COMM 107 Exam 2 Study Guide
1. Listening is the process of attentively receiving a message and combining it with perceptions and context to generate meaning
that results in a response either vocalized or internalized. 2. Hearing is the act of receiving sound and a component of
3. Listening combines many elements including hearing to generate
meaning that goes beyond the mere perception of hearing. 4. The listening process involves a speaker and listener(s). The
speaker sends a message that is received by the listener(s) whose perception of the message is modified by their attention to what was communicated. The listeners then assign meaning to the message and respond. The response is then picked up by
the speaker as feedback.
5. Perception consists of taking the material received and analyzing it. This results in numerous filters being applied in order to connect parts of the message to things that make sense with the remaining portions falling into place gradually. There is a natural tendency to hear what one wants by attempting to match the filtered portions of the message with what is desired rather than objectively categorizing the information. Perception is different
for different people.
6. Listening apprehension is the fear of misunderstanding, inadequately processing, and/or not being able to adjust
psychologically to messages sent by others. This results in a decrease ability to effectively listen because attention is diverted away from what is said and filtering attempts to place information in a way that contradicts what the listener wants to be true as they feel they cannot be correct in what they though was said.
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1. The interviewer is the one who dictates the flow of the interview and is very responsible for what is gained from the interview. They must have a plan for how the interview will go and be able to adjust to unforeseen answers or lines of discussion that present themselves while also staying on track. Most
importantly, the interviewer should be adept at listening to what the interviewee says and be able to adapt to the feedback and
messages they receive.
2. The interviewee should know what they are being interviewed about and what the interviewer wants to gain from the exchange. They should also be open to asking questions themselves and not afraid to diverge somewhat into tangents if they will add to the conversation. Most importantly, the interviewee must be
honest with their answers and ask for clarification if needed. 3. When planning an interview, deciding the overall goal is
paramount. By establishing the goals of the interview the questions can be organized in a manner is that they are not
repetitive and they build upon each other to add more meaning to the responses. Plans should also be made based on the probable answers to questions that way it can flow as a conversation not a test and also plans should be made for where to go from unexpected answers so that the conversation doesn’t die. Equally as important is informing the interviewee of these goals so that they know how to prepare and can give the most helpful answers rather than what they can come up with on the
spot. Don't forget about the age old question of What are some physical and chemical agents that cause mutations?
4. Effective interview questions should not be repetitive, should provide meaningful responses, and should allow for a continuance of the conversation unless meant as the final question. Effective types of questions include direct questions, open questions, closed questions, bipolar questions, leading questions, loaded questions, mirror questions, and probing questions. We also discuss several other topics like Explain torah's opinion about god.
1. A group is a system characterized by interconnectedness of the constituents. This is different from a mass of people because
they all share a goal that links them and unifies them. 2. Small groups and large groups each have advantages and Don't forget about the age old question of Why is pareto efficiency important?
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disadvantages usually the opposite of each other. Small groups arrive at decisions quickly while large groups take more time. Large groups have a wide variety of ideas while small groups are
limited. Small groups also have more unity and cohesion while large groups can create subgroups. Small groups also have more individual involvement than large groups. Large groups CAN complete larger tasks though conflicts within the group could
cause the reverse to be more true.
3. The main leadership styles can be described as inclusive, exclusive, and augmenting. Inclusive leaderships are characterized by having a large number of people decide upon what should be done. Exclusive styles have a few or a single person making the decisions for the group. Augmenting styles have a central group that looks for input from others to make more informed decisions so the entire group has a voice but the decisions are made based on a smaller group’s analysis of that
4. The main advantage groups’ offer is an increase in the number of ideas. The more ideas that are circulating the more likely it is for a correct solution to be proposed. Furthermore, having a group debate and consider various ideas can be used to modify the ideas or point out flaws that would lead to failure. Group working also leads to increased risks taken and more creative solutions as ideas and their parts are combined. The main disadvantage to groups is that decision-making takes a much longer time. Additionally, the group can become so homogenous that no one We also discuss several other topics like What is the configuration of an electron?
dares say an idea that is counter than what the majority thinks
and wont point out flaws leading to groupthink failures. 5. Group stages
a. Forming, where individuals come together to accomplish a
b. Norming, where procedures and rules are established and
group members feel each other out
c. Storming, where conflicts emerge within the group and are
either addressed or suppressed
d. Conforming, where people file in line with the rules
established and the conflicts of storming are overcome e. Performing, where the group actually takes action to
accomplish its goal(s)
f. Adjourning, where the task is accomplished and the
members either stay together or go their separate ways 6. Agendas typically consist of a call to order, a recap of what was
previously discussed or accomplished, presentation of what has been accomplished by the various participants, discussing what still needs to be done, discussing what new things need to be done, and adjournment. The issues and topics discussed should be presented clearly and in a way that encourages discussion. Negotiations
1. Negotiation is the act of bargaining to reach an agreement with at least two people or groups working on a mutual problem. The results can be either win win, win lose, lose lose, win neutral,
lose neutral, or neutral neutral.
2. The four main principles of negotiation are to prepare in advance, reframe questions and arguments, respond rather than
react, and identify and alter tactics. It is also best to go into the negotiation seeking a win-win result that way both sides can be satisfied and work towards the goal. Trading is also a good way to get a resolution.
1. Conflict is any situation in which one perceives that another person is frustrating or might frustrate the satisfaction of some
concern, need, want, or desire.
2. Main causes of conflict
a. Goals, when someone wants someone else to do
something in a way they disagree with to accomplish the
b. Allocation of Resources, when there is a limitation of a specific resources and someone wants someone else to use
their resources for a different goal or in a different way. c. Decision Making, when people done agree or unwilling to
change what they think should be done.
d. Behaviors, when someone takes offense at what someone else does.