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UWM / Criminal Justice / CRM JST 305 / uwm criminal justice

uwm criminal justice

uwm criminal justice

Description

School: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: Crime, Criminal Justice Policy
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Criminal Justice, theories, Kohlberg, Strain theories, crime, Crime and Criminal Justice Policy, and Crime & Criminal Justice Policy
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide-Crime & Criminal Justice Policy
Description: This guide covers psychological theories, structural theories and social process theories.
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
13 Pages 117 Views 0 Unlocks
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 What stage are most offenders said to be functioning at?




 Linked to what types of crime?




 What are symptoms of it?



Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 7: Psychological Theories ∙ Underlying premise of all these approaches – crime is caused by maladaptive  coping and development, personality disorders, or thinking errors ∙ Personality Theories o Eysenck’s Theory  People high in these traits said to commit crime:   Psychoticism   Neuroticism   Extroversion    CondWe also discuss several other topics like palmer raids definition us history
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itioning – developing a conscience, learned through  parents, extroverts harder to condition  o Psychopathy/Antisocial Personality Disorder  What are symptoms of it? (e.g. inability to empathize)  Linked to what types of crime? ∙ Serial killing, rape, brutal killings, scammers ∙ High rate offending  Possible causes ∙ Genetic, trauma in childhood ∙ Maladaptive Theories o Freud’s Psychoanalysis   Id – impulsivity, base desires   Ego – mediator between   Superego – conscience  When is each developed?  Crime caused by under-development of? o Kohlberg’s Morality   Preconventional – don’t commit crime because?  Conventional – don’t commit crime because?   Post conventional – don’t commit crime because?  When is each developed?  What stage are most offenders said to be functioning at? o Neuroses  Compulsions & fear – irrational, aware of it   Kleptomania & pyromania o Psychoses  Hallucinations, paranoia, confusion – unaware of it  Mental disorders associated with psychoses  Prison studies & link with crime, violence ∙ Cognitive Theories o Maladaptive perceptions; “thinking errors”  o Perception  o Judgment  o Execution ∙ Behavioral Theories  o Operant Conditioning   Reinforcement – will repeat behavior   Punishment – will not repeat behavior  o Modeling  Bobo doll experiments, cycle of violence ∙ Research/evaluations of psychological theories o Which have we found support for?  o Which theories have criticisms (what criticisms)? ∙ Policies based on psychological theories: o Cognitive behavioral therapy programs o Token-economies o Risk-screening tools for probation/paroleChapter 8: Structural Theories ∙ Underlying premise of these approaches: crime is/caused by inequality,  normlessness d/t changes in society o “Crime is an acquired pattern of behavior – people are a product of  their environment and the conditions that limit and impose upon their  opportunities, experiences, and choices” ∙ Social Disorganization Theories – crime varies across neighborhoods o Key terms to know:  Residential mobility – what, what does it do to a neighborhood?  Concentrated disadvantage – what?  Social disorganization – what, what causes it? o Park & Burgess’s Ecological Model  Succession & invasion -> new groups move in, older groups  move out   Concentric Zone Theory ∙ What is each zone like? (housing, etc.) ∙ Which zone is associated with crime? ∙ Demoralization, mobility, disorder o Shaw & McKay’s Social Disorganization Theory  Juveniles & crime – stable patterns in neighborhoods  Cultural transmission of values, tools  Key structural factors that are associated with delinquency rates across neighborhoods: ∙ Low SES, Ethnic Heterogeneity, Residential Instability,  Family Disruption, Urbanization ∙ Old housing stock, neighborhoods in transition o Sampson & Grove’s Social Disorganization Theory  Structural factors (e.g. residential instability) lead to:   ∙     Low Ties  ∙     Unsupervised Teens ∙     Low Organizational Participation o Wilson’s Concentrated Disadvantage Theory  Concentrated Disadvantage & Social Isolation (what?)  