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psy 360 unlv

psy 360 unlv

Description

School: University of Nevada - Las Vegas
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: Introduction to Criminology
Professor: Terance miethe
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: criminology, introduction to criminology, Criminal Justice, intro to criminology, and Criminal Justice/Criminology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam Study Guide #4 (Ch. 13-17)
Description: These notes cover chapters 13-17 of the textbook, Criminology (Author: T.D. Miethe & Publisher: CJ Research).
Uploaded: 11/02/2016
27 Pages 120 Views 2 Unlocks
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•What are the symptoms of psychosis?




•What are the two main types of mental disorders?




•What do psychological theories place most of their focus on?



Exam #4 Study Guide Chapter 13: Psychological Theories •What do psychological theories place most of their focus on? Study Soup the etiology of crime and the stability and change of criminal propensities over the individual's life course •What are the two main types of mental disorders? psychosis .neurosis •What is If you want to learn more check out final exam schedule ucr
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psychosis? • a severe break with reality and may exhibit dangerous behavior •What are the symptoms of psychosis? •delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, being in catatonic state, and engaging in grossly disorganized behavior •How long are psychotic episodes? they can be brief or long •What is the behavior of most people who suffer with psychosis? most psychotics are non-violent •What percentage of homicide offenders in the U.S. are considered psychotic? only about 1% of all homicide offenders in the U.S. are considered psychotic •Why do people with psychosis placed under greater supervision? •because they are fairly easy to identify •Among serial killers psychosis is rare •Neurosis is less serious than psychosis What are the symptoms of neurosis? •Includes persons with compulsive and obsessive behaviors, anxiety disorders, and substance-abuse disorders. 1 of 26 •What percentage of the inmate population has neurosis? •4-6% •What are the different types of psychological theories? •(1) Psychoanalytic Theory •(1.1) Who created psychoanalytic theory? •Sigmund Freud (1.2) What are the three different components of human personality according to psychoanalytic theory? •id, ego, and superego •What is the id? unconscious reservoir of irrational, anti-social, and instinctual impulses •What is the ego? •attempts to mediate between the id and superego •aka the great compromises or reality principle •What is the superego? the conscious and unconscious elements involving the forces of self-criticism and moral/ethical prohibitions (1.3) According to psychoanalytic theory why do we have criminal behavior? • criminal behavior is a result of conflict between the id, ego, and superego (1.4) According to psychoanalytic theory what are the primary causes of crime? •negative child hood experiences (i.e. poor parental relations and/or childhood trauma), •What are some examples of childhood trauma? 2 of 26 sexual assaults on child, parental abuse, incest, and exposure of the child to sexual activity abnormal maturation and fixation at a stage of emotional development, repressed sexuality or guilt •(1.5) According to psychoanalytic theory what are ways we can understand and control deviant behavior? •dream therapy and exercises in "free association" .(2) Learning Theories (2.1) What are the three types of learning theories? •(1) Classical Conditioning •What is Classical Conditioning? Sad Sour .focuses on how a particular response can be conditioned when it is paired with an otherwise neutral stimulus •What are some examples of Classical Conditioning? •Pavlov's dog experiment, dogs were conditioned to salivate whenever they heard a bell a drug addicts seeing drugs makes them crave them more. •How does a response to a neutral stimulus occur? ·any neutral stimulus may ultimately elicit a conditioned physiological response as long as it has been consistently paired with another stimulus that previously triggered that same response (2) Operant Conditioning •Who created Operant Conditioning? •B.F. Skinner •What is Operant Conditioning? 