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CSU - PSY 320 - PSY 320 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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CSU - PSY 320 - PSY 320 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Exam 3 Study Guide    Chapter 8    Schizophrenia  - Psychosis - inability to make distinction between what is real and what is unreal  ● Break from reality - perceiving things in their environment or within them that is  no there  - Schizophrenia - severe form of psychosis; alternate between:  ● Clear thinking and communication, accurate perceptions of reality, proper  functioning  ● Active phase of illness - disorganized thinking and speech, lose touch with reality,  difficulty caring for self  - People are not “schizophrenics”; they are someone who has schizophrenia  - Schizophrenia Spectrum - five domains of symptoms that define psychotic disorders  ● Positive symptoms - presence of additional behaviors, thoughts, or perceptions  that wouldn’t normally be there  ○ Delusions - believe something to be true but it is highly unlikely or  impossible  ■ Types of delusions  ● Bizarre - highly unlikely and extremely odd (FBI replaced  loved ones with clones)  ● Non-bizarre - theoretically possible but not likely (FBI is  secretly videotaping you)  ● Persecutory  - everyone is out to get you 
● Erotomanic - someone loves you even though you may not 
have ever met them  ● Many more  ○ Hallucinations - unreal perceptual experiences  ■ Auditory and tactile (hearing)  ○ Formal thought disorder - change topics with little coherent transition  ■ Loose associations or derailment  ○ Disorganized or catatonic behavior - unpredictable and apparently  untriggered agitation  ■ Catatonia - being unresponsive to the environment (adding  behavior of unresponsiveness)  ● Negative symptoms - absence of behaviors, thoughts, or perceptions that  normally would be there  ○ Restricted affect - severe reduction/absence of emotional expression 
○ Avolition - Inability to initiate or persist at goal-directed activities (distinct 
from depression because this only happens during active phase of illness)  ■ Cognitive deficits - basic cognitive processes are impaired or  slowed down 
background image ● Number of symptoms 
● Severity of symptoms 
● Duration of symptoms 
- Number of symptoms and the disorder differs across individuals  - Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia  ● 2 or more positive or negative symptoms 
● Decreased functioning 
● Persists at least 6 months 
● Schizoaffective disorder and depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic 
features have been ruled out  ● Not caused by a substance or medical condition 
● Account for history on autism spectrum 
● Has to be hallucinations and/or delusions 
- Active/Acute phase - presence of symptoms, consistently and acutely for at least one 
● Prodromal symptoms - before the acute phase 
● Residual symptoms - after the acute phase 
- Onset  ● Typically onset occurs between 16-25 years of age  ○ More males 
○ Women have another increase of onset in 40s 
- Prognosis  ● Rehospitalization rates between 50-80% 
● Stabilize after first episode within 5-10 years 
● Gender and age factors 
○ Women develop the disorder later  ■ Typically milder symptoms, more favorable outcome  ○ Functioning and symptoms improve with age    Other Psychotic Disorders  - Schizoaffective disorder  ● Mix of schizophrenia and a mood disorder  - Schizophreniform disorder  ● Meets criteria A, D, and E of schizophrenia 
● Symptoms only last 1 to 6 months 
- Brief psychotic disorder  ● Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior  between 1 day and 1 month     Delusional disorder  - Delusions lasting at least 1 month regarding situations that occur in real life  Schizotypal disorder 
background image - Lifelong pattern of significant oddities to self-concept, ways of relating to others, and 
thinking and behavior 
Schizoaffective disorder  - Not cyclical like schizophrenia - uninterrupted phase  - Depression  - Delusions or hallucinations for 2 or more weeks  Biological theories of psychotic disorders  - Genetic transmission  ● Family studies - biological relative with schizophrenia increases an individual’s  risk  ● Adoption studies - parent with schizophrenia creates a stressful environment for  children  ● Twin studies - Genetic predisposition plus biological and environmental factors  influence manifestation of the disorder  - Birth complications/ prenatal exposure to viruses affect brain development  - Neurotransmitter theories - Excess levels of dopamine contribute to schizophrenia  ● Phenothiazines or neuroleptics - block the reuptake of dopamine, reducing the  functioning level in the brain  ● Drugs that increase the functional level of dopamine increase the incidence of the  positive symptoms (not good symptoms)  ● Neuroimaging studies - Presence of more receptors for dopamine and higher  levels of dopamine  - Mesolimbic pathway - Subcortical-processing of salience and reward  - Antipsychotics bind to a specific type of dopamine receptor common in the mesolimbic 
system, blocking the action of dopamine 
- Unusually low dopamine activity in the prefrontal area of the brain  - Serotonin neurons regulate dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic system  Anatomical abnormalities  - Enlargement of lateral ventricles  - Smaller than normal total brain volume  - Cortical atrophy - some areas of the brain are pulling away, not as good of connections  - Widening third ventricle (bigger part of the brain means it’s squishing the things around 
- Smaller hippocampus  Psychosocial Perspective  - Social drift - people with schizophrenia tend to drift downward in social class compared 
to family of origin 
● Generally people tend to stay at or move up in social class from the one they  were born in  ● Schizophrenic symptoms interfere with completion of education and/or job  ○ Generally schizophrenia onset occurs when people are at college  age/trying to get a career  ● Stress increases risk and is linked to relapse 
background image ● Families can limit growth of the autonomous sense of self if they are  overprotective  ● Expressed emotion - shown by family members are associated with multiple  episodes and relapse  Cognitive Perspectives  - Difficulties in attention, inhibition, and adherence to the rules of communication  - Delusions - explain strange perceptual experiences  - Hallucinations - Hypersensitivity to perceptual input, tendency to attribute experiences to 
external sources 
- Negative symptoms - expect social interactions to be aversive and ,so they conserve 
cognitive resources 
Autism Spectrum Disorder 
- Comorbidity  ● IQ lower than 70 is common  ○ Score poorly on subjects related to language (abstract thought,  symbolism, or sequential logic)  - Prevalence  ● 1 out of 110 children 
● Found in all SES (socioeconomic status), ethnic, and racial groups 
- Prognosis  ● Children with higher IQs who learn to speak before age six have the best  outcomes  ○ People with higher SES have more access to treatment/therapy  - Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder  ● Psychological treatments are better 
● Early treatment - better outcome, parent training and education 
● Pivotal response treatment 
○ Increasing motivation and responsiveness rather than focusing on  discrete behaviors  ○ Eye contact  ● Joint attention intervention and symbolic play used to improve attention and  expressive skills  ● Medication - treat problem behaviors (harming themselves)  ○ Haloperidol (Haldol  ■ Antipsychotic 
■ Reduces aggression and stereotyped motor behavior 
■ Does not improve language and interpersonal relationships 
  Intellectual Disability  - Deficits in the ability to function in three broad domains of daily life  ● Conceptual domain 
● Social domain 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Martha Amberg
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: PSY320, abnormalpsychology, Psychology, abnormalpsych, and Amberg
Name: PSY 320 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Study guide for exam 3 on 11/7 Prof Amberg Schizophrenia, Learning disabilities, Disorders in children, Sleep disorders
Uploaded: 11/02/2016
13 Pages 76 Views 60 Unlocks
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