Caused by: deindustrialization, white flight, depopulation of  cities  Emphasized chronic joblessness & suburbanization  Think about how these factors influence access to jobs,  condition of neighborhoods, crime rates in cities, etc. o Sampson’s Collective Efficacy Theory  Same ideas of S&G/S&McK on structural factors, but:  Collective Efficacy (what?) ∙ Trust your neighbors ∙ Informal social control   Social Capital (what?) o Pros and cons of these theories:  Pros: Research supports CE/SD & Wilson’s CD, explains crime  rates varying  Cons: Ignores M-C, W-C crime, temporal order, police response & crime rate o Policies based on SD  Weed & Seed  War on Poverty (address inequalities in access to education,  jobs, etc.)  Community Building Programs (e.g. Safe & Sound)  Chicago Area Project ∙ Strain Theories (Merton & IAT = macro, Agnew = individual-level) o Macro= crime occurs because of the imbalance between values and means o Micro=crime occurs because people experience things that  lead to frustration o Merton’s Strain Theory Goals (success) & means (work hard) – imbalance, unequal  access to means   Anomie; Blocked Opportunity  5 modes of Adaptation:   ∙     Conformity  ∙     Ritualism  ∙     Retreatism  ∙     Innovation  ∙     Rebellion ∙ Know what each means regarding whether people reject  goals, means, both, neither ∙ Think of examples of what it would look like o Messner & Rosenfeld’s Institutional Anomie Theory  Crime varies across nations d/t/ the imbalance of institutions ∙ Crime & the American Dream = value money/success ∙ Economy dominates all other institutions ∙ Devaluation, penetration and accommodation of economy into other institutions o Examples: Devaluing stay-at-home parents  compared to working parents, using “cost/benefit”  and “accountability” of schools = penetration,  schooling to produce a “good worker” =  accommodation  o Agnew’s General Strain Theory  Crime happens when people experience frustration/anger  3 sources of strain  ∙     Removal Positive  ∙     Presentation Negative  ∙     Fail to Achieve Goals (Blocked Opportunities) ∙    Know examples of what each look like  Compounding & perceived unfair/unjusto Pros and Cons of strain theories  Merton: ∙ Pro=explains working-class crime ∙ Cons=research mixed, not M-C/affluent crime ∙ Kornhauser’s critique  IAT: ∙ Pro=research supports, across all classes (include. W-C  crime) ∙ Cons=largely financial-based motives for crime  Agnew: ∙ Pro=some research supports, across all classes, individual differences in coping ∙ Cons=broadness, mixed findings o Policies based on Strain  Head Start (Merton’s issues with unequal access)  Social safety nets (IAT – fix imbalance) ∙ Subcultural Theories – where there are subcultures opposed to M-C  society, crime occurs o Merton-style = subcultures emerge because of inequality and  strain, way to adapt o Sellin-style= there are different cultures in society, all are in  conflict, but M-C culture dominates what is defined as law o Definition of subculture o Cloward & Olin’s Differential Opportunity Theory  Strain-based theory   Differential Opportunity in access to legitimate & illegitimate  means for success  3 Types of Subcultures: (crime is purposeful)  ∙     Criminal Gangs o Opportunities? o Crime = what purpose?o What types of crime?  ∙     Conflict Gangs o Opportunities? o Crime = what purpose? o What types of crime?  ∙     Retreatism Gangs o Opportunities? o Crime=what purpose? o What types of crime? o Cohen’s Subcultural Theory  Strain-based   Middle-class Measuring Rod – what is it? Leads to reaction  formation   Reaction Formation - what is it? (crime is purposeless)  3 Boys:  ∙ College Boy ∙ Corner Boy  ∙     Delinquent Boy o Anderson’s Code of the Streets Theory  Strain-based  Decent Folks & Street Folks (how socialize youth)  Code of the Street – nerve & juice (what value, how show?)  Socialization in youth into code -> watching siblings, play fighting, etc. o Wolfgan & Ferratuci’s Subculture of Violence Theory  Culture-conflict based  Violence as pervasive in people’s lives  Violence as normal, appreciated, expected   Southern Honor Code o Miller’s Focal Concerns Theory Culture-conflict based ∙ Distinct lower-class culture   5 Focal Concerns – Lower-class subculture values:  ∙     Trouble  ∙     Toughness  ∙     Smartness  ∙     Excitement  ∙     Luck  ∙     Autonomy o Pros & cons of subcultural theories  C&O: ∙ Cons- Hirschi’s critique, gang behavior is versatile, some  is purposeless  Cohen: ∙ Pro- do see link between school performance &  delinquency ∙ Cons-some gang behavior is purposeful  W&F:  ∙ Cons-no major differences across race/class on attitudes  toward violence  Miller: ∙ Cons-values are more at individual-level, no class  differences  In general – focuses on low SES crime, ignores M-C & W-C crime o Policies based on subcultural theories:  Fixing Strain/Access ∙ Moving to Opportunity ∙ House of Umoja  School-Readiness Programs ∙ Head Start∙ Mobilization for Youth  Project Ceasefire & the Interrupters ∙ Reducing conflict Chapter 9: Social Process Theories ∙ Underlying premise of all these approaches? Crime is normal, everyone has  the potential to commit crime. Crime occurs d/t bonds, learning, or labeling. o Who/what are agents of socialization? ∙ Social Learning Theories o Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory  What kinds of things are learned related to crime?   