3 of 26 organisms learn to act upon their environment by associating rewards and punishments with their own behavior •According to Operant Conditioning what causes persistent criminal behavior of chronic juveniles and adult offenders? caused by the rewards and reinforcements they get from their deviant behavior •(3) Social Learning •Who created Social Learning? •Albert Bandura •What is social learning? .all human behavior may be reinforced not only through actual rewards and punishments, but also vicariously through the observation of other people's behavior and its consequences for them •Social learning= operant conditioning + cognitive psychology •Social Learning emphasizes behavior modeling. What constitutes as behavioral modeling? familial influences subcultural experiences from living in particular socio-economic environments symbolic models like the mass media that serve as sources for imitation and vicarious learning What are Bandura's basic ideas about social learning and social cognition when it comes to understanding criminal behavior? •(1) humans have the capacity to exercise control over their thought processes, motivations, affect, and their own actions to produce certain 4 of 26 •(2) humans observe aggressive behavior throughout the life cycle in various forms •(3) children acquire knowledge about the "rules of conduct" •What are the "rules of conduct"? uct"? observing the consequences of aggression to others (4) whether or not aggressive behaviors are acted out depends on the anticipated rewards and punishments for various action plans •(5) children develop a more elaborate sense of the rules of aggressive conduct prescribed by society and tend to incorporate theses rules as guides for their own behavior •Bandura used people's life experiences and the concept of a cognitive "road map" to show how they influence? •(1) how to attack or counteract and its form Study Soul (2) which person or group is the appropriate target (3) what actions by the provocateur justify or actually require aggressive retaliation •(4) what situations or contexts are the ones in which aggression is either appropriate or inappropriate •(3) Criminogenic Traits and Other Risk Factors •This theory follows the methods of positivist science •This theory uses comparative research across different groups (3.1) What are the strongest psychological correlations to criminal behavior? •impulsivity high sensation seeking •high psychotics 5 of 26 ·learning disabilities attention deficiency and hyperactivity (ADH) ·low empathy .negative affectivity ·low delayed gratification •(4) The Criminal Personality •(4.1) What is a criminal psychopath? people who are viewed as aggressive, dangerous, and anti-social individuals who act in a callous manner and exhibit several basic personality characteristics •The existence of a "criminal personality" has been advanced by who? Stanton Samenow and Samuel Yochelson •What did Samenow and Yochelson's advancement of the "criminal personality" suggest? that this criminal personality is primarily inherited and consists of individuals who are aggressive, "blood thirsty", angry, thrill-seekers that don't trust anyone .(4.2) Does the "criminal personality" exist? •There is no evidence that a criminal personality exists •Why are psychological theories popular theories of crime causation? .focuses on the etiology of crime and the use of these theories has lead to the development of a wide list of "risk factors" for criminal behavior •most useful as explanations of the behavior of deeply disturbed, impulsive, and destructive people •Which type of psychological theory is especially relevant to the study of criminality? social learning •What are the major limitations of psychological theories? 6 of 26 •(1) these theories as a group are unable to explain or account for the epidemiology of crime (2) psychological tests that identify particular personality traits that are presumab ly risk factors for criminal behavior are often not very predictive of one's future cri minal behavior. •What are the different types of pathways to adult criminality? persisters and desisters •Theories of impulse control explain the "age-crime curve”. •What is the "age-crime curve”? people growing out of crime .Are most juveniles desisters or persisters? •most juveniles are desisters •What percentage of juveniles become persisters? •about 5% •What are the characteristics of adult persisters? •early stages of developmental disabilities •early delinquency, start crime early •nutrition and prenatal laking Chapter 14: Sociological Theories (Social Structural Theories) •What do sociological theories focus on? .focus on "kinds of conditions" that enable and constrain criminal motivations •sociological theories have been developed to explain both the etiology and epidemiology of crime •sociological theories answer the questions like? "why are some geographical areas more crime prone than others?" "what are the characteristics of these "hot spots" for crime?” 