PRELIMINARY Study Guide for General Psychology Test #1 Prologue: What is the definition of psychology? Psychology is a science that seeks to answer such questions about us all- how and why we think, feel, and act as we do (The science of behavior and mental processes.) Out of what 2 disciIf you want to learn more check out tala rafii
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plines did psychology develop? philosophy and biology Rene Descartes: What were his 4 major influences on scientific psychology? (1) Skepticism (2) Humans defined by thinking (3) The body is a machine (4) Mind and body both exist and interact) What is the mind-body problem? How can two separate realms of existence – the mental and the physical interact? We are our brains. What is materialism? Everything is physical. This is the view of modern science. What is empiricism? Knowledge comes only from experience. What is physiology? How parts of the body function Where and when did scientific psychology begin? Germany in the late 1800s Wilhelm Wundt: founder of psychology: What did he study? mental processes, especially immediate conscious experience. What is introspection? research method in which observers examine, record, and describe their mental processes What is functionalism? View that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function What were the 2 influences on its development in the US? Darwinism and Americans’ practical attitude What did behaviorists think psychology should and should not study? Why? What machine influenced the development of cognitive psychology in the 1960s?View that psychology should be an objective science without reference to the mind.Should study behavior, not the mind. The computer developed cognitive psych . How did World War II influence the growth of clinical psychology in the US? Clinical psychologists assessed and treated mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Provided counseling. What is basic research? pure science that aims aims to increase the scientific knowledge base applied research? Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. Nature vs. nurture Issue: What does the textbook say the nature-nurture tension dissolves into? The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. Tension dissolves into contributions to biology and experience. What is natural selection? The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis: What are they? The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon. Each level provides a valuable vantage point for looking at a behavior or mental process, yet each by itself is incomplete. 1.Biological, 2. Psychological, 3. Social-cultural. What is the focus of each of the following perspectives: 1. neuroscience- How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. 2. evolutionary psychology- How the natural selection traits has promoted the survival of genes. 3. cognitive psychology- How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. 4. behavioral genetics- How our genes and environment influence our individual differences. 5. social-cultural psychology- How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures. 6. behavioral psychology- How we learn observable responses. 7. psychodynamic psychology- How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. What are the differences among: 1.clinical psychologists-study, assess, and treat people with psychological problems -Use psychotherapy 2.psychiatrists- Branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders. -Medical doctors -Can use medical therapy (prescribe drugs) as well as using psychotherapy 3. psychoanalysts-therapeutic technique based on Freudian or other psychoanalytic perspectives. -Focus on unconscious conflicts, developmental problems, and repression -Usually psychiatrists(But can be lay analysts.) What are the most efficient ways to study? SQ3R Method: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review. Chapter 1: What is hindsight bias? tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one could have foreseen it. overconfidence? People are overconfident in what they believe in. confirmation bias? Tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. Read and understand “The Scientific Attitude,” including the notion of critical thinking (textbook, 10th edition: pages 21-23; 11th edition: pages 23-24) -Curiosity- a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled. -Skepticism- persistently asking two questions, “What do you mean? How do you know?” -Humility- an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives. What are the 2 goals of science? (1) Measure and describe (2) Predict and understand • What are variables?any measurable conditions, events characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study • operational definitions?a concept or variable is defined by the methods used to measure itWhat are the 5 steps in a scientific study? • (1) Formulate a hypothesis • (2) Design a study • (3) Collect data • (4) Analyze the data and draw conclusions • (5) Report the findings What is a theory? an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. What are theories based on? How are theories tested? Theories are based on previous observations and are tested with a hypothesis. What is a hypothesis? A testable prediction. research methods (know how each is performed and the advantages and disadvantages of each): Case study: an observational technique in which one person is studied in depth » Techniques used: • Interview • Direct observation • Examine records » Advantages to case studies: • Gives full picture of a person • Can use for unusual subjects • Can disprove general statements » Disadvantages to case studies: • May not be representative of its population • Can be subjective • Poor memories of the subject and others naturalistic observation- Survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people by questioning a representative, random sample of them • Advantages of surveys: • Can get a lost of information fast • Can track changes in responses over time• Can make valid predictions within limits • Disadvantages of surveys: • Self-reports can be unreliable » Memory lapses » Wishful thinking » Don’t know how would act » Intentional deception • Cannot validly draw cause-and-effect conclusions » TRUE OF ALL METHODS LOOKED AT SO FAR » Population: all the cases in a group • Random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion » Can’t let subjects seek researcher » Must assure random selection Experiment: researcher manipulates one or more variables under carefully controlled conditions and observes changes in behavior or mental processes correlation -measure of the extent to which two factors vary together Positive: the values of both variables rise and fall together Negative: as the value of one variable rises the other falls correlation coefficient - What does its size mean? Further from zero: • The stronger the correlation • The better the predictive power • The absolute value of the coefficient indicates its strength • Positive or negative tells the direction of the association » Not its strength What can be validly concluded from correlations? the relation of variables and the strength of the relationship What cannot?cause-and-effect conclusions What are scatterplots – A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. ( little scattered= high correlation). positive (on graph) vs. negative (on graph) Read and understand “Perceiving Order in Random Events” (textbook, 10th edition: pages 20-21; 11th edition: pages 22-23) We are prove to perceive patterns. Even in random data, we find order. Experiment: • Independent variable: factor that is manipulated to see its effect • Dependent variable: factor thought to be affected by the independent variable • Experimental condition (group): condition that exposes the subjects to the treatment • Control condition (group): condition that serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment At least two groups are needed for an experiment. placebo effect? experimental results are caused by the subjects’ expectations Placebo: inert substance that has medicinal value because of a person’s belief in the drug Medicinal effect = drug group’s score minus placebo group’s score Know how to estimate the effect of a drug using the results from the group given the drug and the group given the placebo. What is experimenter bias? a researcher’s expectations about the experiment affect the outcome double-blind study? • both the research subjects and the research staff are ignorant (blind) to which subjects have received the treatment or the placebo • Statistical significance -what it does tell a researcher: the probability a finding is due to chance) • and does not tell a researcher: does not indicate if the finding is important, and the size of the effect What is selection bias? Results not generalizable,Experimental and control conditions have different types of subjects, Should randomly assign subjects to conditions. What is a peer-reviewed journal? a periodical that uses researchers to judge whether another researcher’s work is worth publishing. What are the 4 basic APA guidelines for research ethics? 1.Subjects must give their informed consent 2. Investigators must protect subjects rom harm or discomfort 3. Information about subjects must be treated confidentially 4.The research should be explained to the subjects afterward. » About what percentage of psychological research uses non-human animals as subjects? a little less than 10% Read and understand "Describing Data" - (textbook, 10th edition: pages 36-38; 11th edition: pages 43-46)including: mean- The average. median- The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. mode- The most frequently occurring scores in a distribution. normal curve- The bell curve shaped distribution. range- The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. standard deviation- A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.