Change  individual, not societal level o May or may not be adopted o More widely accepted Machines Change Us Example: Nicholas Carr’s article ∙ Noticeable changes? o Attention span o Reading vs. power browsing o Illusion of freedom ∙ What do we sacrifice for “the perfect recall of silicon memory”? ∙ The more we use technology, the more we need it? Reading, Writing, Technology & Our Brains ∙ Reading – not instinctive ∙ Nietzsche’s typewriter o Writing changes o Tighter, telegraphic o Our brains are not fixed∙ “…our writing equipment takes part in the forming of our thoughts.” Taylor and the Industrial Revolution ∙ Midvale Steel ∙ Industrial “choreography” ∙ One best method ∙ Automatons, productivity & measurement ∙ Technology  changing behaviors ∙ “In the past the man has been first…in the future the system must be  first.” The Clock and Its Influence ∙ Scientific mind/man ∙ Obeying the clock o Eat o Work o Sleep, etc. ∙ Our senses  ignored The Internet & Its Influence on Traditional Media ∙ Text crawls ∙ Pop-up ads ∙ Shorter articles/summaries ∙ Browsable content  What is Social Informatics? ∙ Not new – research span 25+ years ∙ A body of research that examines the social aspects of computerization ∙ “The interdisciplinary study of the design, uses and consequenes of  information technologies that takes into account their interaction with  institutional and cultural contexts.” ∙ Research Examples o New technologies in the workplace  Use  Electronic journals E-mail, Lotus Notes, etc. o Social context  Diffusion & adoption of the technology  Past experience Inability to change  Incentive systems ∙ Productivity Paradox o Productivity  IT investments  No cause and effect o The paradox  Systems development  failures  System design  facilitate people’s work = NO!  Underestimation of skill ∙ System Designers & a Socio-technical Orientation o Use workplace ethnography to understand user needs and  attitudes toward ICTs o Use rapid prototyping and then get feedback o Involve users on design teams o Testing with focus groups o What are some technologies that failed because of social factors? ∙ Socio-technical Information System Elements o People o Hardware o Software o Techniques and Processes o Support resources o Information structures o KEY: Technology is socially shaped ∙ Why Does it Matter? o Develop reliable knowledge about IT and social change based on  systematic empirical research  o Inform public policy debates, design, use, configuration,  education and training  o Intelligently address misplaced hopes about IT  o Understand social relations. ex: trust, power, transformation,  etc.  o Adds value – performance / outcomes of work place11/26/16 Social Media Opportunities Challenges ∙ Group-based data ∙ Updates and transparency ∙ Sharing media content ∙ Connect with others ∙ Support brand communities ∙ Physical Life  Virtual Life ∙ Accuracy of information ∙ Negative content ∙ Copyright ∙ Many applications ∙ Here today, gone tomorrow ∙ Consistent messages

What Made the Memex and "As We May Think” Such Milestones in the Development of Modern Computing?

What is informatics?

What is information?

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Have a team that focuses SOLELY on social media Is social media a fad or will the revolution be tweeted? Social Media Activism – Skepticism ∙ Gladwell’s response: concerns about Slacktivism; it’s not just about  social media ∙ Shirky’s response: not a replacement for real-world action Using Social Media for Change: Examples ∙ Brian Williams o He lied about being in the war ∙ Epipen o They increased the price of the product greatly o People felt like they couldn’t afford it o Turned to social media to get the price dropped: it dropped a  little but still high Bonnie Nardi: People, Connections & Communication Computer mediated communication Importance of Interaction ∙ Ethnographic study ∙ Socio-affective elements are needed ∙ Communication  open for interaction and sustain a relationship over  time ∙ Comprised of 3 elements o Affinity o Commitment o AttentionAffinity ∙ Maintaining contact with others ∙ Importance of the body ∙ Informal conversation
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