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NCS / Foreign Language / For 102 / What is the rule on using Stressed possessive adjectives?

What is the rule on using Stressed possessive adjectives?

What is the rule on using Stressed possessive adjectives?

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School: North Carolina State University
Department: Foreign Language
Course: Elementary Spanish 2
Professor: Tharington
Term: Fall 2016
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Cost: 50
Name: Test 2 Study Guide
Description: Test 2 notes
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
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Capítulo 7 Study Vocabulary for Chapter 7 in Plazas, 4th edition Stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns Used to express ownership ∙ Mío(a)(s) – mu, (of) mine ∙ Tuyo(a)(s) – your (informal), (of) yours ∙ Suyo(a)(s)  ­ your (singular formal), (of) yours; his, (of) his; her, (of) hers; its, (of) its ∙ Nuestro(a)(s) – our, (of) ours ∙ Vuestros(a)(s) – your (plural informal: Spain); (of) yours ∙ Suyo(a)(s) – your (plural), (of) yours; their, (of) theirs Stressed possessive adjectives must comes after the noun and agree in number and  gender. Stressed possessive pronouns Stressed possessives often function as pronouns, substituting the omitted noun. When  used as a pronoun, stressed possessives are preceded by a definite or indefinite article (el, la, los, las) (un, una, unos, unas).  Note that with ser the article is omitted unless there is a choice between items. Ex. Este sombrero es mío. But Este sombrero es el mío y ese es el tuyo. Irregular verbs in the preterite Remember that in Spanish, we use the preterite tense to express the beginning and  ending/completion of past actions, conditions, and events. These do not have the accent on that end of the verb like the normal forms do. ∙ Note that the preterite forms for ir and ser are the same. ∙ Poder, poner, saber, querer, venir, ester, tener share the same endings.  ∙ Preterite of hay is hubo. *Comes from infinitive haber* ∙ Other irregular preterite verbs: dar, hacer, decir, traer, and ver Direct object pronouns The concept of direct objects Subject­>verb­>direct objectObject receives action of the verb.  Ex. Julio llamó a su mamá. Singular Plural Me me Nos us Te you (informal) Os you (informal: Spain) Lo you (formal); him; it (masculine) Los you; them (masculine) La you (formal); her; it (feminine) Las you; them (feminine)


To ask where someone is going, use ¿Adónde?



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Placement of the direct object pronouns ∙ Place the pronoun in front of the conjugated verb o ¿Cambiaste los pantalones, Julio? Did you exchange the pants, Julio? o Sí, los cambié anoche. Yes, I exchanged them last night. ∙ In negative sentences, place the no in front of the pronoun. o ¿Me llamaste, Silvia? Did you call me, Silvia? o No, Julio. No te llamé. No, Julio. I did not call you. ∙ When the direct object pronoun is used with the infinitive or a present participle,  place it either before the conjugated verb or attach it to the infinitive or the  present participle. (A written accent is needed to retain the stressed vowel of a  present participle when a direct object pronoun is attached to it.) o Lo voy a llamar mañana. o Voy a llamarlo mañana. I’m going to call him tomorrow. o Lo estoy llamando ahora. o Estoy llamándolo ahora. I’m calling him now. ∙ With reflexive verbs in the infinitive form, the direct object pronoun is places  after the reflexive pronoun at the end of the verb. o Voy a probarme el suéter. I’m going to try on the sweater. o Voy a probármelo. I’m going to try it on. ∙ The direct object pronoun lo can be used to stand for actions or ideas. o Julio, compré tres blusas nuevas. Julio, I bought three new blouses. o No puedo creerlo! I can’t believe it! The imperfect tense Use the imperfect tense to describe past actions, conditions, and events that were in  progress or that occurred habitually or repeatedly. 

jugar hacer Divertirse Yo Jugaba Hacía Me divertía Tú Jugabas Hacías Te divertías


If you are asking where someone is from, use ¿De dónde?



