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WESTERN WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY / Science / Sci 101 / What are the point and nonpoint sources of water pollution?

What are the point and nonpoint sources of water pollution?

What are the point and nonpoint sources of water pollution?

Description

School: Western Washington University
Department: Science
Course: Environmental Studies: A Scientific Approach
Professor: John rybczyk
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: environmental science, Water, Pollution, and food
Cost: 25
Name: ESCI 101 week 6
Description: Water Pollution (November 1) & Food (November 3)
Uploaded: 11/03/2016
8 Pages 92 Views 3 Unlocks
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Nov. 1, 2016We also discuss several other topics like Are mirror images of molecules super imposable?

  • $15.6 M pretreatment for drinking water in Bham

We also discuss several other topics like What are the five stages in the process of listening?

SOLUTIONS

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Point Source- identifiable source, you know exactly where it comes from (you can point to it)

  • Sewage treatment plants
  • Factories
  • Mines
  • Oil Tankers

Don't forget about the age old question of What are some physical and chemical agents that cause mutations?

Non-point Source- know it came from an area, but not exactly

  • Agricultural Sources
  • Atmospheric Deposition
  • Golf Course
  • Logged Forests
  • Parking Lots
  • Urban Runoff

If you want to learn more check out Explain torah's opinion about god.

Clean Water Act (1972) and Clean Air Act

  • Goal: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters; that is, to make all waters fishable, drinkable, and swimmable.

        Don't forget about the age old question of Why is pareto efficiency important?

Requires states to:

  • Identify waters not meeting state water quality standards (303cd list)
  • Lists tell us;
  • 218 million Americans live within 10 miles of polluted water
  • Identified 21,000 polluted water sources
  • Set priorities for TMDL Development
  • Develop a TMDL for each pollutant for each listed water

NPDES Permit Program (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System)

  • Point source pollution solution
  • Prohibits the discharge of pollutants through a point source into waters of the U.S. without an NPDES Permit (does not prohibit polluting, impossible to not pollute)
  • Levels of treatment for wastewater.
  • Primary
  • Secondary (Bham does this one)
  • Tertiary

Primary Treatment (least expensive)

  • Removes large particles via filtration and screening large particles
  • Settling

Secondary Treatment

  • Organic material removed
  • Facilities designed to degrade organic matter by promoting bacterial growth (adding hear and oxygen - takes a lot of energy)
  • Rely on Bham Bay to do some of the work for us organic matter

Tertiary Treatment (most expensive)

  • Removes inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen
  • Extremely costly
  • Some municipalities use natural or constructed wetlands

Sources of Impairment by Category

  • 47% - a combination of point and nonpoint sources
  • 43% - nonpoint sources only
  • 10% - point sources only

Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

  • Know what is in the water
  • Know how much is coming
  • Figure out where to limit it

FOOD

  • Up to 1 billion people consume less than the minimum critical diet and face hunger daily (worldwide)
  • 18 to 20 million deaths from malnutrition and starvation
  • In the US - 20 million chronically hungry people

WorldWide Grain Production

1950 - 692 million tons        1.7 billion acres

1992 - 1.9 billion tons                 1.73 billion acres

170% increase in production with one percent more land

How has it increased?

Traditional Agriculture

  • Small farms
  • Animal labor
  • Low use of chemicals and irrigation
  • Natural plant varieties

Industrialized Agriculture

  • Large farms
  • Machines
  • Pesticides, fertilizers
  • GMOs, high yield plants

Nobel Prize Laureates (Since 1970)

  • Al Gore
  • Jimmy Carter
  • Elie Wiesel
  • Henry Kissinger
  • Norman Borlaug (responsible for tripling grain production)
  • Barack Obama

Norman Borlaug

Green Revolution - green as in agriculture, not green as we think of green now

  • High yield, pest-resistance crops
  • Intensive use of fertilizers
  • Irrigation
  • Selective use of pesticides

  • Worked with Mexican scientists in Mexico, came up with Dwarf Spring Wheat
  • Sent seed shipments to Asia

Problems with Green Revolution

  • Increased pesticide and herbicide use
  • Increased fertilizer use
  • Takes 5.5 tons of fossil fuels to produce 1.1 tons of fertilizer
  • Prices of food are strongly influenced by energy prices
  • Traditional or cultural approach replaced

        Pesticides

  1. Herbicides- kill weeds
  2. Insecticides- kill insects
  3. Nematocides- kill small microscopic worms in root systems (tropical areas)
  4. Fungicides- kill fungi
  5. Rodenticides- kill rodents

Ideal Pesticide

  • Kills only intended pests
  • Lasts only long enough to kill the thing, not longer
  • Breaks down quickly
  • Be more cost-effective than doing nothing
  • Does not cause genetic resistance in target organisms
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