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UC / Occupational Therapy Assistant / Occ 208 / occupational therapy buzzwords

occupational therapy buzzwords

occupational therapy buzzwords


School: University of Charleston
Department: Occupational Therapy Assistant
Course: Occupational Therapy in Psychosocial Performance
Professor: Professor blose
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: Free
Name: OTA 208, Chpt. 1-6
Description: These notes cover chapters 1-6
Uploaded: 11/03/2016
14 Pages 179 Views 1 Unlocks

-self expression- know self and how to express feelings appropriately -enhancing others (?

Narrative Reasoning- how people understand and tell the stories of their lives Both OTA and OTR involved in all stages of intervention process Theory- provide a set of principles to organize and explain, no one correct theory What is the purpose of theories?

What is occupational therapy?

What is occupational therapy?  occupations: daily activities that make you you  -thinIf you want to learn more check out What term refers to destroying a piece of the brain?
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gs that make up your life Mental Illness:  -mentally healthy= balanced OT Buzzwords/Characteristics of Healthy Mentally Healthy People: -adapatable -functional -meaningful -flexible Mental health is state of being relative rather than absolute -mental disorder- causes stress or disability, can’t out daily activities Occupation can improve mental health engaging entire being= holism  *McLean Hospital Transinstitutionalized- didn’t really work, weren’t transitioned well - Community Mental Health Act- create community based treatment facilities  to move mentally ill out of institutions psych rehab- most effective treatment NAMI- National Alliance on Mental Illness- helps decrease mental health stigmas Mental Health Parity- proposed policy to have insurance companies reimburse  mental healthcare to the same extent they do physical health care Psychdynamics- determine personality and motivation MOHO- interaction among three systems -volition- motivation -habituaiton -performance skills/capacity- the ability to perform occupations/activities- skills to live -sensorimotor, cognition, emotional, etc. Narrative Reasoning- how people understand and tell the stories of their lives Both OTA and OTR involved in all stages of intervention process Theory- provide a set of principles to organize and explain, no one correct theory What is the purpose of theories? - framework on which to build your treatment - often use multiple theories at one time Theory of Object Relations:  -ability to respond to people and objects -learn these reactions early in infancy -humans have inborn desire to satisfy needs  -id- wants what it wants, when it wants it -personality dominated by id -superego- conscience or moralizer -ego- moderates between superego and id -deals with functions that are memory, perception, and reality  testing -helps control impulses and organize action -id and superego are in constant conflict  causes anxiety -other parts of personality developed by experiences and relationships Defense Mechanisms: -unconscious -help ward off anxiety -patients will often exhibit these -recognize them so you don’t take them personally **Developmental Theory: what this program is based on-solid foundation you build on -problems arise when developmental tasks aren’t mastered sufficiently -Developmental Lag- difference between person and where they should be  -corrected by exposing person to different situations where they have  to have a skill mastered  Behavioral Theory:  -all behavior is learned -actions that have positive outcomes are repeated -normal behaviors are learned if… adapative(positive) behaviors are  rewarded and maladaptive  behaviors are punished/ignored -abnormal behaviors- reversal of normal behavior -can be changed if therapist changes consequences -shaping- method of approaching behavior through series of steps -chaining- teaching a complete activity one step at a time -extinction- discouraging undesirable behavior -planned ignoring- planning to ignore a set of behaviors Cognitive Behavioral Theory: -thinking and behavior are linked -automatic thoughts and associated feelings generate behavior -we create our own experience and can change it by becoming aware of how  we think and feel -you change it and are in control -CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy)- identifying thoughts and stopping  behaviors associated with them-Social Models- very powerful teachers about how we think and feel Client Centered Therapy: -started by Carl Rogers -each human has the potential to direct his/her own growth and development -each person chooses course of action -when someone is mentally ill… they are not aware of their feelings and  available choices -often feel like victims, help them realize they have a choice -a person becomes aware of their choices by exploring them with a warm,  empathetic, therapist who genuinely accepts himself/herself and client -as a therapist, must be open and genuine Neuroscience Theory: -based in organic processes of the brain -states that mental illness is a result of chemical imbalances Psychiatric Rehab:  -functioning adequately is possible for everyone -necessary skills are individualistic -we need to identify their chosen environment and how to live in it -psych rehab believes we can be friend of pt. must get close to support them Lorna