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Ud., él/ella Jugaba Hacía Se divertía Nosotros(as) Jugábamos Hacíamos Nos divertíamos Vosotros(as) Jugabais Hacíais Os divertíais Uds., ellos(as) Jugaban Hacían Se divertían

*Note that –er and –ir verb endings are identical Only three Spanish verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense:

Ir Ser Ver Yo Iba Era Veía Tú Ibas Eras Veías Ud., él/ella Iba Era Veía Nosotros(as) Íbamos Éramos Veíamos Vosotros(as) Ibais Erais Veíais Uds., ellos(as) iban Eran Veían


To ask what a person or thing is like, or how something is done, use ¿Cómo?



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*The imperfect tense of hay is había. Talking about the past: the preterite and the imperfect The preterite Used to describe the beginning or completion of past actions, conditions, and events. Ex.  What happened at home this morning. The imperfect ∙ Used to express actions, conditions, and events that were in progress at some  focused point in the past. Ex. What was going on when she got off the bus with  her son.  ∙ Also used to describe actions, conditions, and events that occurred habitually or  repeatedly in the past. Ex. Describe how her life was when she was a girl.  ∙ Imperfect tense can be translated in different ways, depending on context.  ∙ English Verb Preterite  Conjugation To be able to Poder -e -iste -o -imos -isteis -ieron To put Poner To know Saber To want Querer To arrive Venir To be Estar To have Tener

English Verb Preterite  Conjugation To be/To go Ser/Ir Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fuisteis Fue Fueron To watch Ver Vi Vimos Viste Visteis Vio Vieron To say Decir Dije Dijimos Dijiste Dijisteis Dijo Dijeron To make Hacer Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hicisteis Hizo Hicieron To bring Traer Traje Trajimos Trajiste Trajisteis Trajo Trajeron To give Dar Di Dimos Diste Disteis Dio Dieron There is/There are Hay Hubo

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Capítulo 8 Interrogative words We’ve already been using interrogative words to ask for information  about people and events.  Summary of interrogative words and examples: All interrogative words have accents. Use that to differentiate.  1. To ask where someone is going, use ¿Adónde? If you are asking  about the location of something, a person, or a place, use  ¿Dónde? If you are asking where someone is from, use ¿De  dónde? 2. To ask what a person or thing is like, or how something is done,  use ¿Cómo? a. Uses the verb ser to ask what someone is like. Ex. ¿Cómo  es…? b. Uses the verb estar to ask how someone is doing. Ex.  ¿Cómo está…? 3. To ask when something is taking place, use ¿Cuándo? To ask  specifically at what time an event takes place, use ¿A qué hora? 4. To ask How much? Or How many?, use a form of ¿Cuánto? When a form of ¿Cuánto? precedes a noun, it must agree in number  and gender. 5. To ask who does something, use ¿Quién? if you are asking about one person, or ¿Quiénes? if you are asking about more than one person. To ask Whose? use ¿De quién?, or ¿De quiénes? if you  are asking about more than one person. a. Also must agree in number and gender. 6. To ask Why?, use ¿Por qué? To ask What for?, use ¿Para qué? 7. To ask What? or Which?, use ¿Qué? or ¿Cuál? a. The choice of whether to use ¿Qué? or ¿Cuál? depends on  the syntax of the question.  i. Use ¿Qué? before a verb to ask for a definition or  explanation. ii. ¿Cuál(es)? cannot be used when the next word in the question is a noun; often used for date, phone  number, address, information, etc. Preterite vs. the imperfect Choosing between preterite or the imperfect tense depends on how the speaker or writer views the past actions, conditions, and events the  they are describing. Use these parameters to help distinguish between the use of preterite  and imperfect tense: Preterite Imperfect ∙ single, completed action  (what someone did or didn’t  do) Marta dio una fiesta sorpresa para su marido.  Marta gave a surprise party for  her husband ∙ habitual action or event  (expresses the idea in  English of something you  used to do or would always  do in the past) Tomás y Marta siempre  celebraban los cumpleaños. Tomás and Marta always  celebrated (used to celebrate)  birthdays. ∙ Highlighted, main action Tomás llegó a casa y entró. Tomás arrived home and went in. ∙ Background action or  description that sets the  stage for main action  (including time, location,  age, weather, and physical  and emotional states) La noche de la fiesta hacía buen  tiempo y Marta estaba muy  contenta.  The night of the party the weather was nice and Marta was very  happy. ∙ Beginning or conclusion of  an event A las 11:00 de la noche empezó a  llover. At 11:00 at night, it began to rain. ∙ Middle of an event or  emphasis on indefinite  continuation of event En la fiesta, algunos de los  invitados hablaban mientras otros  comian. At the party, some of the guests  were talking while others were  eating. ∙ Action that interrupts  another action Cuando Tomás entró en la sala… When Tomás entered the room… ∙ Ongoing event or action in  the past or event that is  interrupted …los invitados cantaban. …the guests were singing ∙ Past actions, conditions, and events that were anticipated