Differential Association ∙ Vary in:  o Frequency o Duration o Priority o Intensity ∙ Know what each means (i.e. frequency = number days  spend with a group) ∙ Some groups prosocial, others antisocial -> whichever  group is “most important” based on F, D, P, I = which  influences you o Burgess & Aker’s Social Learning Theory  Differential Association  Differential Reinforcement ∙ Direct reinforcement – what is it? ∙ Indirect reinforcement – what is it? ∙ Reinforcement can be monetary, status, respect, fear, a  “high”   Modeling & Imitationo Glaser’s Differential Identification Theory  Reference Groups- differential identification with groups ∙ ID= want to be like, respect, admire most o Pros and Cons of Learning Theories:  Pros-explain across classes, types of crime (good scope),  incorporates psychological theories  Cons- people who “don't fit” the model (i.e. people with a lot of  exposure to deviant groups who don’t commit crime, those  without exposure to deviant groups who do commit crime),  opportunity ignored, crime without reinforcement o Policies based on learning theory:  Mentoring programs ∙ Social Control Theories o Crime = natural impulse, people don’t commit crime because of  constraints (internal or external) o Reckless’s Containment Theory  Pushes – e.g. biology, strain  Pulls – e.g. reinforcement   Internal and External Social Containments (blocks push/pull  factors)  ∙     Internal – what are they? Examples?  ∙     External – what are they? Examples? ∙    Internal = stronger influence o Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory  Low social bonds = crime  Bonds important: family, school, peers (assumes all prosocial)   Attachments   Commitment   Involvement   Belief o Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime Cause of crime = low self-control  Cause of low self-control = poor parenting  Traits of people with low-self control ∙ Impulsive, physical, risk-takers, short-sighted, non-verbal  High rate, chronic offending & analogous behavior o Matza’s Drift Theory  People drift in and out of crime – when experience strain or  “gap” in bonds   Techniques of Neutralization ∙ Why? Maintain positive self-concept ∙ Denial of Responsibility ∙ Denial of Victim ∙ Denial of Injury ∙ Condemning the Condemner ∙ Appeal to a Higher Loyalty o Research/evaluations of control theories  For each – do we find support? What are the criticisms of each?  (e.g. self-control that it’s tautological) o Policies based on control theories  Bolstering bonds to family/school ∙ Head Start ∙ Parenting Classes ∙ Birth-to-3 Programs  Increasing involvement in school ∙ Afterschool programs ∙ Labeling Theories  o Crime is a result of being labeled as a criminal/delinquent/bad person – people internalize this and live up to their label o Tannenbaum’s Theory (adults label some kids as bad) Adults respond to kids’ actions  Defining the Situation ∙ “good kids, bad decision”  Defining the Person ∙ “bad kids”  Defined as bad = internalize, see self as bad, engage in crime o Becker’s Theory (the system is responsible for labels and perpetuates  inequality)   Moral Entrepreneurs – ability to make laws and label/sanction  people (CJS)  Introduces conflict -> laws reflect elite interests, enforcing law  Break law, arrested, convicted, sentenced = labelled as  criminal/felon etc. ∙ Young, males, unemployed, lower class, minority groups ∙ Others less likely labeled  Continued crime d/t label o LeMert’s Theory (the “how” of labeling)   Primary Deviance – first offense, original act, motivation, etc. ∙    Selective labeling of some  ∙     Stigmatization – labelling person & seen as outcast,  different, Other  ∙     Deviance Amplification - seriousness of original act  inflated, get a reputation as “terrible”   Secondary Deviance - accept & internalize label, subsequent  offending o Criticisms of labeling:  Many don’t view self/accept label  Focuses on small crime  Ignores primary deviance o Policies based on labeling theories:  Redintegrative shaming Restorative Justice  Decriminalization  Diversion Programs

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