Determinants of success in a college student I. Reasons for study A. Theoretical-critical period 1. Developmental-studied infants to puberty, as well as really old people because development never ends II. Challenges are thrown at college students A. Initectual things B. Family issues C. Future job D. IndepeDon't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between counted and defined quantities?
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ndence E. Social III. Applied---failure rates A. Less people graduate than the # of freshman year B. Dropping out because unhappy IV. Academic Achievement in college A. Freshman-> why are you here? General information Later-> more specific B. U of M looked at college students on day 1 to graduation 1. Main things that make college students so successful V. General Intelligence A. Distribution (look at notes) B. Correlation (look at notes) C. Restrictions 1. Restrict the range in variable there constraint of the correlation 2. U of M had this problem. ACT doesn’t predict accurate bc scores have been restricted D. Intelligence lead to college success? Yes and No 1. Higher intelligence isn’t sufficient, but necessary 2. Most successful students at U of M a) Have anxiety and fear, but balanced with success and with effort (1) They make mistakes, but know that they can do it b) Attention and learn from feedback they receive (1) Bc of confidence and effort VI. Confidence and Self-doubt (everyone has ups and downs at some point, but when there’s imbalance problems occur) A. Need for confidence and doubt B. Common dysfunctional strategies 1. Unsuccessful students 2. Overconfidence -> not enough doubt a) Don’t take demands seriously enough b) Don’t learn from feedback 3. Self-handicapping -> too much doubt, not enough confidencea) General: occurs when people have had success in past and afraid to duplicate that success in future b) processing of arranging situation you hurt the odds that you will succeed (1) somehow arrange situation success=their skill/smartness (2) Fail situation=other fault (blame others) 4. Defensive pessimism a) People who do best in short run, really good students, but they internally/psychologically think that they aren’t smart enough. b) Contradicts reality and tends to exaggerate bad things about themselves and about the thing in this world that goes wrong c) More health problems d) Suffer from higher stress e) Burn out f) Not enough confidence How Successful and Unsuccessful Students Differ A. Using time a. Class attendance (look at chart in notes) i. Go to class(necessary condition for success, but not sufficient bc 54% of unsuccessful students are going to class) ii. Same % of unsuccessful and successful are going to class a lot of the time iii. Unsuccessful students spend just as much time on class material as successful students, but don’t spend time wisely iv. Successful students are more efficient with their times 1. Know how to break up big task into manageable units B. Massed VsS. Spaced learning a. 2 students identical (class,motivation, IQ, history) and exam come and they both do 8 hours of studying b. 1st person spend 8 hours at night before exam (massed) c. 2nd person spend 2 hours per day 4 days before exam (spaced) i. Will do better, can retain information better ii. Connect new information with something long-term memory gives you a better way to remember it iii. Read different days gives you different perspectives iv. Connect with 2 things that give you two more way to remember it C. Successful Students a. Organized: prioritize i. Know what they have to do ii. When overwhelmed drop out low priority items (which will be hopefully not be academic) b. Music in background doesn't matter c. Efficiency:i. Focused ii. Finished it (not necessarily finish hw, but at logical point) iii. Pick up one thing, work on one thing, finish one thing and the relax iv. Labor inven effect 1. Unsuccessful students suffered from this 2. Jumping back and forth between stuff and make no progress d. Reading strategies (many) i. Different material call for different reading strategies (including academic) ii. The reading speeds of Successful students were continently more variable of the reading speeds of the unsuccessful students (faster/slower/faster/slower)-> Unsuccessful reading speed were consistent 1. When successful reading they are reading and monitoring own comprehension iii. The more you know, the easier to learn new things 1. Richier mental context (one reason why) a. If don’t understand they slow down, once they understand why pick up paste again b. Negative reading time= keeping reading and not understanding so they go back a page to reload 2. Richer get richer, poor get poorer iv. Key to academic reading: to the degree which developing mental context quickly and easily and good enough to fit in new context the better you can learn and make connections 1. Requires reading actively e. Reading Methods i. SQ3R 1. survey , question, read, recite, review 2. Make mental context 3. Force you to read actively ii. Survey: before you start reading, look over chapter 1. Overall organization/ overall topic 2. Read summaries 3. Helps you know what to look for when you go back to read chapter iii. Question: ask yourself purpose of this reading iv. Read v. Recite: Pause and try to put in own words what you just read and learned (IMPORTANT) vi. Review: when get to end of chapter see big picture 1. How thing relates to each other vii. Produce huge increase in memory viii. Least effective -> memorize the material f. Note taking skillsi. Least effective learning way is via lecture: 1. Audience no control over speed of lecture a. Unlike textbook---> confused, slow down b. Audience can’t see big picture until you get to the end of the lecture 2. Take notes! It helps!---> focuses to put in my own words for what I just learned and articulate material a. Why using someone else’s notes doesn’t always work→ you don’t understand it as well i. Value is in the writing, not the reading ii. Concentrate on main points and how they relate to each other iii. Note takers discriminated between the very important stuff with important stuff. And discriminate important stuff to not important stuff. iv. Go over notes and read it actively! v. Look at graph in notes vi. Forgetting/retaining curve (look in notes) g. Testwiseness i. Taking exam: budget your time ii. If get to question and complex listen to your stuff 1. Take 3 or 4 minutes and you can do it=speed time 2. Take 3 or 4 minutes and you can’t do it=guess iii. M.C exam 1. Read stem of question, generate answer without looking at answers 2. “Change” it to fill-in-the-blank question 3. Bc difficult exam and look at answer get in mental rute iv. Changing Answer in M.C test (look at chart in notes) 1. 