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UMD / Political Science / GVPT 170 / How could you make a successful negotiation when you reach a disagreem

How could you make a successful negotiation when you reach a disagreem

How could you make a successful negotiation when you reach a disagreem

Description

School: University of Maryland - College Park
Department: Political Science
Course: Intro to American Government
Professor: Professor rousse
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: American Government, Government, Congress, United States Congress, and Chapter6
Cost: 25
Name: Ch. 6 U.S. Congress
Description: Notes on Logic of American Politics Chapter 6 US Congress
Uploaded: 11/02/2016
10 Pages 46 Views 1 Unlocks
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Ch. 6 U.S. Congress


How could you make a successful negotiation when you reach a disagreement?



Wednesday,  October 26, 2016 9:56 AM

Evaluating Congress

• Exploiting negative national in "running against Washington" • Perception paradox: local vs national media coverage

Local: more coverage of local representative and events that benefit  

locally, stories straight from members, columns by members, no  opposing view

National: doesn't mention average member, focus on institution  

(frequently negative), statements from both parties

Press bias towards simple narrative: Congress much more complex w/  

multiplicity of actors and complexity of legislative procedures and  interests


How do the president influence members of congress?



• Press bias towards conflict/negativity  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of sacroiliac joint (sj)?

Leads toward distortion by overemphasizing break downs of  

cooperation and neglecting importance of successful negotiations  Focus on winners and losers instead of process (substance of  

legislations and complexity of operations)

• House and senate- center stage in legislative process ○ President also plays a role  

• Congressional parties are highly polarized  

○ Difficult to achieve collective action  

• Electoral politics influences everything members of congress do

Rules and organizational structure affect distribution of power and  


What are the 2 houses that make up the bicameral legislature?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the complex conjugate equation?
If you want to learn more check out What is the economical background of the genre?

policymaking

• Easier to stop action than make it happen  

Congress in the Constitution

• Structure based on great compromise

Bicameral system w/ 2 distinct features of each house designed to resolve  

conflict  

○ H of R, seats allocated by pop and members elected by citizenry  ○ Senate, 2 members from each state chosen by state legislature

• Design resolved conflict of big vs small states

○ Also of appropriate degree of popular influence on gov't  

2 ear term for house was comromise btwn annual elections advocated  •

 

○ H of R, seats allocated by pop and members elected by citizenry  ○ Senate, 2 members from each state chosen by state legislature • Design resolved conflict of big vs small states If you want to learn more check out Who is leo szilard?

○ Also of appropriate degree of popular influence on gov't  

2 year term for house was compromise btwn annual elections advocated  

by many delegates and 3 year term proposed by James Madison ○ Short tenure to keep chamber closer to people

Powers of Congress

Constitution established a truly national gov't by giving congress broad  

power over crucial economic matters

○ Article 1 sec 8: enumerated powers of congress

○ Necessary and proper clause

Revenue bills originate in house, senate has unrestricted right to  

amend

• Congress given significant authority in foreign affairs as well ○ Only congress can declare war and raise/finance an army

"advise and consent"- ratifies treaties and confirms presidential  

appointments

Framers believed the more aristocratic and insulated of the 2 houses  

would keep a steadier eye on nation's long term interests

Electoral System

• 2 choices made by framers effects the electoral politics of congress: ○ Congress and prez elected separately  

▪ Unlike parliamentary style Don't forget about the age old question of What are the point and nonpoint sources of water pollution?

○ Members of congress are elected by plurality vote not majority • Number of H of R members is capped at 435 We also discuss several other topics like Are mirror images of molecules super imposable?

○ The allocation is shifted based on population changes

Redistricting the Law

• Wesberry v Sanders- districts must have equal populations

Thornburg v Gingles- district lines may not dilute minority representation,  

neither may they be drawn w/ race as predominant consideration ○ => issue of majority-minority districts

• Gerrymandering- draw district lines to benefit your party ○ Constitutionality of this has been challenged in court w/out success

Davis v Bandemer- court held that a gerrymander would be  

unconstitutional if unfair to one of the parties

○ No districting scheme has run afoul of this vague standard

         ○ Constitutionality of this has been challenged in court w/out success

Davis v Bandemer- court held that a gerrymander would be  

unconstitutional if unfair to one of the parties

○ No districting scheme has run afoul of this vague standard

Unequal Representation in the Senate

50 constituencies--entire states--may not change boundaries w/ each  

census, though they vary greatly in size of pop

Senators w/ less people to represent have same power as senators w/  

more people to represent

▪ Unfair representation

□ Can matter politically

Electoral Politics

Republicans control the senate although they  received overall smaller % of popular votes

• Modern congress is organized to serve the goals of the members ○ Primary goal: keep their jobs

▪ A career in congress depends of reelection  

Electoral imperatives shape all important aspects of  

congressional life

Candidate-Centered v Party-Centered Elections• Used to be party-centered

Candidates loyal to party platform, so voters voted across the board  

for party

Changes in electoral/party laws allowed for ticket-splitting (voting for  

candidates of different parties for different offices)