7 of 26 •"why are street crimes (i.e. murder, assaults, robbery, thefts) predominantly a young male problem?" •“how do socio-economic changes affect national and regional crime rates?" "what are the risk factors and social processes involved in the onset and persistence of criminal behavior?" •What does macro level of sociological theories focus on? "explaining crime rates across geographical units (i.e countries, states, cities, neighborhoods) •What does macro level of sociological theories emphasize? •emphasizes how social structural conditions in the wider society to determine various types of human behavior •What are some examples of macro level of sociological theories? •Social Structural Theories (i.e. Social Disorganization Theory, Anomie Theory, and Differential Opportunity Theory), Conflict Theories (i.e. Instrumental/Structural Marxism, Radical Feminism, Power-Control Theories) What does micro level of sociological theories emphasize? •emphasizes how an individual's criminal behavior is produced by the social psychological interactions with other people and the social processes that both enable and constrain criminal motivation •What are some examples of micro level theories? social process theories social learning approaches •control theories interactionist/labeling theories •The final type of sociological theories focuses on the criminal act as the unit of analysis What is the crime event perspective, and what is its' three conditions? 8 of 26 •criminal acts require convergence of three necessary conditions in time and space •(1) a motivated offender •(2) a suitable target or victim (3) a facilitating context for this act to occur •Crime event perspective is also known a "criminal opportunity" theories What are examples of "criminal opportunity" theories? •symbolic interactionist theories of deviant acts •routine activity/lifestyles theories of criminal victimization Social Structural Theories are based on the assumption that structural conditions in a society enable and constrain human behavior. Some Social Structural Theories assume that the fundamental cause of crime is cultural conflict Some Social Structural Theories assume that we all share the same values but resort to criminal behavior because we are blocked from achieving this shared goal of material success through legitimate means. What are the best examples of social structural theories that attribute crime to cultural conflict or distinct values among different social groups? •(1) Shaw and Mckay's social disorganization theory and the concentric zone theory of city structure (2) Miller's theory about the "focal concerns" of lower class boys •(3) Wolfgang and Ferracuti's "subculture of violence" theory What are the best examples of social structural theories that assume value consensus (that people share cultural values)? (1) Merton's anomie theory •(2) Cloward and Ohllin's differential opportunity theory •What are the different type of social structural theories? •(1) Social Disorganization Theory 9 of 26 (1.1) What are the three social forces that creates high levels of crime in certain geographical areas? •(1) high population mobility/turnover (2) low socio-economic opportunities .(3) racial/ethnic diversity •(1.2) What is the solution for crime according to Social Disorganization Theory? we increase the collective efficacy of these disadvantaged neighborhoods by community Outreach activities, job fairs, improved educational services, and enhance the feelings of community pride and social integration within these neighborhoods •(2) Chicago Ecological School (2.1) Who created the Concentric Zone Hypothesis? •Park and Burgess, primary leaders of the Chicago Ecological School •Concentric Zone Hypothesis is also known as zonal hypothesis (2.2) What is Concentric Zone Hypothesis? a theory of city development that explains the ecological structure of cities and the particular social forces and mechanisms that lead t o higher rates of crime in particular locations within cities .(2.3) What are the concentric zones from the inside out? •(1) Central Business District (CBD) •What is the Central Business District (CBD)? •the center of the city •this is where all major businesses (banks, stores) were initially located •(2) Zone in transition (ZIT) •What is the Zone In Transition (ZIT)? •the area surrounding the CBD 10 of 26 often contains an industrial/factory district •the general area is best represented by decaying buildings and other physical structures that are on the verge on demolition or implosion •the slum area of the city with many poor people •Why is this? •(1) the rent is cheap (2) they minimize their travel time to work in the CBD and industrial area by living close to it is a natural area for crime and other types of deviance •Why is this? •(1) it's so close to the CBD where all expensive goods, financial business, and rich people are working • (2) the ZIT is where most socially disadvantaged individuals live and where police only loosely patrol the outside boundaries of these areas (3) the ZIT is characterized by social disorganization, the type of social conditions that are often thought to be associated with crime •(3) Multiple unit dwellings (MUD) •What is multiple unit dwellings (MUD)? •an area of multiple unit dwelling and large apartment complexes it is also known as "workingmen's homes" •(4) Single unit dwellings (SUD) •What is single unit dwellings (SUD)? 