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or planned Quería tomar un café, pero no  tenía dinero. I wanted to have a coffee, but I  didn’t have money. ∙ With verbs associated with  time expressions, such as  ayer, anteayer, anoche, una  vez, dos veces, el mes  pasado, and de repente  (suddenly) El mes pasado, fuimos a  Guatemala. Last month we went to  Guatemala. ∙ With verbs associated with  time expressions such as  todos los días, cada semana, siempre, frecuentemente,  de niño(a), and de joven. Todos los veranos mi esposa y yo  íbamos de vacaciones a un pais  extranjero. Every summer my wife and I  would go on vacation to a foreign  country.

To describe two simultaneous actions that were occurring in the past,  use mientras (while) to join to clauses in imperfect tense. To describe an ongoing action in the imperfect that is interrupted by an event in the preterite, use the word cuando to introduce the preterite  action. When the verb ir a + infinitive is used in the imperfect, it translates as  was/were going to do something. The implication is that something  happened that prevented the intended action from taking place. Verbs that refer to states or conditions When the following words are used in the preterite, they focus on  completion of an action. In the imperfect, they emphasize the ongoing  nature of an action or cognitive process.  Preterite ∙ Supe – I found out ∙ Quise – I wanted to (and did) ∙ Pude – I was able to (and did) ∙ Tuve que – I had to (and did) ∙ Tuve – I got, received Imperfect ∙ Sabia – I knew ∙ Quería – I wanted to (outcome undetermined)∙ Podía – I was able to (outcome undetermined) ∙ Tenía que – I had to (outcome undetermined) ∙ Tenía – I had (in my possession)  Spanish speakers often use the preterite and imperfect together to  describe past experiences within the framework of the time they  occurred. Affirmative and negative expressions  Algo something, anything Nada nothing, not anything at  all Alguien somebody, anybody Nadie nobody, no one Algún, alguno(a) some, any Ningún, ninguno(a) none, not  any o…o either… or Ni…ni neither… nor Siempre always Nunca never También also, too Tampoco neither, not either

A negative sentence always has at least one negative word before the  conjugated verb. Sometimes there are several in one sentence.  ∙ If a negative word precedes the conjugated verb, the negative  word no is omitted. o No + verb + negative word o Negative word + verb ∙ Express neither / not either with a subject pronoun (yo, tú, etc.) + tampoco. ∙ Place ni before a noun or a verb to express the idea of neither… nor. The words algún, alguno, alguna, algunos, algunas are adjectives; use algún before a masculine singular noun.  Hace + period of time + que Used to talk about how long an event or condition has been taking  place or how long it has been since an event or condition took place. ∙ Hace + period of time + que + present tense o To indicate how long something has been happening. ∙ Hace + period of time + que + preterite tense o To express how long ago something occurred.¿Cuánto tiempo hace que…? To ask about either (1) a period of time that continues into the present  or (2) the amount of time since an event took place, use the following  model: ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que…? ∙ The only thing that distinguishes the first scenario from the  second is the choice of the present tense versus past tense. English Verb Preterite  Conjugation To be able to Poder -e -iste -o -imos -isteis -ieron To put Poner To know Saber To want Querer To arrive Venir To be Estar To have Tener

English Verb Preterite  Conjugation To be/To go Ser/Ir Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fuisteis Fue Fueron To watch Ver Vi Vimos Viste Visteis Vio Vieron To say Decir Dije Dijimos Dijiste Dijisteis Dijo Dijeron To make Hacer Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hicisteis Hizo Hicieron To bring Traer Traje Trajimos Trajiste Trajisteis Trajo Trajeron To give Dar Di Dimos Diste Disteis Dio Dieron There is/There are Hay Hubo

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