○ Introduction of primary elections; secret ballots

Post-WWII era of democratic majorities in Congress coincided w/  

emergence of candidate-centered pattern of electoral politics  Republican takeover of Congress on 1994 coincided w/ some resurgence  

of party-centered electoral politics

○ Neither was accidental  

• Party-Centered Electoral Politics ○ Ultimately parties in charge

○ Nominations: controlled by parties

Political organization: parties monopolized political organization  

through system of precinct and block captains held together w/  rewards of patronage  

Mass media: parties controlled flow of info to voter through  ○

○ Nominations: controlled by parties

Political organization: parties monopolized political organization  

through system of precinct and block captains held together w/  rewards of patronage  

Mass media: parties controlled flow of info to voter through  

newspapers w/ clear party affiliation

Results: parties chose candidates, determined issues, disseminated  

info, organized/ran campaign  

Candidate: had to bend to will of party, served long apprenticeship,  

worked way up in party

• Candidate-Centered Politics

Encouragement of electoral politics in which candidates operated  

largely as independent political entrepreneurs

○ Ultimately candidates in charge

Nominations: party lost power to control who is nominated to  

primary election voters

Political organization: monopoly of political organization has been  

destroyed by rise of countless special interest groups and mass  media

Mass media: party lost control of media to competition. Voters get  

most of info from electronic mass media in sound bites on network  news and in commercials during campaign

candidate: must have abilities and demeanor of game-show host,  

must be wealthy or on very good terms w/ those who are

Roots of this shift are tech change and reform policies,  

especially the progressive movement of the early 20th century  

• Return to kind of party-centered politics in 1990's  

Encouragement of electoral politics where candidates ran as a party  

team, emphasized national issues and common program of action ▪ Signed contract w/ America to solve issues together ▪ Winning strategy  

The Advantages of Incumbency

Decline in party loyalty among voters offered incumbents chance to win  

votes that would once go to other party's candidate

Sought to increase this advantage by voting to give themselves more  

resources for servicing their districts

○ More money for staff, travel, local offices, communications, etc Important question: if incumbency is so advantageous and if members of  

congress win reelection so consistently, WHY DO ELECTORAL  WORRIES DO SO MUCH TO SHAPE CONGRESSIONAL LIFE?

• Answer: incumbency isn't automatic, must work for it

○ More money for staff, travel, local offices, communications, etc Important question: if incumbency is so advantageous and if members of  

congress win reelection so consistently, WHY DO ELECTORAL  WORRIES DO SO MUCH TO SHAPE CONGRESSIONAL LIFE?

• Answer: incumbency isn't automatic, must work for it • Senators are 3x more likely to lose their seats than house incumbents  • Why?

States more populous and diverse than congressional districts  

(especially w/ gerrymandering) and senators can't develop personal  ties to constituents like house members can

○ Senators more than districts have balanced party competition

Senate races attract more experienced, politically talented, well

financed challenges

States have media markets that make it easier for challengers to send  

message out  

○ Senators more readily associated w/ controversial and divisive issues  

Representation vs Responsibility  

• Different electoral processes produce different forms of representation:

Party-centered: legislators repesent citizens by carrying out policies  

promised by party and are held responsible for party's performance  in governing  

▪ Work to ensure success of the party in gov't

Candidate-centered: more incentive to be individually responsive  

rather than collectively responsible  

Electoral logic induces members to promote narrowly targeted  

programs or tax breaks for constituents w/out worrying about  impacts of such measures on spending/revenues  

Legislative Organization

• Solved some basic problems

○ How to acquire info

▪ Complexity of US increased info demands on congress □ Solution: division of labor

◆ Rise to committee and subcommittees

Provide chamber w/ expertise, members of  committee must become experts in that field ◆

Congress compensates members who master an  area w/ enhanced influence

Potential problems: specialists can dominate  

policymaking in their domains, can shut out  broader viewpoints

       

Congress compensates members who master an  area w/ enhanced influence

Potential problems: specialists can dominate  

policymaking in their domains, can shut out  broader viewpoints

○ How to coordinate action

Coordination becomes more difficult the greater the group's  

workload and the more elaborate its division of labor Congress has used party leaders as traffic cops to manage the  

business of legislating and control over agenda  

□ Agenda control =very powerful

Members thus sacrifice a measure of their autonomy for gains  

in efficiency that come from delegating agenda control to party  leaders

○ How to resolve conflicts

▪ Legislation is not passed until majorities in both houses agree

Agreeing requires successful politicking: getting people who  

are pursuing divergent ends to take a common course of action Many of Congress's rules, customs, and procedures aim at  

resolving/deflecting conflicts so it can get on w/ legislating □ Address all remarks to the speaker (less confrontation)

Delegate task of building legislative coalitions, resolves  

conflicts in advance  

◆ High conformity costs for the individual member

How to get members to work for common and personal goals  

(collective action problems)