11 of 26 an area of single unit dwellings and middle class single homes •It is also known as “residential zone” (5) “Commuter Zone" (CZ) •It is also known as “estate lot housing” What are the several crime patterns identified by the early Chicago sociologists and ecologists between the 1920s and 1940s, that are still relevant? •(1) crime was highest in the ZIT and decreased as you moved outward to the other zones of the city •(2) the distribution of crime across areas of the city are similar to the distribution of other social problems in these geographical areas •(3) particular areas of cities (ZIT areas) remain "hot spots" for crime regardless of the think/racial profile of the residents (3) Walter Miller's "Focal Concerns" •What is the primary focus of this theory? ·lower class boys According to Walter Miller's "Focal Concerns” lower class boys are more prone to crime than middle class boys. •Why is this? .because they place more importance on particular values that are associated with crime •What are the "focal concerns" or values of lower class boys according to this theory? •(1) toughness-having physical toughness, a willingness to fight; being soft or sentimental is devalued •(2) trouble-high value is placed on getting in and staying out of trouble 12 of 26 (3) smartness- being streetwise and able to outfox or outcome someone else •(4) excitement- the search for fun and excitement to liven up an otherwise boring life .(5) fate- a belief that life is guided by things outside of your control, so these teenagers and young adults take more chances to get lucky or “hit the jackpot" •(6) autonomy- high value is placed on personal freedom, being "your own man" and not being under the control •What is the problem with Walter Miller's "Focal Concerns"? •regardless of class and gender many teens exhibit these characteristics •(4) The Subculture of Violence Theory and the "Code of the Street" •What is a "subculture of violence"? .interpersonal violence is an expression of subcultural norms and values .it was extended to account for the high rates of violence in southern U.S. states • In some cultures, violence is an expected, tolerated, and even demand means of settling disputes. How does this type of mindset develop? .this is learned at the how by how parents discipline their kids and how they are childhood play is responded to •Who created "subculture of violence" and when? •initially developed by Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracutti in the late 1960's •What the "code of the street"? an unwritten and informal set of rules that have emerged in inner city communities as a response to various social problems •Who created the term "code of the street"? 13 of 26 •Elijah Anderson in the late 90's •How is the "code of the street" developed? violence is learned and reinforced in particular geographical areas and within particular cultural traditions •Inner-city kids learn to “code switch” and act like “decent folks”. •violence is both enabled and constrained by the normative rules of engagement and disengagement that underlie this "code of the street" •What type of street verbalizations reflect the "code of the street"? "watch your back" •"protect yourself" "don't punk out" •“respect yourself •"if someone disses you, you gotta straighten them out" •Why is violence relatively common in inner-city areas? •they are staging areas for demonstrating, maintaining, and/or enhancing one's reputation as someone who can handle themselves and shouldn't be messed with •(5) Merton's Anomie/Strain Theory •Who created the Anomie/Strain theory? Robert Merton •What is Merton's Anomie/Strain Theory? attributes high crime rates directly to the social structure and culture of this society •Why does society have strain? American society places enormous cultural value on the achievement of material success, but the legitimate social structural or institutional means of achieving this goal are limited 14 of 26 .We have a strain between cultural goals and structural means of achieving them (especially in the lower class) •What is "anomie"? contradiction between the cultural message and the social structure of society •Who experiences "anomie"? .may be experienced by any social group •What are the various modes of adaption to this anomic friction between the cultural goals and the institutionalizes means of achieving them? (1) conformity- the acceptance of both the goals and means •(2) innovation- the acceptance of the goals of success but rejection of the legitimate means of achieving it •(3) ritualism- the rejection of both goals and means •(4) retreatism- the rejection of both goals and means (5) rebellion-replacing the goals and means with new ones •(6) Cloward and Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory •What is Cloward and Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory? •differential opportunity for both legitimate and illegitimate pathways to living the American Dream •Individuals may response to strain and achieve some material success through their differential access to illegitimate opportunities Gangs often provide these illegitimate opportunities •What are the different type of gangs? : (1) criminal gangs •What are the characteristics of criminal gangs? provide its recruits some monetary gain through organized criminal activities 