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WVU - BIOL 219 - Biol 219 Exam # 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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WVU - BIOL 219 - Biol 219 Exam # 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: West Virginia University
Department: Biology
Course: The Living Cell
Professor: Lima Huebert
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Biol 219 Exam # 3 Study Guide
Description: What to expect on the next exam
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
0 5 3 34 Reviews
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background image Biol 219 Exam # 3 Study Guide  Genes code for functional products ● Beadle and Tatum 1941 ○ One gene one enzyme  Transduction ­ map mutations ● Location of mutation in genome
● Start with E. coli with known mutation
Crick and Brenner 1961 ● Bacteriophages  Test if code is overlapping  ­ Synthesize nucleotide string  ­ in vitro translation Test if code is degenerate ­ Identified with invitro translation of synthetic RNAs ­ Most amino acids coded for by > 1 codon Transcription ­ produces RNA 1. Recruit RNA pol / initiation a. Binding is regulated by cis (­10 & ­35) / trans (sigma) i. ­10 & ­35 = promoters  ii. Sigma = tells polymerase where to start copying 1. Allow responses to changing conditions 2. Elongation a. RNAP ­ uses template strand to generate transcript resembling coding  strand b. mRNA built off of template
c. RNA polymerase ­ has helicase
i. No SSBP, topoisomerase, ligase, primase 3. Termination  (cleavage) a. Rho dependent i. Protein binds to recognition site in RNA ii. Goes after polymerase iii. Bumps RNA polymerase off the  DNA iv. Trxn terminated b. Rho independent i. Self complementary ­ hairpin loop  ii. mRNA bulky shape & double H bands (weakly bound) iii. RNA DNA hybrid comes apart ­ falls off iv. Trxn terminated Eukaryotic Trxn ● 3 RNA poly. ○ rRNA (RNA pol 1)
○ mRNA (RNA pol 2)
○ tRNA (RNA pol 3) ● cis/trans more variable
background image ● A lot of RNA processing ● Trxn termination different 
● elongation same 
2 trans factors  ­ Bind core promoter ­ TF2D = TATA box (binding protein) ­ TF2H = helicase Primary transcripts 1. Cleavage ­ nuclease (endo=middle) 2. Trimming ­ nuclease (exo=end)
3. Splicing ­ cut & paste ­ nuclease & ligase
4. Base modification ­ chemical group added/removed
5. Cap ­ add 1 nucleotide
6. Poly A tail ­ poly A polymerase rRNA processing ● Eukaryotes ○ 4 rRNAs + 70 ribosomal proteins ○ s= svedberg (density units) ● Prokaryotes ○ Smaller
○ Less proteins
tRNA processing ● Eukaryotes ­ nucleus ○  5’ capped
○ 3’ poly A tail
○ Translation in cytoplasm ● Prokaryotes ○ Little / no processing
○ No nucleus
○ No separation of trxn and translation ­ same place & time Eukaryotes mRNA receive 1 extra nucleotide at 5’ end
MRNA spliced
Mediated by snRNPs
­ Makes spliceosomes Alternative splicing ­ generates transcript variation  ­ If mRNA lose either protective end ­ degradation ­ EXONUCLEASES ­ Decapping enzyme  ­ Longer the tail longer the mRNA life Translation ● 3 ribosomal  ● tRNA is folded for interaction with amino acid tRNA synthetase  ○ 2’ & 3’ structures ● Macromolecule synthesis requires ATP Aminoacyl  1. AA + ATP bind to enzyme (induced fit)

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School: West Virginia University
Department: Biology
Course: The Living Cell
Professor: Lima Huebert
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Biol 219 Exam # 3 Study Guide
Description: What to expect on the next exam
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
4 Pages 37 Views 29 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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