Members may undermine reputation of party/Congress when  

work for personal goals

Tension between individual and collective political welfare  

(prisoners dillema) pervades congressional life

▪ Committee system gives incentive to work for collective goal

Members who contribute to congress's performance by  

becoming well informed about issues in committee's  jurisdiction are rewarded w/ influence  

• In trying to meet many challenges, Congress has w/ high transaction costs ○ Price of doing politics

• Congress has organized itself to reduce costs

○ While keeping time pressures in mind

• One way is to use fixed rules to automate decisions:

○ Seniority rule

○ Follow recedent

    

• Congress has organized itself to reduce costs

○ While keeping time pressures in mind

• One way is to use fixed rules to automate decisions:  ○ Seniority rule

○ Follow precedent

• Also: house is larger and this has more organizational problems

Must solve coordination problems by following stricter rules of  

procedure and tolerate greater control by leaders

2 most crucial institutional structures created to exercise Congress's  

constitutional powers are the parties and the committee system

W/out them it would be difficult to achieve effective collective  

action  

Party Organization

Majority party in House is led by speaker of the house whose chief  

assistants are the majority leader and majority whip

• Minority has a minority leader and party whips to lead them

Party members give House party leaders resources for inducing members  

to cooperate when they are tempted to go their own way as free riders Resources take the form of favors they may grant or withhold (committee  

assignments, direction of the legislative agenda, help w/ election  campaign, fundraising)

• House party leaders are members' agents, not their bosses ○ Members choose style of leadership they will best serve goals ○ Party leaders are elected at beginning of every Congress

Leaders used to be the experts on procedure and coalition builders,  

today leadership is more policy and ideologically focused ▪ Norm for speakers of both parties

• For minority party in house, legislative leadership is less important b/c the  party's legislative role is modest

• When party balance is very close, minority leaders can sometimes  influence legislation by forming alliances w/ more moderate members of  the majority party

○ Rare in recent congress

• Usually, minority leaders have 2 options:

○ Cooperate w/ majority, exert some influence, and get little credit ○ Oppose and attack position party for future elections

• Senators have never delegated as much authority to leaders as have  representatives

• Norm of equality led them to retain wider freedoms of individual actions • Under constitution, the VP is presiding officer of Senate

           ○ Oppose and attack position party for future elections

• Senators have never delegated as much authority to leaders as have  representatives

• Norm of equality led them to retain wider freedoms of individual actions • Under constitution, the VP is presiding officer of Senate

○ Designed, president pro tempore presides when the VP is absent ○ Neither office is a real leadership role in the Senate

• Not until 19th century that Senators delegated some authority to party  leaders

• Power and influence exerted by Senate more collegial and formal than in  House

• Minority has greater influence in Senate b/c so much of it's business is  conducted under unanimous consent agreements

Committee System: Evolution

• First Congress delegated authority to committees sparingly  

• Instead, first Congresses turned into Committee of the Whole  

○ Entire body would act as a committee w/ more flexible rules

○ They would frame a piece of legislation, elect a temporary  

committee to draft the bill, then debate and amend the bill line by  line

• After that they would rise as the House and vote on the bill

• Cumbersome process

• For this reason, by 1809 the House created 10 permanent committees to  which it delegated work

• Transaction costs were further reduced by having committees appointed  bu the Speaker rather than elected

• As speaker emerged as leader of majority party, appointments to  committees became partisan w/ the best positions becoming rewarded for  party loyalty and bargaining chips for those pursuing the office of the  Speaker

• Senate was slower to set up permanent committees, eventually turned to  standing committees

• In senate, Seniority rule became criterion for selecting committee chairs ○ Office was rewarded to the majority party member w/ longest tenure  in committee

○ This avoided intra-party squabbles and kept power out of hands of  party leaders

Committee System: Types of Committees

• Standing committees of the House and Senate--those that exist from one  --'

○ This avoided intra-party squabbles and kept power out of hands of  party leaders

Committee System: Types of Committees

• Standing committees of the House and Senate--those that exist from one  Congress to the next unless disbanded--embody Congress's division of  legislative labor

○ They have fixed jurisdictions and stable memberships, which  facilitates specialization

• A member in good standing cannot be forced off a standing committee  unless his or her party suffers large electoral losses; party ratio determines  the partisan makeup of committees

• Members however, can leave committees--generally for a position on a  better committee

• Least desirable committee assignment: any dealing w/ internal  administration of Congress--particularly members' ethics

• Most committees are divided into subcommittees

○ Many have fixed jurisdictions and stable memberships as well ○ Encourage specialization and reward members who develop  expertise w/ special influence over their own small pieces of  legislative turf

○ Have staff of experts to help them

• Congress also forms special, select, joint, ad hoc, and conference  committees

• In theory most special and select committees are appointed to deal w/ a  specific problem and then disappear

• Joint committees are permanent committees composed of members from  both chambers; the leadership positions rotate between the chambers at the  beginning of each congress  

○ Ex. Library of Congress, printing

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