15 of 26 gang members have a particular skill that provides a limited opportunity for them to achieve some material success (2) conflict gangs •What are the characteristics of conflict gangs? provide only a very small number of juveniles and young adults access to material success by being the "tough guy" or "enforcer” only a small number of enforcers are needed for any criminal organization •the illegal opportunities for success through this means are extremely limited •(3) retreatist gangs •What are the characteristics of retreatist gangs? .involve juvenile and young adults who are called "double losers." •criminal organizations provide no illegitimate opportunities for them and they are blocked from achieving success goals through legitimate avenues they retreat, by getting high and drunk because of this failure on both domains Because this theory presumes that most people want to live American dream of economic success what does it suggest? .it suggests that the simpler pathway to a crime-free society is by providing greater legitimate opportunity for everyone Chapter 15: Sociological Theories (Social Process Theories) •What do social process theories explore? •how people learn criminal behavior, neutralize the stigma of engaging in criminal behavior, and rationalize their conduct. 16 of 26 •What are the major risk factors according to social process theories? •(1) peer group pressure •(2) family problems •(3) poor school performance •(4) stigmatization processes •(5) the learning of pro/anti crime values •What is the assumption made by social process theories? •they assume that all individuals (regardless of class) have the potential to become criminals What are the different types of social process theories? •(1) Differential Association Theory (1.1) Who created Differential Association Theory? •Edwin Sutherland •(1.2) Which theory is the most well-known theory in criminology? •Differential Association Theory (1.3) What are the 9 principles/propositions of Differential Association Theory? (1) criminal behavior is learned (2) criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others in a process of communication ne principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups •(4) when criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes techniques of committing the crime, which can be simple or complicated •the specific directions the motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes 17 of 26 •(5) the specific direction of the motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal code as favorable or unfavorable (6) a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violations of the law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law •(7) differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity •(8) the process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the same mechanism that are involved in any other learning (9) while criminal behavior is an expression of personal needs and values, it's not explained by those general needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values •(1.4) It challenged the prevailing thought that? (1) crime was an inherited trait that led to a genetic predisposition toward criminality (2) crime was a lower class phenomena •(3) poverty and greed caused crime •(1.5) According to this theory, what is the fundamental cause of criminal behavior? cultural conflict •(1.6) Why does this theory remain dominant today? •(1) it's a general theory of crime that is applicable to all from of criminal behavior (2) it spans multiple units of analysis •(3) the theory is appealing to most social scientists because of its emphasis on learning rather than innate predisposition as casual forces for human behavior Study sou 11 •(2) Sykes and Matza's Techniques of Neutralization 18 of 26 •(2.1) What is the assumption that this theory makes? criminals and non-criminals share the same views about the wrongfulness of various conduct •If this is the case then why do people commit crimes? •criminals have developed various cognitive techniques to nullify or neutralize these crime inhibiting feelings a person can selectively weaken the controls exerted by conventional values about appropriate conduct, providing the individual offender with the freedom to drift back and forth from conventional to deviant behavior •(2.2) What are primary techniques of neutralization? •(1) denial of responsibility •(2) denial of injury (3) denial of victim •(4) condemn the condemners •(5) appeal to a higher authority •(3) Hirsch's Social Bonds Theory •According to Social Bonds Theory, what is the importance of social bonds in relation to the rate of criminal acts? people with strong bonds to social groups like family, peers, schools, and religious organizations are less likely to commit criminal acts •Human nature is inherently evil •What are the major bonds that control human behavior? •(1) attachment-family and friends (2) commitment-stakes in conformity (3) involvement-conventional activities •(4) beliefs-obeying