Jean King- adults w/ schizophrenia display posture and behavior of kids with  sensory processing disorders -she also noticed those with schizophrenia had trouble with certain activities  because their  balance is offWe must acknowledge our prejudices, it affects how we treat patients -recognize what upsets you so you can put that aside in therapy Claudia Allen- role acquisition and social skills training -control concept- people with mental illness suffer from a disturbance that  guides motor actions  -mental disorganization can impair performance tasks  -people with mental disorders have cognitive disabilities that makes it  difficult to live alone -task performance reflects abilities -Allen created the leather lacing project- a standardized test to test  cognitive skills -identify and monitor any changes -adapt environment to help performance To treat cognitive deficits… -make things familiar so the pt. is more comfortable -6 levels of cognition (1- severe, 6-no impairment) -persons at levels 1-4 have difficulty living alone -cognitive levels assessed by motor skills tests -level 1:  -level 2: repetition to self stimulate -level 3: cause and effect difficulties - level 4: trouble understanding when things are hidden from view - level 5: beginning to see abstract thinking  - level 6: fairly high functioningMOHO: broad view of occupation and health -analyzes occupation and behaviors that go with -culture and environment in shaping occupation -emphasizes the effects of choice, interests, motivation, and habits -humans have an innate drive to explore and master their environment -human occupation: exploring, creating, and controlling the environment -looks at human as open system -open system- affected by environment around us -occupational adaptation- positive occupational identity and achieving  occupational competence or thrive in the context of one’s environment  -occupational behavior- interaction among person, occupational tasks, and  environment *important to know each model because OTAs are professionals Development of Adapative Skills: -developmental model broken into adaptive skills -aims to help master not yet acquired occupational skills step by step -4 Basic Concepts -therapist provide an environment that facilitates growth -subskills are mastered in order -subskills from different areas may be addressed at the same time *-must tap into pt. intrinsic motivation Role Acquistion:  -client participation -personalized goals -ability based goals*-increased challenges -natural progression -client knowledge- make sure client knows what’s going on -client awareness- make sure pt. is aware of the effects of good and bad  actions -practice makes perfect -parts of a whole- if task is too hard, do one step at a time -imitation Social Skills Training: limited effectiveness -4 Groups- people with mental illness have trouble with -self expression- know self and how to express feelings appropriately -enhancing others (?) -assertive skills -communication skills  -these skills should be taught in an environment the pt. is comfortable with  and therapists should provide that environment  -a common complaint from mental pt. is that they don’t have friends Sensory Integration- receive, process, output -Jean Ayers -Lorna Jean King- worked on proprioception, kinesthesia, and vestibular  awareness with psych pt. -proprioceptive and vestibular system treatment good for pt. with  schizophrenia (Except paranoid) *have to be careful, because if sensory integration is not good for someone,  can make them physically ill *Sensory integration= look at the outcome *need to get pt. to where they can move without thinking about it-activities must be fun/pleasurable Areas of SI: -balance- vestibular -posture- postural control/alignment -ROM -correction of abnormal hip/shoulder -SI improves reception and processing -vestibular and gross motor best to do with these patients  -activities cannot draw attention to body movment -parachute activities are great for SI as they work in posture, ROM, etc.  Mental Health Concepts and Techniques: -Body functions-  -experience of self- one’s ideas about self -life colored by this experience -psych pt. experience w/ others directly relates with how they feel  about themselves -impairment of sensory functions -hallucinations- experiences of things that are not there -delusions- fixed false beliefs  -neuromuscular and movement related functions are affected, sometimes by  side effects of medicine Dynamic Interaction Among Person’s Tasks and Environments -occupational performance results from ongoing interaction among tasks or  activity and environment -overlapping experience between task, therapist, and environment -minor changes produce big results -a few subtle shifts to environment affect activity and resultsModels Compatible with OT Framework -Developmental -Behavioral -CBT -Client Centered -Neuro -Psych Rehab 3 Levels of Motivation:  -Exploration -Mastery -Sense of Acheivement Through the Lifespan:  -foundation of occupation formed in childhood and influences development -Childhood- play and explore mentally, emotionally, and cognitively -Adolescent- play, peers more important, sense of immortality -want to be seen as competent -fantasize about occupations- tentative period -assess what can and can’t do- realistic period -Adulthood- work and produce  -Later Adulthood- retire -a major issue here is that they are not ready and need to find a new roleMental Health Factors