Study Guide Exam 3
1. What are the four types of biological molecules? 2. What is the main feature of amino acids?
3. What are strings of joined amino acids called?
4. What are proteins?
5. What are the 3 levels of structure of proteins/amino acids? 6. What are enzymes? What do they do?
7. Are mirror images of molecules superimposable? 8. What is a carbohydrate/its main feature?
9. What are the different types of carbohydrates?
10. What do each of the types from Question 9 mean? 11. What are lipids? What is a fatty acid?
12. What is a steroid? We also discuss several other topics like What is receiving in listening process?
13. What 3 parts make up a Nucleic Acid?
14. What is DNA? What is RNA?
15. What is the difference between Nucleic Acid and Nucleotide? 16. What was the Human Genome Project?
17. What are the reasons for eating?
18. What is the primary source of energy for humans? 19. What are vitamins? What are the 2 types?
20. What are essential fatty acids and essential amino acids? 21. What are the 4 reasons for food additives?
22. What is the Glycemic Index?
23. What is the French Paradox?
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24. What are the parameters of toxicology?
25. What is LD50 and what does it stand for?
26. What is a heavy metal poison?
27. What are carcinogens? Mutagens? Teratogens?
28. What are neurotoxins?
29. What is a corrosive poison?
30. What are Designer Drugs?
31. What does the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) tell you?
1. Amino Acids/Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids
2. Amine and Carboxyl groups attached to the same group.
3. 2—Dipeptide; 3—Tripeptide; 4—Tetrapeptide; etc.
4. Polymers made up of amino acids.
5. 1st level—sequence of amino acids; 2nd level—coiling of the peptide/protein; 3rd level— twisting of the coil
6. Proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. If you want to learn more check out Can mutations in sex cells be inherited?
7. No, because they are on opposite sides.
8. Carbon that is “hydrated” or has what attached.
9. Monosaccharaides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
10. Monosaccharides cannot be split into smaller carbohydrates by hydrolysis; Disaccharides can be split into 2 smaller carbohydrates by hydrolysis; Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers Don't forget about the age old question of How does historical criticism affect the writing of history?
11. Lipids are biological molecules that are soluble in nonpolar solvents. Fatty acids are long chains of carboxylic acids (add to glycerine to get a fat).
12. Hexagonal shaped molecules that enhance body by releasing hormones. 13. Pentose, Amine Base, and Phosphate
14. DNA is a double stranded nucleic acid with deoxyribose in both the cell nucleus and mitochondria. RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid with ribose that is both a messenger and transfer of genetic information
15. Nucleotides are monomers of Nucleic Acids (they make up Nucleic Acids).
16. The mapping of all Human genes to find the estimate of how many are in the body (>30,000).
17. Energy and building material (biological molecules).
19. Nutrients that prevent diseases of proficiency. There are Watersoluble and Fatsoluble. 20. Fatty acids and amino acids that are not made by the body directly and so have to be ingested (eaten) to be obtained.
21. Improve nutritional content, Alter color, Prevent spoilage, and Enhance flavor
22. Measure of how fast a source of glucose (carbohydrate) is converted to blood glucose where glucose has the value of 100.
23. French people had lower indexes of mortality due to high blood cholesterol as compared to U.K. and U.S. If you want to learn more check out What is tacit collusion in oligopoly?
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24. Dose, Chemical nature of substance, How you are exposed
25. Lethal Dose for 50% of Test Population; measurement of how much one would need to take for a substance to be lethal.
26. Metals of large atomic masses (ex. Mercury, lead, copper)
27. Carcinogens are toxins that can cause cancer. Mutagens are toxins that cause mutations in DNA. Teratogens are toxins that induce birth defects.
28. Nerve poisons that interfere with neurotransmission.
29. Toxins that break down peptides and Proteins, leaving a chemical burn.
30. Manufactured drugs by altering the chemical substance of narcotics, stimulants, and other drugs to make them produce similar effects.
31. It contains basic information about the characteristics, limits, and potential hazards of a chemical.