the rules of society 19 of 26 •Social Bonds Theory is applied to explain what? •(1) the onset ad episodic nature of various types of criminal behavior (2) the age-crime curve •(3) other group differences in crime rates •(4) Gottfredson and Hirscho's “General Theory of Crime" •According to the general theory of crime, what are the two types of control systems that regulate human behavior? •(1) “social controls”- that are primarily external to the individual •How does “social controls” relate to one's “self-control? •external social controls affect early socialization processes that lead to one's self control •(2) “self-control”- that is internal to the individual .variation in self-control accounts for differences in criminal propensity •(5) Labeling Theory •When was labeling theory established? •in the late 1950s and early 1960s • It's based on the idea that formal social control efforts may actually do more harm than good, how? •(1) stigmatizing/labeling the individual as no good and/or worthless •(2) closing off their opportunities for reintegration back into mainstream society •(3) ultimately leading the label person to develop a deviant self concept and behaving in ways that are consistent with this label •Who created the theory of secondary deviance? •Edwin Lemert SOU St •What is the difference between “primary" and "secondary" deviance? 20 of 26 •"primary deviance"- the onset of criminal behavior •"secondary deviance”- subsequent criminal acts that occur after formal social control efforts for the primary deviance •How do you break the deviance cycle? •enhance decriminalization deinstitutionalization, and diversion of "criminal cases" away from formal handling within the criminal justice system •According to this theory, why are there high recidivism rates? •(1) crime-producing effects of stigmatizing these individuals •(2) closing off alternative for them (3) increasing their likelihood of developing a deviant self-image A popular antiestablishment approach for understanding crime that emerged from the tumultuous era of the early 1960s. •How strong is the evidence to support this theory? •the evidence to support this theory is fairly weak Chapter 16: Sociological Theories (Social Conflict Theories) •What are some of the issues that social conflict theories explore? •(1) the relationship between free enterprise and crime (2) the role of government in the social production of crime •(3) how the mass media is used to spread a particular image of the "social reality" of crime and criminals •(4) the social, political, and economic forces that underlie differential treatment in the criminal justice system based on race, gender, and class (5) how both capitalism and patriarchy work to subjugate women and increase female criminality •What is “The Social Reality of Crime" (1970)? •a book written by Richard Quinney 21 of 26 •What are the main points that summarize Quinney's “The Social Reality of Crime” (1970)? •(1) Definition of Crime •What is the concept definition of crime? •crime is a definition of human conduct that's created by authorized agents in a politically organized society •How is criminality created via labeling theory? •criminality is created by labeling one's behavior as criminal by others Cris Study •crime is socially constructed •This is also known as a "reactionist" definition of crime. le (2) Formulation of Criminal Definitions What is the concept of formulation of criminal definitions? criminal definitions describe behavior that conflicts with the interests of those who have power to shape public policy .basically those who hold the power make the rules to benefit them •(3) Application of Criminal Definitions •What is the concept of application of criminal definitions? •the more legal agents evaluate behavior and persons as worthy of criminal labels, the greater the probability that such labels will be applied •(4) Development of Behavior Patterns in Relation to Criminal Definitions •How does the development behavior patterns relate to criminal definitions? people who aren't members of the power structure are more likely to have a criminal label attached to them once someone is labeled "criminal" then they will internalize and act like a "criminal" •(5) Construction of Criminal Conception 22 of 26 •What is the concept of construction of criminal conception? • conceptions of crime are constructed and distributed via communication • According to "The Social Reality of Crime" why do we have crime? crime is seen as an inevitable consequence of the unequal distribution of power and wealth in class-based societies •Why does capitalism create more crime that other economic systems? alienation of workers •the insatiable greed and profit motivation (as a result of capitalism) •the greater means used to control the "dangerous" classes and preserve/protect the intersects of the ruling class • How is newsworthiness determined? •Newsworthiness Novelty + Seriousness How does the media distort crime? emphasize violent crime (serial killers) •distorts