Through the Lifespan: -Childhood-ADD, ADHD, PDD (usually turns into a spectrum disorder), spectrum  disorders, OCD starts to develop, ODD -ADD- trouble with attention span -ADHD- moving all the time, can’t sit still -PDD- cluster of disorder, developmental delays in more than one area Big Focus for OT: what delays are there? What can the child do or not do and  how to work with that *Sensory processing= OT specialty -Middle Childhood- refinement of signs from early childhood -most behavioral based -start to see fear of school and behaviors to get out of going -start of bullying and cruelty towards animals  -thoughts get refined and turned into behaviors -more signs of autism come out  -Adolescence- beginnings of schizophrenia, mood disorder, substance abuse, eating  disorders -often mood disorders are written off as teen behaviors, when might actually  be an indicator -substance abuse starting younger than it once did -schizophrenia never out of the blue -eating disorders most seen in white women -altered body schemes -4 types, starting to classify overeating as one type -Adulthood- fruition of schizophrenia and mood disorders (becomes diagnosable),  more substance abuse-Later Adulthood- dementia(many different forms), depression, polysubstance abuse (meds, unconscious, not manipulative abuse) DSM IV R: -developed common language -5 Axes *Axis I-clinical condition- what gets a person seen, major mental disorder -Axis II- personality disorders, mental retardation, learning disabilities -Axis III- medical issues  -Axis IV-psychosocial conditions -Axis V- Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Mental Issues of Infancy, Childhood -cognitive disorders -learning disorders -motor skill disorders -communication disorders -Pika- eating things that have no nutritional value (ex. eating chalk) -tics (Terrets) -elimination disorders -deficits in self-care, social functioning, and vocational functioning -perceptual motor deficits, usually come physical component  -sensory processing disorder Mental Issues of Later Life, Older Adulthood -Dementia- can be seen in stroke or head injury pt.  *-not reversible-less rapid onset -memory deficits -judgement issues -deficits in social skills -upset at own deteriorating condition -alzheimers not a blanket term for dementia -paranoia and other medical conditions can accompany dementia -some caused by long time substance abuse -Vascular Dementia- shortened blood supply to brain -Loui Body Dementia- almost exclusively seen in Parkinson’s pt.  -AIDS related dementia- often seen earlier in life -Delirium-  -reversable -rapid onset -often caused by substance abuse or fever -can lead to dementia -delirium treatments (tremons)- sick from withdrawals and need medical help  ASAP -need substance immediately, can die Substance Abuse-  -Alcoholism most prevalent in West Virginia *-Amotivational Syndrome- long term pot use -comorbidity- addiction and mental illness -teaching people to use their downtime productively- huge step  -difference between dependent and abuse- dependent- have physical  w/drawals, abuse have  psychological w/drawalsMajor Mental Illnesses:  Schizophrenia- cluster of symptoms, biologically based  -genetic component- very likely to get it if a parent has it -demonstrate some psychosis- out of touch with reality, hallucinations,  delusions -Prodromal Phase (Ages 17-25)- start to see psychotic thinking and the  behavior that goes with it -Active Phase (onset-Age 60)- first psychotic break, return to slightly less than normal, 2nd psychotic break, return to even less normal, third psychotic break, return to  farthest from  normal -Residual- still have some symptoms, but burnt out -episodes usually triggered by stressful/traumatic event -positive symptoms: -hallucinations -delusions -loosening of associations: talking in extreme bunny trails -negative symptoms:  -poor ADL -don’t respond well to meds -social isolation -flat affect -subtypes:  -catatonic- extreme psychomotor disturbances -waxen flexibility  -too much sensory info and don’t know what to do with it so just  shut down -disorganized- incoherent thinking and bizarre communication -strange mannerisms and gestures -poor to no communication -one of the lowest functioning -hebophronic- funny, very similar to disorganized  -Paranoid- exception to all the rules -themes of being persecuted -very intelligent  -monstrously large delusional systems -recover well, highest rate of suicide -undifferentiated- other types non specifiedODD- Oppositional Defiant Disorder -kids are mean, starts very young (sometimes as young as 4) -disruptive behavior, defy authority -initially looks like ADHD -diagnosed with conduct disorder, usually end up criminals and/or  sociopaths -poor impulse control *-cruelty to animals -often mistake anxiety as anger -OT intervention: -build trusting relationships -be concrete, give the kid a vocabulary to describe what they’re  feeling -help the child identify what situations are going to cause  problems -must have good impulse control and high frustration tolerance -use positive reinforcement -help them tolerate change -help them acquire social interaction skills Mood Disorders:  Mania- elevated mood Major Depression -Reactive Depression -Andihonia- lack of wanting to do fun things SAD Bipolar I&II Dysthymic- low mood all the time, not as severe as major depression, but  always in a down mood Hypomaniac- milder form of mania

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