3x more likely to change wrong answer to right answer than to keep answer if you don’t feel right about it 2. Questions the thought of following your gut feeling v. Essay Exams 1. Constantly organize/review your time 2. Begin with question you know best a. Concise and to the point b. Make sure to answer the question! 3. a. If your field has technique gargin and you understand it if precisely use it, if not don’t use it b. Can get a lot of points or lose a lot of points because of this Three Aspects of Human ExistenceA. Tricodomist division of human nature → straight translation to social self (to really know someone or something you need all these components) a. Cognition: thinking (rational) b. Affect: emotions, feelings, moods c. Conation: a predisposition to act in a particular way (refers to behavior today) B. The social self (psychologists use/adapted the tricodomist to help understand the self) a. Self-concept (cognition) b. Self-esteem (affect) c. Self-presentation (conation) d. One thing psychologists reject from philosophers (believe they are independent) is that these three things are interdependent (psych believe) i. Triangle shows that all three are interdependent (never breaks apart) 1. Self-concept at any moment will depend on all 3 of these aspects ii. There is some overlap, one can have a lot implications to the other two. C. The self-concept: refers to the total set of believes we have about ourselves (physical, demographic and psychological attributes) a. We are not born with these beliefs i. We develop them over time as you experience more in life (can change throughout life too) b. Where do these beliefs come from? i. As we go through life we are constantly monitoring our own behavior. We consistently behave one way and when we consistently behave in this manner is become part of our self concept. ii. Same with emotions, feelings, thoughts, and with how other people respond to us c. Equation: B=f(P,E) i. Behavior is the function of the person and environment ii. This means that the behavior you observe will be the function of who you are observing iii. People who observe us in a narrow range in situation we us behave in similar manner over and over again, bc they are observing us in more or less the same way. They think they understand us well, but it’s an allusion 1. They don’t realize that in other situation with other people we behave in different ways 2. Parents can underestimate the various behaviors/ability in their own children (vise versa) 3. Why dating is so important. You only understand the other person better if you observe that person in widre and wider range of situations d. Self-concept is very multi fascinated because we have thousands believes about ourselves, but since our short term memory and working memory have a limited capacity we can only think about one or two beliefs about ourselves consciously (salient) at one time.i. Why are one or two of the thousands of things we know about ourselves at any given moment? 1. Those factors that distinguish us from others in the immediate social environment are things likely to be most salient a. Ex: a women attends a committee meeting where there are 7 other guys. She sees herself as a female more than she sees herself as a psychologist b. But if she goes to a PTA meeting with equal amount of men and women she sees herself more as a psychologist than as a woman. c. Note: she is a women and psychologist in both situations ii. People believe that most important thing about themselves is how they think and feel, not about their behavior iii. Private reaction can tell more about ourselves than from behaviors iv. When one person told another how they think the perceived informativeness is higher. The receiving person will get to know the person who said it better. (look at graph in notes) e. Action Identification i. Action identification theory: the same behavior can be thought of at different level of abstracts ii. Level of abstraction you choose to interpret is very important 1. The higher level of abstraction, the more closely that actually ties to your self-concept 2. The closely tied to your self-concept the more meaningful it is a. More satisfied from success b. More disappointment from failure iii. People are motivated to achieve when thinking at a higher level of abstraction iv. We should try to think from multiple levels of abstraction at the same time f. Overjustification: refers to situations of: i. Intrinsic motivation: internal ii. Extrinsic motivation: external iii. If you give too many extrinsic rewards they will lose intrinsic enjoyment (vise versa) iv. The more you have of one the less you need of the other g. Social comparison i. Took face photos of all athletes on stand with olympic medal 1. Then college students rated the facial expression of each athlete. They consistently rated those who won gold medals seemed more happy. 2. The golden medalists compare themselves to everyone else. They are the best3. The silver medalists compare themselves as lesser to the golden medalists, but better than the bronze 4. The bronze comparison to all of the athletes who didn’t get a medal. Also compare themselves to gold medalists especially when the times are so close. ii. Social comparison theory: sometimes we can only learn about ourselves by comparing ourselves to others 1. We do this when we are unsure 2. We compare ourselves to others who are similar to us along relative dimensions 3. When we compare ourselves to others who are better off than you are the typical emotional response is depression and lower emotions (upward comparison) 4. Sometimes we compare ourselves to others who are less better off than us (downward comparison) iii. Self-complexity: refers to individual differences in the number of distinctions within the self (look at graphs in notes) 1. Fewer distinctions about themselves leads to less self complexity 2. More distinctions leads to more self-complexity