prevalence (arrest->pros-> convict) •distort Race/Ethnicity of Offenders • Moral Panics" (gang crime, child abductions) •What is the difference between Instrumental and Structural Marxist? Sou •Instrumental Marxist- the criminal law and criminal justice system are instruments for the suppression/control of the poor and for maintains the existing social and economic order Structural Marxist • laws and the justice system are not the exclusive domain for the rich to be used to suppress the poor • criminal law and the justice system are designed to maintain capitalism • sanction both the owner and worker class when their behavior threatens the stability of this economic structure 23 of 26 •Social Conflict Theories also contain various types of feminist theories. •What do feminist theories say in terms of criminal behavior? • links capitalism, patriarchy, and female criminality • limited access for women to commit street-level activities • increases the risks of criminal victimization for many disadvantaged girls and women male violence against women is rooted in gender inequality Chapter 17: Sociological Theories (Crime Events and Criminal Opportunity) •What are the origins of the "crime event" perspective? its origins are in the works of symbolic interactions and social ecologists •What is the "criminal opportunity theories"? •emphasize how the opportunity for criminal acts is generated by the particular characteristics of the persons, places, and situations that underlie these contexts for crime •Daily routine activities and personal lifestyles affect criminal opportunities, because they affect the convergence in time and space of what three elements of predatory offense? •(1) exposure to motivated offenders •(1.1) How are people exposed to motivated offenders? .both your physical proximity to criminals and your daily routine activities that place you in close contact with them •(1.2) What are some examples being exposed to motivated offenders? • living in a high-crime neighborhood • having roommates/spouses/neighbors that are criminals • having a dangerous job (police, prison guard, cab driver, nighttime convince store worker) • hanging out in particular areas at night 24 of 26 • (2) suitable targets (2.1) How are suitable target determined? a subjective judgement based on an offender's personal preferences and the type of criminal activity (2.2) What are the characteristics of a suitable target? • being more attractive (to victimization) •valuable visible accessible portable .hiving high liquidity • (3) absence of guardianship •(3.1) What is guardianship? • the ability of persons or objects to prevent the occurrence of crime (3.2) What is the difference between social and physical guardianship? • social guardianship-involves having other people around you may prevent criminal acts against you by their mere presence or by providing assistance to you in warding off an attack • physical guardianship-various types of target-hardening activities, other physical impediments to household theft (street lights and guarded entrances), and participation in collective activities (neighborhood watch • (4) facilitating places .(4.1) What are facilitating places? al Shady soup are particular types of physical settings and mix-environments that facilitate the occurrence of criminal acts . (5) facilitating hardware •(5.1) What is facilitating hardware? 25 of 26 .involves visible, accessible, and available objects that are used in the threat or commission of many violent acts •Why are guns especially considered facilitating hardware? •they don't require extensive training before use are widely available don't require physical strength or even direct contact with the victim have higher risks of lethality than most other weapons 26 of 26 Exam #4 Study Guide Chapter 13: Psychological Theories •What do psychological theories place most of their focus on? Study Soup the etiology of crime and the stability and change of criminal propensities over the individual's life course •What are the two main types of mental disorders? psychosis .neurosis •What is psychosis? • a severe break with reality and may exhibit dangerous behavior •What are the symptoms of psychosis? •delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, being in catatonic state, and engaging in grossly disorganized behavior •How long are psychotic episodes? they can be brief or long •What is the behavior of most people who suffer with psychosis? most psychotics are non-violent •What percentage of homicide offenders in the U.S. are considered psychotic? only about 1% of all homicide offenders in the U.S. are considered psychotic •Why do people with psychosis placed under greater supervision? •because they are fairly easy to identify •Among serial killers psychosis is rare •Neurosis is less serious than psychosis What are the symptoms of neurosis? •Includes persons with compulsive and obsessive behaviors, anxiety disorders, and substance-abuse disorders. 1 of 26

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