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Ohio - SOC 1000 - Study Guide - Midterm

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Ohio - SOC 1000 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro to Sociology
Professor: Molly Bukky
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: Study Guide for Midterm 2 - 11/9/16
Description: Demography, Population, and Urbanization Family Stratification Inequality
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
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background image SOC 1000 Midterm #2 Study Guide 11/9/16
Demography, Population, and Urbanization
Family
Stratification
Inequality
Demography, Population, & Urbanization Monday, September 19, 2016
9:42 AM
Demography - scientific study of human population dynamics
Population - group of people who share a geographic territory
 
Demographer Variables
1 Birth Fertility - the number of babies born in a given period of time in a particular  society Crude Birth Rate - number of live births per 1000 people in a population Total Fertility Rate - average number of children a woman could have  during her child-bearing years Replacement Level Fertility Rate - tfr of 2.1; number of children on  average that people need to have in order to replace themselves 1 Mortality Mortality - number of deaths in a given period of time in a particular society Crude Death Rate - number of deaths per 1000 people in a population per  year Infant Mortality Rate - number of deaths in infants < 1 y/o per 1000 births  per year 1 Migration Migration - the movement of people from one population to another Two types:
a.
International - immigration/emigration a. Internal Why Migrate? o Push factors - encourage or force people to leave o Pull factors - attract people to new location  
Population growth
Forecasting population growth - basic demographic equation
o
Growth rate = births-deaths+net migration Growth Rate - overall percentage change in population per year  
Theories of Population Growth
Malthus Theorem (1798): Population grows geometrically (exponentially) but  food only increases arithmetically The New Malthusians (exponential growth) - over-population, agree with  Malthus The Anti-Malthusians (demographic transition) - stabilization
background image  
Demographic Transition Theory
Stage 1: stable population
Stage 2: Rapid population growth
Stage 3: Stable Population
Stage 4: Population decline
 
Population in a Global Perspective
Why are people starving?
o
Now more food per person produced o Starvation occurs in particular places (droughts, wars) Why do least industrialized nations have so many children?
o
Less access to contraceptives o More likely to begin childbearing at a young age   
Population Growth
Implication of different growth rates 
o
Population pyramids Population Momentum
o
Even at reduced rates of fertility, we still have so much momentum,  that populations will continue to grow for quite some time   
Four Social Revolutions
Hunting & Gathering Societies: 1st social revolution - domestication of plants and 
animals
Pastoral & Horticultural Societies: 2nd social revolution - cultivation of plants 
through use of tools (especially plow)
Agricultural Societies: 3rd social revolution - industrial revolution (spurred by the 
invention of the steam engine)
Industrial Societies: 4th social revolution - postindustrial (information) societies 
(spurred by the invention of the microchip)
 
Cities
All 4 revolutions led to the development of cities which are geographic areas  where a large number of people live relatively permanently & mostly work 
outside of agricultural activities
o Old (7000 y/o) concept  
Urbanization
Process whereby masses of people move into the cities, and those cities have increasing influence in society o New (1800s = 3% in cities; 2010s = 50% in cities) b/t 1920 and 2007, world urban population increased from 270 million to 3.3  billion  
Types of Cities
Megacities - metro-areas with 10 million + inhabitants
o
In 1950, only Tokyo & NYC o In 2025, 37 megas (3 in US: Chicago, NYC, LA)
background image Suburbs - surrounding area of urban areas Edge Cities are business centers that are close to suburban residential Exurbs are areas of new development beyond the suburbs; more rural but on fringe of urban Urban Sprawl occurs with rapid, unplanned & uncontrolled growth &  development into regions adjacent to cities   
Development Of Cities
Concentric Zones Sectors Multiple Nuclei Peripheral Model (only model developed after WWII)  
Models of Urban Growth
Criticism of the models
o
Very focused on functionalism o They are time bound o Do not account for urban planning o Fall short with cities in other nations  
City Life
Norm of noninvolvement
o
Use props (headphones, newspapers, etc.) to prevent people from  talking to us Diffusion of responsibility
o
More by-standers, less likely to help  
Urban Problems & Social Policy
Suburbanization and exurbs
o
Movement from cities to suburbs o City centers lose in transition Devolution & deindustrialization
o
Policy problems - who foots the bill? Potential urban revitalization 
o
Gentrification occurs when middle class & affluent people buy &  renovate houses & stores in downtown & urban neighborhoods  
Demographic Trends in Urban and Rural America
25% of land area in the US is urban 249 million + people live in cities Urban places added about 27 million people b/t 2000 and 2010 Total percentage of population went from 79 to 81%  75 % land rural 59 million people in rural Total rural pop growth grew 400,000 b/t 2000 and 2010 in rural  
Demographic Trends in America
background image Population gains greatest in South and West b/t 2000 and 2010 b/t 2000 and 2010, Hispanic population contributed over half of the  population growth the US experienced  Rural America's growth was 83% minority growth  2 major influences on demographic change 
a.
Immigration - maintains even increase in diversity in US, shifted from  Europe to Hispanic/Latino & Asian - before and after WWII b. Economics - push/pull factors, pull: high wages, push: overpopulation Social - war, physical - natural disaster    
Population Breakdown Overall US
White - 75 Hispanic/Latino - 13 Largest minority group in US Black - 12 Asian - 4 Native American - 1  
Population Breakdown Rural US
White - 87 Black - 9 Hispanic - 7 Native American - 2 Asian - 1

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School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro to Sociology
Professor: Molly Bukky
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: Study Guide for Midterm 2 - 11/9/16
Description: Demography, Population, and Urbanization Family Stratification Inequality
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
20 Pages 58 Views 46 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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